Anthropology 610 Geoffrey White
Spring semester 2001 Anthropology/East-West Center
Monday 3:00 - 5:30 p.m. SSB 322/Burns 2106
Burns 2118 956-5601/944-7343; firstname.lastname@example.org
email@example.com Offc Hrs: Tue/Th 2-3 pm or by appt.
THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF TOURISM
As daily news in Hawai‘i makes clear, global tourism is on the rise. But what is tourism in an age of globalization where “culture”’ itself is increasingly a traveling commodity? In what ways might the ethnographic study of tourism shed light on formations of culture and identity in a postmodern world? Specifically, what are the consequences of tourism for host communities, especially the identity struggles of (post)colonial societies? What is the experience of tourists, performers and others who daily enact rituals of encounter in today’s expanding circuits of travel? This course raises these questions by examining practices of tourism in Hawai‘i, Asia, and the Pacific. It looks at tourism in terms of its immediate contexts of cultural display and performance as well as its location in wider spheres of global capital and transnational flows of people, goods, and images.
Given the central place of tourism in Hawai‘i’s economy and history, the course gives particular attention to tourism in Hawai‘i, using readings, guest speakers, and field trips. Students will be encouraged to develop class projects that afford the opportunity to develop research skills in the ethnographic study of tourism in context.
This course is open to graduate students in anthropology, geography, cultural studies, and related fields. It will explore interdisciplinary approaches to the social and cultural analysis of tourism practices and experience.
Requirements. Grading is based on class participation (25%), written assignments—including a weekly journal--(30%), and a final paper of appx. 15-20 pages (45%). Participation will be assessed on the basis of engagement with readings, discussions, course website and class activities. Students will share responsibility for directing discussion of readings, and keep a journal of reflections evoked by readings, films, and activities. In addition to the collective work of seminar sessions, each student will undertake an individual project in the form of a final paper. Projects may be based the student's own fieldwork or on original material gathered from popular media or library research.
Desmond, Jane. 2000. Staging Tourism: Bodies on Display from Waikiki to Sea World
Kincaid, J. 1989. A Small Place. New York: Plume
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B. 1998. Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage.
Lippard, Lucy. 1999. On the Beaten Track: Tourism, Art and Place
MacCannell, D. 1976. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class.
Picard, M. & R. Wood. 1997. Tourism, Ethnicity, and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies.
Stanley, Nick. 1998. Being Ourselves for You: The Global Display of Cultures.
Urry, J. 1990. The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies.
I. INTRODUCTION: TRAVELLING CULTURE
Jan 8 1. Introduction
MacCannell, Forward, Intro to 1989 Edition, Epilogue, ix-xxvi, 189-203
Lippard, “Introduction: On Rubbernecking,” 2-11
Desmond, “Introduction: Touring the Essential,” xii-xxv
optional: (Castañeda in press)
film (in class): Incidents of Travel in Chichen Itza
Jan 15 2. No Class Holiday (Martin Luther King Day):
Jan 22 3.Tourism, Travel, Culture Theory
MacCannell, “Introduction,” “Modernity and Touristic Experiences,” 1-37
Urry, “The Tourist Gaze,” 1-15
Dominguez, “The Marketing of Heritage,” 546-555
Graburn, "Tourism: The Sacred Journey" in Smith 1989, 21-36
Goss, “’From Here to Eternity’: Voyages of (Re)Discovery in Tourist Landscapes of Hawai‘i,”1-30
optional: Pratt 1992, “Introduction”
II. THE CULTURAL POLITICS OF TOURISM “DEVELOPMENT”
Jan 29 4. Global Tourism / Local Cultures
Errington and Gewertz 1989,“Tourism and Anthropology in a Postmodern World,” 37-54
Gewertz and Errington 1991, “The New Traditionalism: Tourism and its Transformations,” 25-57
O’Rourke, 1997, “Beyond Cannibal Tours,” 32-47
Bruner and Kirshenblatt-Gimblett 1994, “Maasai on the Lawn,” 435-470
Lippard, “The Tourist at Home,” 12-23
Besio, “Caught Looking”
film (view before class): Cannibal Tours
Lutkehaus, “…An Interview with Filmmaker Dennis O’Rourke,” 422-437
Yamashita et al., 1997 “Introduction: Tourism and Cultural Development…,” 13-31.
MacCannell 1992, “Cannibalism Today,” 17-73
guest speaker: Kathryn Besio, PhD Candidate, UH Dept of Geography
Feb 5 5. Geographies, Economies and Politics of Tourism
DUE: First journal reflection
Urry, “Mass Tourism…and the Seaside Resort,” “The Changing Economics…,” 16-65
R E Wood, "Tourism and the State" in Picard and Wood 1997, 1-34
Trask, H., 1993, “Lovely Hula Hands,” 179-197
Minerbi, L., “Hawai‘i” 190-204
Minerbi, L., 1999, “Tourism and Native Hawaiians”
Hawai‘i Ecumenical Council, 1989, 1-7
Okamura 1998, The Illusion of Paradise: Multiculturalism in Hawai‘i,” 264-284
Kent, Noel, “A New Kind of Sugar”
Kahn, "Culturalizing Malaysia" in Picard and Wood 1997, 99-127
guest speaker: Luciano Minerbi, UH Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Feb 12 6. Small Places
DUE: Final project proposal: one-page statement
Lippard, “Trespassing on Common Ground,” 24-32
Kincaid 1989, A Small Place, 81 pp.
Helu-Thaman, 1993, “Beyond Hula, Hotels, and Handicrafts,” 104-111
Wesley-Smith, 2000, “Introduction: Migrant Labor and Tourism in … Palau,” 307-316
Yamashita, 2000, “…Japanese Tourists in Palau,” 437-463.
optional: Bank of Hawaii: Palau Report
Feb 19 7. Holiday (President’s Day): No Class
III. TOURISM AND THE PRODUCTION OF CULTURE
Feb 26 8. Tourism’s Identities: Primitive / Ethnic / Modern
Urry, “Working Under the Tourist Gaze,” “Cultural Changes and the Restructuring of “Tourism, Culture, and Social Inequality,” 66-103, 135-156
Wood 1998, “Touristic Ethnicity: A Brief Itinerary,” 218-241
Lippard, “Surprise Packages,” “Santa Fe’s Tricultural Trip,” 33-49, 59-87
MacCannell 1992, “Majority Discourse,” 121-180
Adams, "Tourism, Ethnicity and National Integration in Sulawesi" in Picard and Wood 1997, 155-181
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, "Objects of Ethnography," 17-78; "Exhibiting Jews," 79-128;
Oakes, "Ethnic Tourism in Rural Guizhou" in Picard and Wood 1997 pp. 35-71
Lutz and Collins 1993, "... Strangers," 1-14; "...the Ethnic Other," 119-153
guest speaker: Quetzil Castañeda, Visiting Professor, UH Dept of Languages &
Literatures of Europe and the Americas
March 5 9. (Per)Forming Culture
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, "Introduction," 1-13
MacCannell, “Staged Authenticity,” 91-107
Desmond, “Let’s Luau,” “Picturing Hawai‘i,” “Pictures Come to Life,” Advertising, Racializing and Performing Hawai‘i”10-97
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, “Confusing Pleasures,” 203-248
film (view before class): Bontoc Eulogy (Filipino experience at the 1904 St. Louis World's fair)
guest speaker: Vicky Takamine Holt, UH Department of Music
Mar 12 10. Consuming Culture: Commodification & Tourist Desires
DUE: Second journal reflection
Stanley, “Preface,” “Why Should We Look at Each Other,” 11-33
Lippard, “Seduction and Hyperbole,” 50-58
Desmond, “Tourism and the Commodification of Culture, 1930-1940,” 98-121; “Up to the Present,” 131-141.
Linnekin, "Consuming Cultures" in Picard and Wood 1997, 215-250
Hamilton, "Primal Dream: ...Thailand's Sex Trade" in Manderson & Jolly 1996, 145-65
Teaiwa 1994, “Bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans,” 87-109
Jolly 1994, “Kastom as Commodity: The Land Dive … in Vanuatu,” 131-146
Leong, "Commodifying Ethnicity" in Picard and Wood 1997, pp. 71-98
Greenwood, "Tourism as Cultural Commoditization" in Smith 1989, 171-186
guest speaker: Andrea Feeser, UH Department of Art
IV. TOURIST SITES / CULTURAL SPACES
Mar 19 11. Museums
MacCannell, “The Other Attractions,” 77-89
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, "Destination Museum," 131-176.
Lippard, “Exhibitionism,” “Curioser and Curiouser,” 88-117.
Clifford 1997, "Museums as Contact Zones" 188-219; "Four ... Museums" 107-145
optional: Clifford 1997, "Paradise"147-187
Field trip: Wahiawa Plantation Village? Bishop Museum?
Mar 26 12. Spring Break: No Class
April 2 13. Historic Sites
DUE: Revised project statement & bibliography (to be discussed in class)
Urry 1990, “Gazing on History,” 104-134
Lippard, “Parking Places,” “Taken Aback or The Nostalgia Trap,” 135-164
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, “Ellis Island,” “Plimoth Plantation,” 177-188, 189-200
Wallace, "Portraying the Past at Disney World," "Disney's America," 133-157, 159-167
optional: O'Brien 1996, “Marketing and Managing Colonial Spectacle,” 103-144
guest speaker: Bill Chapman, Professor, UH Department of American Studies and
Director, UH Historic Preservation Program
April 9 14. War Tourism: Sacred Ground(s)
Lippard, “Tragic Tourism,” 118-134
Diller and Scofido, “Introduction: Back to the Front, Tourisms of War,” 17-30
Ledgerwood 1997, “…The Cambodian Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide,” 82-98
Kennedy 1996, “…The Manufacture of Nostalgia in Vietnam's Tourist Industry,” 1-36
Kelly 1996, “Enshrining History,” 45-57
White 1997, “On Not Being a Theme Park,” 1-11
MacCannell 1992, “The Vietnam Memorial,” 280-282
Turnbull 1996, “Remembering Pearl Harbor,” 407-433
Guest speaker: Daniel Martinez, NPS Historian, Arizona Memorial
field trip: USS Arizona Memorial
April 16 15. Theme Parks / Cultural Centers
DUE: Third journal reflection
Stanley, “Ethnographic Theme Parks,” “Revolt of the Represented,” 36-114
Ross 1993, “Cultural Preservation in the Polynesia of the Latter Day Saints,” 276-84
Stanton, “The Polynesian Cultural Center,” in Smith 1989, 247-262.
guest speaker: Prof. Jon Goss, UH Department of Geography
field trip: Polynesian Cultural Center
V. PROJECT PRESENTATIONS
April 23 16. Project presentations
Project presentations (presenters hand in 2-3 page outline or notes)
April 30 17. Project presentations / Conclusion
Project presentations (presenters hand in 2-3 page outline or notes)
May 2: Final Papers Due
2001 Caught Looking: Photography, Travelers and Askole. Unpublished paper. Department of Geography, University of Hawai‘i.
Bruner, Edward, and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett
1994 Maasai on the Lawn: Tourist Realism in East Africa. Cultural Anthropology 9(4):435-470.
Castañeda, Quetzil E.
in press Maya Mysteries, Mirror for Man: Monumentalized Public Sphere of Tourism at Chichén Itzá. In Journeys into Otherness. Keith Hollinshead and Chuck de Burlo, eds. Clevedon, England: Channel View Publications.
1997 Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Desmond, Jane C.
2000. Staging Tourism: Bodies on Display from Waikiki to Sea World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Diller, E. and R. Scofidio
1994 Introduction. In Back to the Front: Tourisms of War. Diller, E. and R. Scofidio, Eds. Princeton, Princeton Architectural Press.
1986 The Marketing of Heritage. American Ethnologist 13(3): 546-555.
Errington, Frederick, and Deborah Gewertz
1989 Tourism and anthropology in a post-modern world. Oceania 60:37-54.
1997 National Narratives and Minority Politics: The Japanese American National Museum's War Stories. In Public History and National Narrative. Special Issue of Museum Anthropology 21(1): 99-112.
Gewertz, Deborah, and Fred Errington
1991 The New Traditionalism: Tourism and its transformations. In Twisted Histories, Altered Contexts: Representing the Chambri in a World System. Pp. 25-57. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1998 "From Here to Eternity": Voyages of Re(dis)covery in Tourist Landscapes of Hawai'i. Unpublished paper, 30 pp.
Hawai'i Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism
1989 Tourism in Hawai'i: Its Impact on Native Hawaiians and Its Challenge to the Churches. The 1989 Hawai'i Declaration of the Hawai'i Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism Conference, Honolulu, 1989, pp. 1-7. American Friends Service Committee.
1993, “Beyond Hula, Hotels, and Handicrafts: A Pacific Islander's Perspective on Tourism Development,” The Contemporary Pacific 5(1): 104-111.
1994 Kastom as Commodity: The Land Dive as Indigenous Rite and Tourist Spectacle in Vanuatu. In Culture, Kastom, Tradition: Cultural Policy in Melanesia. L. Lindstrom and G. White, eds. Pp. 131-146. Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies.
1996 Enshrining History: The Visitor Experience at Pearl Harbor's USS Arizona Memorial. Museum Anthropology 20(3):45-57.
Kennedy, Laurel B.
1996 Re-presenting Vietnam War's War Experience: The Manufacture of Nostalgia in Vietnam's Tourist Industry. Paper presented at meetings of the Association for Asian Studies, Honolulu, 1996, pp. 1-36.
1989 A small place. New York, NY: Plume Book.
1998 Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1997 The Cambodian Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocidal Crimes. Museum Anthropology 21(1): 82-98
1999. On the Beaten Track: Tourism, Art and Place. New York: The New Press.
1989 "Excuse Me, Everything is Not All Right": On Ethnography, Film and Representation [An Interview with Filmmaker Dennis OíRourke]. Cultural Anthropology 4(4):422-437.
Lutz, Catherine A., and Jane L. Collins
1993 Reading National Geographic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1989 The tourist : a new theory of the leisure class. New York: Schocken Books.
1992 Empty meeting grounds : the tourist papers. London ; New York: Routledge.
Manderson, Lenore, and Margaret Jolly, eds.
1997 Sites of Desire / Economies of Pleasure: Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1999 Tourism and Native Hawaiians. In Ecotourism, Sustainable Development, and Cultural Survival: Protecting Indigenous Culture and Land Through Ecotourism. Cultural Survival Quarterly Summer 1999 (23.2)
1996 Hawai‘i. In Tourism in the Pacific. Hall, M. C. and S. J. Page, Eds.Andover, Hampshire, Thomson International Business Press. pp. 190-204
1996 Marketing and Managing Colonial Spectacle as National History: In the Belly of the Archive. The South Atlantic Quarterly 95(1):103-144.
1998 The Illusion of Paradise: Privileging Multiculturalism in Hawai'i. In Making Majorities. D. Gladney, ed. Pp. 264-284. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
1997 Beyond Cannibal Tours: Tourists, Modernity, and "The Other." In Tourism and Cultural Development in Asia and Oceania. S. Yamahita, K. Din and J. Eades, Eds. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangasaan Malaysia. Pp. 32-47
Picard, Michel, and Robert E. Wood, eds.
1997 Tourism, Ethnicity, and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
Pratt, Mary Louise
1992 Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. London: Routledge
Ross, Andrew (1993). . In. Pp. .
1993 Cultural Preservation in the Polynesia of the Latter Day Saints. In The Chicago Gangster Theory of Life: Nature’s Debt to Society. A. Ross, ed. 21-98; 276-84.
Smith, Valene L.
1989 Hosts and guests : the anthropology of tourism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
1998 Being Ourselves for You: the global display of cultures. London: Middlesex University Press.
1994 Bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans. The Contemporary Pacific 6:87-109.
1993 Lovely Hula Hands:Corporate Tourism and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture. In From a native daughter : colonialism and sovereignty in Hawai'i. Pp. 179-197. Monroe, Me.: Common Courage Press.
1996 Remembering Pearl Harbor: The Semiotics of the Arizona Memorial. In Challenging Boundaries: Global Flows, Territorial Identities. H.A. Jr. and M. Shapiro, eds. Pp. 407-433. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
1990 The tourist gaze : leisure and travel in contemporary societies. London ; Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
1996 Mickey Mouse History: Portraying the Past at Disney World. Mickey Mouse History and Other Essays on American Memory. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Pp.133-167.
1997 On Not Being a Theme Park. Paper read at meetings of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 1-11.
Wood, Robert E.
1998 Touristic Ethnicity: a brief itinerary. Ethnic and Racial Studies 21(2):218-241.
2000 The Japanese Encounter with the South: Japanese Tourists in Palau. The Contemporary Pacific 12(2): 437-463.
Yamashita, S., J. Eades and K. Din
1997 Introduction: Tourism and Cultural Development in Asia and Oceania. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangasaan Malaysia. Pp. 13-31.
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