Featuring Paradise: The Pacific Rim in Film
News in Brief
CPIS Welcomes New Students
Ethnographic Film and Tahitian Drumming
Seminars and Talks
New Publications and Resources
University of Hawai'i at Manoa and East-West Center will host the first international and eleventh national conference of MELUS (Society for the Study of Multi-Ethnic Literature in the United States), 18-20 April 1997 on the UHM campus. The conference on "Exchanges, Contestations, and Alliances," will bring together teachers, critics, and writers from Hawai'i and the rest of the United States, as well as from the Pacific, the Pacific Rim, and Asia. Topics include the historical, economic, social, and philosophical concerns that underpin literary and other textual production, such as film, drama, and television.
Guest speakers include Pacific writers Konai Helu Thaman, Haunani-Kay Trask, Subramani, and Albert Wendt. Opening in conjunction with the conference is Ho'oku'e, an important exhibition of work by Native Hawaiian visual artists. Inspired by the theme of "resistance," twenty contemporary artists address problems of colonialism, race, genocide, and ethnocide as well as rights over language, land, natural resources, and history. The exhibit will be held in the East-West Center Gallery from 18 April through 6 June and will include a series of panels and informal discussions with the artists.
Registration for the three-day conference is $60 for students and $85 for non-students. For more information, visit the conference WEB site at http://www.lll.hawaii.edu/web/conference/melus97, or contact Ruth Hsu at the UH Department of English, 1733 Donnagho Road, Honolulu, HI 96822; tel (808) 956-3058; email email@example.com.
"Featuring Paradise: Representations of the Pacific in Film" is the title of the center's annual conference, which will be held in Honolulu, 11-13 November 1997. Planned to coincide with the Hawai'i International Film Festival, this academic conference will address how the Pacific and Pacific Islanders have been portrayed in feature film for the past hundred years. Concerned primarily with a historical overview and general patterns rather than isolated and individual films, the five panels planned for the conference will focus on the themes of paradise, gender, race and class, violence, and indigenous filmmaking. Screenings of significant films will be a part of this conference. Those wishing to be considered as panel speakers should send abstracts of their papers to Vilsoni Hereniko, UH Center for Pacific Islands Studies, 1890 East-West Road, Moore 215, Honolulu, HI 96822, fax (808) 956-7053. The deadline for abstracts is 2 April.
Preliminary figures from the federal Office of Management and Budget propose a reduction of East-West Center funding to $7 million in fiscal year 1998, $4 million in 1999, and $1 million in the year 2000. In response to the budget cuts it suffered last year, the center is diversifying its base of support and has been able to attract approximately $10 million in support from foundations such as Luce and Rockefeller and federal agencies such as AID and Energy, as well as development funding from local foundations.
The center's 45,000 member alumni association has launched a letter-writing campaign on behalf of the center. Although dramatic reductions are being proposed by the OMB, the budget must still go through congressional review where the outcome may be a restoration of some or all of the center's budget. There is evidence of a bipartisan initiative on behalf of the center in some parts of Congress, and center spokeswoman, Karen Knudsen, says the center administration is encouraged by the support it has received so far.
A delegation from the Association of Pacific Island Legislatures (APIL) took part in the association's fourth mission to Hawai'i, 12-21 December 1996. Legislators included in the delegation were representatives and senators from Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Pohnpei, Yap, Palau, and Guam. The purpose of the mission, which was hosted by Hawai'i State Senator Richard Matsuura and the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT), was to learn about economic initiatives in Hawai'i that might have application in the islands. The delegation also visited organizations with strong regional connections such as PREL (Pacific Resources in Education and Learning), Pacific Basin Development Council, and Tripler Hospital and met with Center Director Robert C Kiste to learn about programs at the University of Hawai'i.
On 10-12 November 1996, Center Director Robert C Kiste attended a meeting of over fifty other directors of the nation's National Resource Centers (NRCs) in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The NRCs are the language and area study programs that receive Title VI grants from the Department of International Education, US Department of Education. Funding for Title VI is authorized by the US Congress, and the legislation is scheduled for review and reauthorization by the new congress when it convenes in early January 1997. The NRC directors met for the purpose of reviewing the existing Title VI legislation and suggesting revisions for congressional consideration. The Center for Pacific Islands Studies has had NRC status since the early 1970s.
In addition to CPIS, the School for Hawaiian, Asian, and Pacific Studies (SHAPS) was also represented at Santa Fe by Dr Leonard Andaya, Director of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, and Dr Sharon Minichiello, Director of the Center for Japanese Studies. Southeast Asian Studies, East Asian Studies (including Japan), and Pacific Islands Studies, submitted proposals in November for the next three-year NRC funding cycle (mid-August 1997 to mid-August 2000). The results should be announced in March or April 1997.
Lawrence M Johnson, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Bancorp Hawaii and Bank of Hawaii, is one of fifteen members of the Commission on United States-Pacific Trade and Investment Policy appointed by President Bill Clinton. The commission's task is to identify initiatives that the United States should take to increase trade with nations of Asia and the Pacific. The commission is scheduled to submit its report to the White House sometime in early 1997. Johnson is the only member of the commission with experience in the region. His selection reflects the Bank of Hawaii's long involvement in the Pacific Islands, He is being assisted by Wali M Osman, Regional Economist, Bank of Hawaii.
The center is pleased to welcome three new students to the MA program for the spring semester:
Irene Calis was born in Lebanon, attended the University of Pennsylvania, and graduated from the University of Maryland with a BA in anthropology. Ms Calis worked as an intern at the Embassy of the Republic of the Marshall Islands in Washington, DC, and is interested in sustainable development initiatives in the islands.
Kealalokani C Losch is from Hawai'i and attended Windward Community College, Boston University, and the US Coast Guard Academy, before graduating from University of Hawai'i at Manoa with a BA in liberal studies. He has longstanding interests in the Pacific Islands (his mother Naomi Losch received her MA in Pacific Islands studies in 1980) and has taught in Na Pua No'eau, the Gifted and Talented Native Hawaiian Children's Program.
Michelle Marie Nelson also grew up in Hawai'i and attended Kapi'olani Community College before graduating from University of Hawai'i at Manoa with a major in speech communication. Her interests are in education, and she plans to teach Pacific Islands studies in the Hawai'i school system.
The Music Department at University of Hawai'i at Manoa will feature two special courses, taught by experts in their fields, during Summer Session 2. These accelerated courses will run from 22 July–8 August.
Small Format Ethnographic Film (MUS479) will be taught by ethnographic filmmaker and UCLA professor John Bishop. This is a hands-on course that will cover both camera and editing techniques. (A small number of camcorders will be available, but students are encouraged to seek out their own 8mm or VHS camcorder if possible.)
Tahitian Drumming (MUS311J) will be taught by Philippe Teahi Tetua, a master musician from Tahiti who has performed in Australia and Chile as well as on four tours to Japan. He regularly plays for Tahiti's best-known traditional dance groups, including Polinetia, Fetia, Iaora Tahiti, Paulina, Manuia Tahiti, Maeve Tahiti, and Tahiti Here. He will be teaching drumming techniques for the three basic instruments in the Tahitian drumming ensemble: to'ere (slit drum), fa'atete (a single-membrane drum), and pahu (a double-membraned drum). The Tahitian dance group Te Vai Ura Nui will join Mr Tetua for a special concert and lecture demonstration on Friday, 1 August, at 8 pm in the Music Department Courtyard.
In addition to these two special courses, the Music Department will be offering Music of Polynesia (MUS478I) and Tahitian Ensemble (MUS311J), featuring Tahitian dance and dance songs, during Summer Session 1, 19 May-27 June. For information about Music Department offerings, contact Jane Moulin, UH Department of Music, 2411 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822; tel (808) 956-7707; email firstname.lastname@example.org.
UH Summer Session information is also available on the WEB at www.summer.hawaii.edu.
Andrew Bissonnette (MA 1992) earned his JD at University of Arizona's College of Law and worked with the City of Tucson, Arizona Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, before returning to academia. He is currently teaching a distance education course, Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society, through Southern Oregon State College.
J Kalani English (MA 1995) worked on behalf of Micronesian leaders at the United Nations after leaving the university, and has also worked at the Hawai'i State Legislature. He has just been appointed to fill the East Maui district seat on the Maui County Council, which was left open by the death of a council member.
Heidi Primo, a not-quite-alumna of the Pacific Islands studies program, has been working as the Climate Change Coordinator in the Office of the President of the Federated States of Micronesia. Her position has involved her internationally in climate change initiatives as she works to finish her degree.
Geography department professor and Associate Dean for Social Sciences, Nancy Davis Lewis, is coorganizer of a session on Women, Science, and Development: Indigenous Knowledge to New Information Technologies for the upcoming Pacific Science Association Intercongress in Fiji in July 1997. The sessions will be organized around two related themes, Women, Science, and Indigenous Knowledge, and Women, Science, and New Information Technologies and will build on the recommendations of the Gender Working Group of the UN Commission on Science and Technology for Development and highlight the SPACHE ECOWOMAN and the WAINIMATE Traditional Medicine projects. Coorganizers are Leba Haolfaki Mataitini, University of the South Pacific, and Titilia Naitini, SPACHE. For information contact Nancy Davis Lewis, Associate Dean, College of Social Sciences, University of Hawai'i, 105 Hawai'i Hall, Honolulu, HI 96822; tel (808) 956-6070; fax (808) 956-2340; email Nlewis@hawaii.edu.
In November Vilsoni Hereniko went to San Francisco as an invited speaker at a meeting of the Pacific Islands Club at San Francisco State University. Pacific Islander students, who are a growing segment of the west coast college community, have been petitioning their universities for courses in Pacific Islands studies. In response, university administrations have asked for their help in planning these courses. Hereniko was one of several Pacific Islanders invited to speak. Several members of the Pacific Islanders Club plan a visit to the Center for Pacific Islands Studies in spring of 1997.
Karen Peacock, UH Pacific Curator, gave the keynote address at the very successful sixth annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives (PIALA), a regional organization representing the Marshall islands, FSM, Guam, CNMI, and Palau. Peacock's speech, "Fishing for Answers: Library Services in Micronesia," encouraged island libraries to collect local publications such as statistical documents, census reports, newsletters, and telephone directories.
Also from UH, Eileen Herring from the library's Science and Technology Reference Department presented a talk on the free agriculture and aquaculture search service available for US-related Pacific nations, and Peacock gave a second talk on building a basic Pacific reference collection. They were joined by CPIS alumna Margo Vitarelli who gave a well-received session on the use of graphics in libraries, which gave each participant hands-on experience with graphics design.
Robert C Kiste and Tisha Hickson spoke to more than 200 Hawai'i State Department of Education teachers in a half-day workshop on 26 November. The workshop, which was organized by the DOE and PREL (Pacific Resources for Education and Learning), was primarily for teachers working with students whose second language is English. In addition to getting an overview of diversity in the Pacific Islands and some contemporary trends, the teachers heard from a panel of Pacific Islanders and PREL staff about reasons for emigration to Hawai'i from the Pacific Islands and cross-cultural interactions in the classroom.
Jonathan Weisgall, author of Operation Crossroads and executive producer of Radio Bikini, spoke on "Fifty Years of the Atomic Age: Bikini Atoll, the Pacific, and Today's Students." The talk, on 16 October, commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the atomic testing at Bikini and was sponsored by the Graduate Student Organization and the Associated Students of the University of Hawai'i. Weisgall reviewed the legacy of the atomic tests and the decisions leading to the tests.
On 6 November, Center Director Robert C Kiste, spoke on the Thirty-Sixth South Pacific Conference at a seminar cosponsored by the Pacific Islands Development Program, East-West Center. Kiste was an invited observer at the conference, representing the center. In his talk he included comments on the mood of optimism at the meeting and on the recommendations of the SPC review team.
"Wandering Heroes-Theirs and Ours: Reflections on Comparison and Culture Areas in South New Guinea" was the title for Mark Busse's seminar on 8 November. Busse, who is Assistant Director for Science and Research at the Papua New Guinea National Museum, introduced the indigenous image of the wandering hero as a way of understanding indigenous ideas about history, perspective, and cultural comparison.
John Henderson, University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, visited the center on his way to the Pacific Islands Political Science Association meeting in the Republic of Palau. He stopped over in Honolulu to do some research in the Pacific Collection at Hamilton Library.
Maradel Gale, Director of the Micronesia and South Pacific Program at the University of Oregon, stopped by the center in December while she was in Honolulu for a conference. She took the time to update the center on the activities of her program.
Bill Warren stopped at the center en route from Washington, DC, in early January. He has been serving in the Office for Pacific Island Affairs in the US State Department and was on his way to Western Samoa where he will be charge d'affaires in the American Embassy. In his career as a foreign service officer, he previously served in Palau and the Federated States of Micronesia.
The Pacific Way: A Memoir, by The Right Honourable Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, has just been published by UH Press in association with the UH Center for Pacific Islands Studies and the Pacific Islands Development Program, East-West Center. According to the author, "the book is not a biography or a history, but some of my personal recollections and views of events as they seemed to me of significance in the development of Fiji." In it, however, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara has included an account of his origins and his early days. ISBN 0-8248-1893-8; cloth, US$42; paperback, US$14.95.
Tokelau: A Historical Ethnography, by Judith Huntsman and Antony Hooper, is the outcome of more than twenty years of intensive research on the three atolls of Tokelau. The book is both a comparative ethnographic study of the islands of Tokelau and a narrative record of the past. The ethnographic study is set in the 1970s, but the authors hint at the substantial changes that were to follow in the next decade. ISBN 0-8148-1912-8; cloth, US$39. The book has also been published by University of Auckland Press, ISBN 1-86940-153-0, cloth, NZ$69.95.
The spring 1997 issue of The Contemporary Pacific: A Journal of Island Affairs is a special issue, Logging the Southwestern Pacific: Perspectives from Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, edited by Kathleen Barlow and Steven Winduo. Included in the contents:
Introduction Kathleen Barlow and Steven Winduo
Forest Exploration in Papua New Guinea Simon Saulei
The Struggle for Control of Solomon Island Forests Ian Frazer
Changing Forestry Regimes in Vanuatu: Is Sustainable Management Possible? Ralph Regenvanu, Stephen W Wyatt, and Luca Tacconi
Regional Dynamics and Conservation in Papua New Guinea: The Lakekamu River Basin Project Stuart Kirsch
Incremental Agroforestry: Enriching Pacific Landscapes William C Clarke and Randolph R Thaman
Regulating the Forest Industry in Papua New Guinea: An Interview with Brian D Brunton Brian D Brunton and Kathleen Barlow
Solomon Island Nongovernment Organizations: Major Environmental Actors John Roughan
Logging the Southwestern Pacific: Bibliographic Review Essay Jamon Halvaksz and Elizabeth Hochberg
Micronesia in Review: Issues and Events, 1 July 1995 to 30 June 1996
Polynesia in Review: Issues and Events, 1 July 1995 to 30 June 1996
And Book Reviews.
UH Press books and journals can be ordered through the Orders (or Journals) Department, University of Hawai'i Press, 2840 Kolowalu Street, Honolulu, HI 96822-1888.
New from Bishop Museum Press is A Legendary Tradition of Kamapua'a, The Hawaiian Pig-God, by Lilikala Kame'eleihiwa. The book is a thoroughly annotated translation of He Mo'olelo Ka'ao o Kamapua'a, a version of the Kamapua'a epic that appeared anonymously in the Hawaiian-language newspaper Ka Leo o ka Lahui in 1891. As such it offer insights into nineteenth-century Hawaiian culture, as well as that of ancient times. ISBN 0-930897-91-9, paper, US$22.95, and limited edition hardcover, US$39.95.
Faingu City: A Modern Mekeo Clan in Papua New Guinea, by Steen Bergendorff, is the author's University of Lund doctoral thesis, published as part of the Lund Monographs in Social Anthropology series. The book is an analysis of the historical transformation of the culture and chieftainship of the Mekeo as well as an account of the creation of one clan, Faingu City. ISSN 1101-9948; paper, US$35 plus postage. Order from Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, Attn: Suzanne Tugcu, Frederiksholms Kanal 4, 1220 Copenhagen K, Denmark: email email@example.com.
The Solomon Islands Campaign, Guadalcanal to Rabaul: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography, by Eugene L Rasor, is new from Greenwood Publishing Group. The book provides a comprehensive survey of the literature on the Solomon Islands campaign and also points to gaps in the literature and areas where further research is needed. ISBN 0-313-30059-3; US$65. Order from GPG Inc., PO Box 5007, Westport CT 06881-5007.
The Pacific History Association has several publications for sale: Pacific History: Papers from the 8th Pacific History Conference, Lines Across the Sea, Colonial Inheritance in the Post Colonial Pacific, Messy Entanglements: Papers from the 10th Pacific History Conference, and Our History in Our Own Words. For information, contact Dr Jackie Leckie, Secretary/Treasurer PHA, Anthropology Department, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand; email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pacific Health Dialog: Journal of Community Health and Clinical Medicine for the Pacific is issued twice a year at a cost of NZ$69 or US$49. The March 1996 issue focused on noncommunicable disease in the Pacific and included a report on the Pacific Regional Tobacco Control and Prevention meeting in Saipan in July 1995. Previous issues have focused on AIDS, STD, and sexuality in the Pacific and population, women, and development. Order from PHD Manager, Resource Books Ltd, PO Box 25-598, Remeura, Auckland, New Zealand; tel (64) 9-575-8030; fax (64) 9-575-8055.
Pacific Economic Bulletin, Vol 11, No 2, November 1996, is now available. Included are economic surveys of Papua New Guinea, Western Samoa, and Nauru, as well as articles on labor costs, tackling environmental threats, monetary policy, and law enforcement, and book reviews.
Musics of Hawai'i: "It All Comes from the Heart" is a unique audiocassette series and book presenting a representative sampling of the artistically rich traditional musics that are a vital part of Hawai'i's multicultural community. There are ninety-seven musical selections on five cassettes and a 152-page book with historical, cultural, and musicological information on the cultural groups. For information, contact State Foundation on Culture and the Arts, Folk Arts Program, 44 Merchant St., Honolulu, HI 96813; tel (808) 586-0306.
Bank of Hawaii has published a series of illustrated reports on Pacific economies with information on history, government structure, population, GDP, imports and exports, employment, and income sources. The latest in the series are reports on New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Fiji. To obtain copies of the reports, contact Bank of Hawaii Economics Department, PO Box 2900, Honolulu, HI 96846. Tel (808) 537-8307; fax (808) 536-9433; or the bank website.
Pacific Islanders in Communications (PIC) has several new videotapes available for purchase, including the two-presentation series Storytellers of the Pacific, which was broadcast nationwide on PBS in December 1996. Also newly available is Uiaki Fono: Resolving the Future, a documentary on democracy in Tonga. To obtain a video catalog, contact PIC at 1221 Kapi'olani Boulevard, Suite 6A-4, Honolulu, HI 96814; email email@example.com; tel (808) 591-0059; fax (808) 591-1114. More information on PIC is available on their WEB site.
Micronesian Seminar has published an additional thirteen documents on its WEB site. Included are several papers on education on Micronesia as well as papers on Micronesian suicide incidence and its social context, FSM migration to Guam, indigenization as a missionary goal, and some thoughts on the topic of human rights.
Under construction on the WEB is a Hawai'i-based site for Rotuma. Planned for the site, at www2.hawaii.edu/oceanic/rotuma/os/hanua.html, is a message board and a news page. The site will eventually be expanded to include sound clips of Rotuman phrases, video clips, and an interactive dictionary among other items.
The conference will be held 11-13 April 1997 at Puhi, Kaua'i. The tentative program calls for field trips and the keynote address on the first day of the conference and papers on the last two days. For more information, contact Dr William Kikuchi, Kaua'i Community College, 3-1901 Kaumuali'i Hwy, Lihu'e, Hawai'i 96766; tel (808) 245-8218; email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dates of the conference "From Myth to Minerals: Place, Narrative, Land, and Transformation in New Guinea and Australia" have shifted from April to 17-20 July 1997 in order to make it easier for northern-hemisphere academics to attend. The venue has also been switched, to the Australian National University, Canberra. For further information contact James Weiner, email@example.com, or, after 8 March, Alan Rumsey, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The University of the South Pacific is hosting the Pacific Science Inter-Congress, 13-19 July 1997. The theme is "Islands in the Pacific Century." For information, contact VIII Pacific Science Association Inter-Congress Secretariat, c/o School of Pure & Applied Sciences, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji; tel (679) 212691; fax (679) 314007.
South Seas Symposium: Easter Island in the Pacific Context, with scientific presentations on Polynesian social organization, prehistoric adaptation, archaeology of stone architecture, the environment, and language and traditions, will be held 5-10 August 1997 at the University of New Mexico. Polynesian dances, crafts, and cultural events will also be part of the conference. For travel and registration information, contact Far Horizons Archaeological and Cultural Trips, Inc., PO Box 91900, Albuquerque NM 87199-1900. Email email@example.com.
PACON 97, Resource Development—Environment Issues and the Sustainable Development of Coastal Waters will be held 6-8 August 1997 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The conference brings together marine scientists, engineers, industrial organizations, and policymakers on issues related to marine science and technology and the appropriate applications of this technology. For information, contact PACON 97, PACON International, PO Box 11568, Honolulu, HI 96828; tel (808) 956-6163; fax (808) 956-2580; email firstname.lastname@example.org.
The next Pacific Arts Association (PAA) conference will be held in Port Moresby at the Papua New Guinea National Museum and Art Gallery, 8-13 September 1997. The conference convenor and President of the PAA is Soroi Marepo Eoe, director of the museum. For more information write to him at the PNG National Museum and Art Gallery, PO 5560, Boroko, NCD, Papua New Guinea. Tel 675-325-1779. Eoe and others at the museum can also be reached through email at email@example.com.
From Dependency to Freedom: A Symposium Charting the Future of the Marshall Islands will be held 3 October 1997 at Hofstra University, Hempstead, Long Island, New York. The organizers are inviting papers dealing with actions, policies, and organizations that will have an impact on the future of the Marshallese and their relationship to the world. Proposals should be submitted no later than 21 February 1997. For information, contact Patrick H Mahoney, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 244 Wood Street, Room A-109, Lexington, MA 02173-9108; tel (617) 981-6193; fax (617) 981-0110; email firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Pacific History Association's twelfth conference will be held in July 1998 in Honiara, Solomon Islands. The conference will include four days of papers and other sessions and one day of excursions to the National Art Gallery, the National Cultural Centre, and sites associated with World War 2 Guadalcanal campaigns. Coconvenors are Tom Waitere, Solomon Islands College of Higher Education (SICHE), and Max Quanchi, Queensland University of Technology. Interested persons should contact Max Quanchi at School of Humanities, Queensland University of Technology, Beams Road, Carseldine, Queensland, Australia 4034; fax 61-7-38644719; email email@example.com.
World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is seeking an Environmental Coordinator to work with local communities in the Gulf and Southern Highlands regions of Papua New Guinea to develop and implement strategies for conservation and sustainable resource use. At least five years' field experience in natural resource management or biological assessment or a related field is required. Experience working with customary landowners in PNG as well as skill in Tok Pisin or Motu is desirable. Interested persons should send resume and cover letter to WWF, Human Resources Dept 564, 1250 24th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037.
The Marine Option Program at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa will offer a maritime archaeology techniques course during the summer of 1997 on the Big Island. The five-week course, 16 June-18 July, includes lectures, field trips, and underwater training exercises in archaeological surveying techniques. Applications are available from UH Marine Option Program, 1000 Pope Road, #229, Honolulu, HI 96822.
The Center for Pacific Islands Studies
School of Hawaiian, Asian and Pacific Studies
University of Hawai'i at Manoa
1890 East-West Road
Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
Phone: (808) 956-7700
Fax: (808) 956-7053
Robert C. Kiste, Director
Leticia Hickson, Editor
Items in this newsletter may be freely reprinted. Acknowledgment of the source would be appreciated.
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