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On this page: Collection Overview | Japanese Language School Textbooks Collection Contents | History of Japanese Language School Textbooks in Hawaii | Links

Collection Overview (ƒnƒƒC“ϊ–{ŒκŠwZ‹³‰Θ‘•ΆŒΙŠT—ͺ)

The Hawaii Japanese language school textbooks are part of the Asia Special Collections that are presently stored in Room 405 on the 4th Floor of Hamilton Library. There are approximately 600 books (including duplicates), which were published from early 1900s to 1950s.

The textbooks were used to educate children of Japanese descendents, and they are now important resources to research the education of Japanese immigrants, the school system, and the social climate in Hawaii during that period. The majority of the textbooks were published by the Hawai Kyoikukai (•z™υ‹³ˆη‰ο/ƒnƒƒC‹³ˆη‰ο), a local Japanese language school educational board. The Collection also includes textbooks published by the Honpa Honganji/Hongwanji (–{”h–{ŠθŽ›), Hawai Chuo Gakuin (•z™υ’†‰›Šw‰@), the Ministry of Education in Japan (•Ά•”Θ) and other organizations in Hawaii.

The majority of the collections were donated to the UHM Asia Collection in 1970s, when the Moili'ili Japanese Language School was downsized. The UHM Hawaiian Collection also holds Japanese language textbooks (some were transferred from the Asia Collection). For these items, search keywords "japanese language readers" in Voyager Online Catalog. In a record, click on "Get this item" to request access to the Hawaiian Collection on the 5th Floor.

See also the reprints of the 86 pre-war textbooks selected from the collections.
Hawai Nihongo Gakko Kyokasho Shusei ƒnƒƒC“ϊ–{ŒκŠwZ‹³‰Θ‘W¬

To access materials in the Japanese Language School Textbooks Collection at site, please read the Access Policy and make an appointment in advance. (Access Policy Japanese version)

Japanese Language School Textbooks Contents (ƒRƒ“ƒeƒ“ƒc)

Japanese Language School Textbooks Collection Title List (ƒnƒƒC“ϊ–{ŒκŠwZ‹³‰Θ‘•ΆŒΙ‚Μƒ^ƒCƒgƒ‹ƒŠƒXƒg)
Textbooks Compiled by Ministry of Education, Japan (•Ά•”Θ•Ρ“ϊ–{Œκ‹³‰Θ‘)
Textbooks Compiled by Fushiminomiya Scholarship Society (•šŒ©‹{‹L”O§Šw‰ο•Ρ“ϊ–{Œκ‹³‰Θ‘)
Textbooks Compiled by Hawai Kyoikukai (ƒnƒƒC‹³ˆη‰ο•Ρ‹³‰Θ‘)
Textbooks Compiled by Honolulu Kyoikukai (ƒzƒmƒ‹ƒ‹‹³ˆη‰ο•Ρ‹³‰Θ‘)
Textbooks Compiled by Honpa Honganji/Hongwanji (–{”h–{ŠθŽ›•Ρ“ϊ–{Œκ‹³‰Θ‘)
Textbooks Compiled by Hawai Chuo Gakuin (•z™υ’†‰›Šw‰@•Ρ‹³‰Θ‘)
Textbooks Compiled by Other Institutions in Hawaii (‚»‚Μ‘Ό‚ΜƒnƒƒC“ϊ–{Œκ‹³‰Θ‘)

History of Japanese Language School Textbooks in Hawaii (ƒnƒƒC“ϊ–{ŒκŠwZ‹³‰Θ‘‚Μ—πŽj)

The following descriptions are mainly adapted from:

  • Hawai Nihongo Gakko Kyoiku shi (ƒnƒƒC“ϊ–{ŒκŠwZ‹³ˆηŽj History of Japanese Language Schools in Hawaii), edited by Gijo Ozawa, Hawai Kyoikukai, 1972.
    Call number EAST DU624.7.J3 O93
  • Hawai Nikkei Imin no Kyoiku shi (ƒnƒƒC“ϊŒnˆΪ–―‚Μ‹³ˆηŽj), by Koji Okita, 1997. Call number EAST LC3173.H3 O55 1997

For more information on the subject, please see also:

  • America Bukkyo no Tanjo (ƒAƒƒŠƒJ•§‹³‚Μ’aΆ), by Tomoe Moriya, 2001. Call number EAST BQ8712.9.U62 H39 2001
  • Tosa kara Hawai e (From Tosa to Hawaii “y²‚©‚ηƒnƒƒC‚Φ) by Fusa Nakagawa, 2000. Call number EAST BV2765.5.O48 N254 2000

1893 - 1915
1893 The first Japanese language school in Hawaii was established in 1893 at Halawa (Kohala district) on the Big Island by Rev. Juei Kanda (_“cd‰p) and it had approximately 30 students.
1895 Rev. Tamaki Gomi (Œά–‘ŠΒ) started a Japanese language school in Kula, Maui.
1896 The first school on Oahu was established by Rev. Takie Okumura (‰œ‘Ί‘½Šμ‰q) of Makiki Christian Church.
1897 Rev. Shiro Sogabe (‘]‰δ•”Žl˜Y) established a Japanese school in Honomu, Big island.
1898 Rev. Okumura wanted to create educational opportunities for children of Japanese immigrants and requested the Ministry of Education in Japan (•Ά•”Θ) to help provide Japanese language textbooks. In response to Okumurafs request, the Japanese government sent school textbooks along with physical education equipment in 1898. These textbooks were identical to the ones used in Japan and had been used by many schools.
Many Japanese elementary schools were built in the islands of Hawaii.

1915 - 1941
After the first Japanese language school in 1893, the number of schools expanded to a total of 134 by 1915. However, there were differing opinions as to whether to educate immigrant children as Japanese or as Americans. As a reflection of the latter view, an integrated educational board, Hawai Kyoikukai (•z™υ‹³ˆη‰ο) was formed in 1915. The board members commissioned the creation of new textbooks that would reflect the U.S. and local culture.
1916 The first textbook was compiled, financially supported by the local Japanese charity group members such as Jukichi Uchida (“ΰ“cd‹g) and Takie Okumura, and the Fushiminomiya Scholarship Society (•šŒ©‹{§Šw‰ο).

The Japanese language schools faced constant social pressures throughout 1920s. Continuous struggles and conflicted educational philosophy divided the Japanese immigrant community in Hawaii. On July 1, 1921, the Foreign Language School Law was enacted (For additional information please refer to links). Under the law, the Department of Public Instruction, Territory of Hawaii took charge of compiling the Japanese language school textbooks to reflect American views and beliefs. Hawaiifs Foreign Language School Law was contested and the U.S. Supreme Court ruled it as unconstitutional in 1927.

1932 Hawai Kyoikukai compiled its own Shushin textbooks. Shushin Cg literally means gcultivate oneself.h It is often translated to gethics and moralsh in English. In Japan the class of Shushin has been taught at schools.

All the Japanese language schools in Hawaii were shut down in 1941 because of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Most of the school principals and leaders in education were arrested and sent to the internment camps.

1947 In June 1947, the former principle of Honpa Honganji (Hongwanji) Betsuin Fuzoku Palama Gakuen, Futoshi Ohama (‘ε•l‘ΎŒ³Z’·) started a Japanese class for the 8th grade and older. The president of Manoa Nihongo Gakko, Uemon Iguchi (ˆδŒϋ‰F‰E‰q–εZ’·) started to teach Japanese privately.

1949 The Foreign Language School Law (Gaikokugo Gakko Torishimari-ho ŠO‘ŒκŠwZŽζ’χ‚θ–@; For additional information please refer to links) was revised in April 1949, and Japanese language schools were officially reopened. The first textbooks after WWII were compiled and published in 1949 and 1950.

1964 In September 1964, gcredit testh was administered in Japanese language schools in Hawaii. It was the first step to enable Japanese language school students to transfer the credits as foreign language credits in public schools.


“Œ‘•ΆŒΙ/Tosho Bunko (Website of Japanese textbook Library)
L“‡‘εŠw}‘ŠΩŠ‘ ‹³‰Θ‘ƒRƒŒƒNƒVƒ‡ƒ“/Hiroshima University Japanese Textbook Collection Repository site. Need to search in a search box to retrieve image files.
"Wartime Dissolution and Revival of the Japanese Language Schools in Hawaii: Persistence of Ethnic Culture" by Noriko Shimada
"The Foreign-Language School Controversy in Hawaii" by Carroll Atkinson
"Teaching Mikadoism : the attack on Japanese language schools in Hawaii, California, and Washington, 1919-1927" by Noriko Asato
"The Paradox of US Language Policy and Japanese Language Education in Hawaii" by Kimi Kondo
"A history of transnational education (ekkyo kyoiku) of the Japanese immigrants in the U.S., 1877-1945" by Yoshida Ryo
"Theory on immigrants and immigrants' education in traditionalism, the case of Shigetaka Shiga" by Okita Yukuji
"Historical research on education of Japanese immigrants, mainly education related articles in "Hawaii Shokumin newspaper" by Okita Yukuji
"Board of Hawaiian Evangelical Association and immigrant education : Americanizing/Christianizing Japanese nisei in interwar Hawaii" by Yoshida Ryo

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Contact: Tokiko Yamamoto Bazzell
Japan Specialist Librarian
e-mail: tokiko@hawaii.edu
Asia Collection, University of Hawaii at Manoa Library
2550 The Mall, Honolulu, HI 96822 U.S.A.