The Anthropology of Tourism
Loyola University of Chicago, Fall 1998
Office Hours: M, F: 12:30-1:15, W: 5-6PM
"There are no foreign lands. It is the traveler alone
who is foreign." - Robert Louis Stevenson
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the
world. Not only has it become an important component of the
"American" lifestyle, but it has had a profound impact
on other peoples of the world and the environments in which they
live. This course will explore the phenomenon of tourism from an
anthropological perspective. In the first portion of the course
we will analyze the history and sociocultural structure of
tourism. We will cover the varieties and institutions of tourism
(museums, souvenirs, travel agencies etc) and their role in the
construction of "exotic others." We will also look at
"tourist cultures" (tourism as pilgrimage, tourism as
status-marking, and the psycho-cultural motivations of the
tourist, etc.). The second portion of the course will focus on
the social, economic, and ecological "impact" of
tourism. The seminar draws heavily on case studies from Asia,
Europe, Africa and the Americas. Throughout the course we will
relate data from ethnographic cases to anthropological theories
of cultural change, economic development, cross-cultural
communication, identity, ethnicity, gender, and nationality.
-Picard, M. And Robert Wood
1997 Tourism, Ethnicity and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press.
-van den Berghe, Pierre
1994 The Quest for the Other: Ethnic Tourism in San Cristobal, Mexico Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press.
1988 A Small Place. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
-Articles available in the file cabinet in the Soc/Anth
Lounge (9th floor Damen).
Optional Texts (classics in the field)
1976 (1989) The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class New York, Schocken.
(On reserve at the Cudahy Library)
1990 The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in
Contemporary Societies. London: Sage.
There will be 1 short essay, a mini travel piece (1 page), a mid-term, final "quiz" and a 10 page term paper (Term papers will also be presented orally in class). (For graduate students the term paper is to be at least 15 pages). Students are required to select their research topic for the term paper no later than October 28, submitting a brief written statement to the instructor. On Nov. 11 students will submit their bibliography list (with at least 8 sources) to the instructor for preliminary approval. The bibliography list should be briefly annotated, with notations as to how each source will contribute to your understanding of your paper topic. The final paper is due on Wed Dec 16. It is to be type-written and is to conform to standard American Anthropologist or standard sociology rules of presentation. Unless there is documentation of a serious health problem or family emergency, late assignments will be docked one half grade per day late.
PLEASE NOTE that students are expected to come to class well prepared to discuss the assigned readings. As this course is heavily oriented towards discussion, there will be three unannounced quizzes (to ensure that readings are completed on time and students are prepared for discussion). Quizzes will cover specific points in the assigned readings for that week. The lowest quiz grade will be dropped. Given that this class will only meet 14 times, attendance is essential and absences will result in a lowered grade.
Written mini travel account: Wed Sept 16
Tourist research write-up based on visit to a Chicago ethnic museum or tourist site: Wed
Essay on field research at Chicago tourist sites (and oral presentation of findings): Wed Oct 7
Paper topic selection deadline: Wed Oct 28
Midterm exam date: Wed Oct 14
Annotated paper bibliography due: Wed Nov. 11
Final test: Wed. Dec 2 (during first 30-40 minutes of class)
Oral presentation of term papers: Wed Dec 16, 2:30-4:30
Papers due: Wed Dec 16 (2:30)
Student grades will be based on the following formula:
Seminar Themes and Reading Assignments:
(NOTE: As this is a 300 level seminar, readings for the class can be heavy, often reaching 100-125 pages a week. Budget your time accordingly to insure that you complete the readings prior to class. )
Note: Articles are located in the files in the Soc-Anthro lounge on the 9th floor of Damen Hall
WEEK 1 (Sept 2): Introduction
-review of syllabus, research resources, and brief essay assignment for Week 2.
-Video "First Contact"
WEEK 2 (9/9): Key Themes in the History and Socio-cultural Study of Tourism
-Crick, Malcolm, "Anthropology and the Study of Tourism: Theoretical and Personal Reflections", Ch 1 in Resplendent Sites, Discordant Voices: Sri Lankans and International Tourism. 1994. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Publishers.
-John Urry, "The Tourist Gaze", Ch. 1 in The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage.
-Robert Wood, "Tourism and the State: Ethnic Options and the Construction of Otherness" Ch 1 in Picard and Wood Tourism, Ethnicity and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies.
Write: brief travel essay. (No more than 2 pages)
-discussion of themes in student travel essays.
WEEK 3 (9/16): Conceptual Background (Themes: Tourist Typologies, Guides, Culture Brokers and Tourees. Who are Tourists? What Motivates Them? Is Tourism a Form of Pilgrimage?)
-Introduction to Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism by V. Smith. Philadelphia: Univ. Of Penn. Press. 1989.
-Pierre van den Berghe, "Introduction: Why Study Ethnic Tourism?" Ch 1 of The Quest for the Other: Ethnic Tourism in San Cristobal, Mexico.
-Nelson Graburn, "Tourism: The Sacred Journey". Ch 1 in V. Smiths Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism.
-Errington and Gewertz "Tourism and Anthropology in a Post-Modern World" in Oceania (Sept. 1989).
-Adams, Kathleen M. "Domestic Tourism and Nation-Building in South Sulawesi" Indonesia and the Malay World 1998. Vol 26 (75):77-96.
-Moore, Alexander, "Walt Disney World: Bounded Ritual Space and the Playful Pilgrimage Center" Anthropological Quarterly 1980:207-218. (An older classic)
-Bruner, Edward, "Transformation of Self in Tourism" Annals of Tourism Research 1991: (18)2: 238-2xx.
-Pfaffenberger, B. "Serious Pilgrims and Frivolous Tourists: The Chimera of Tourism in the Pilgrimages of Sri Lanka" in Annals of Tourism Research 1983 (10)1: 57-94.
-Special issue on "Pilgrimage and Tourism" edited by Valene Smith Annals of Tourism Research 199x).
-Adams, Vincanne Tigers of the Snow and Other Virtual Sherpas: An Ethnography of Himalayan Encounters 1996 Princeton Univ. Press.
Video: "Trekking on Tradition"
Week 4 (9/23): Tourism and Issues of Authenticity: Is Tourism Tantamount to Cultural Degradation?
-MacCannell, D., "Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Settings" American Journal of Sociology 79(3). 1973. (A Classic-- make sure you understand the concept of staged authenticity.)
-Bendix, Regina "The Quest for Authenticity in Tourism and Folklife Studies" Pennsylvania Folklife 42(3). Winter 1993.
-Timothy Oakes, "Ethnic Tourism in Rural Guizhou: Sense of Place and the Commerce of Authenticity" Ch 2 in Picard and Wood book.
-Laurence Wai-Teng Leong, "Commodifying Ethnicity: State and Ethnic Tourism in Singapore" Ch 3 in Picard and Wood book.
-Bruner, Edward M. & Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, "Maasai on the Lawn: Tourist Realism in East Africa" Cultural Anthropology 1994.
-MacCannell, The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class (highly recommended that
graduate students read the entire book)
-Cohen, Erik "Primitive and Remote: Hill Tribe Trekking in Thailand" Annals of Tourism Research 1989.
Video: Cannibal Tours
Week 5 (9/30): Field Research Trips to Locale Tourist Sites (No formal class meeting)
-G. Ritzer: ""McDisneyization" and "Post-Tourism": Complementary Perspectives on Contemporary Tourism." In The McDonaldization Thesis 1998 London: Sage.
-additional reading t.b.a.
Optional (this may help you reflect on possible approaches to your site analysis):
-Webb, T.D. "Highly Structured Tourist Art: Form and Meaning of the Polynesian Cultural Center" The Contemporary Pacific 1994:59-85.
-Write up account of your research trip
Week 6 (10/7): Tourism and Cultural Commoditization: Theme Parks, Souvenirs and Tourist Arts (continuation of Week 5 themes)
-Linnekin, Jocelyn "Consuming Cultures: Tourism and the Commoditization of Cultural
Identity in the Island Pacific" Ch. 8 in Picard and Wood book.
-Bruner, Edward "Lincolns New Salem as a Contested Site" Museum Anthropology 17(3).
-Mullin, Molly, "The Patronage of Difference: Making Indian Art "Art, Not Ethnology." In g. Marcus and F. Myers the Traffic in Culture: Refiguring Art and Anthropology. 1995.
-(Also be prepared to discuss readings from week 5)
-Fjellman Vinyl Leaves: Walt Disney World and America 1992. Boulder: Westview.
-Greenwood, "Culture by the Pound" Ch 8 in Smith Hosts and Guests.
-Museums and Tourism", Special issue of Museum Anthropology 1993 (17)3.
Discuss and submit research trip project.
Video viewing and analysis: Disneyworld (short promotional)
Week 7 (10/14): Midterm Examination
Week 8 (10/21):: EnGENDERing the Other: Tourism, Exoticism and Sexuality
-Enloe, Cynthia, "On the Beach: Sexism and Tourism" in Bananas, Beaches, and Bases 1990. Berkeley: Univ. Of Calif. Press.
-Cohen, Erik "Open-Ended Prostitution as a Skillful Game of Luck: Opportunity, Risk, and Security Among tourist-Oriented Prostitutes in a Bangkok Soi" in Thai Tourism: Hill Tribes, Islands and Open-ended Prostitution. 1996. Bangkok: White Lotus Press.
-Kelsey, Karen, "Flirting with the Foreign: Interracial Sex in Japans International Age" in Rob Wilson and Wimal Dissanayake, eds. Global Local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary. 1996. Duke Univ. Press.
-Richter,L. "Thailand: Where Tourism and Politics Make Strange Bedfellows" in Richter, ed. The Politics of Tourism in Asia. pp. 82-101.
-Kruhse-Mount Burton, Suzy "Sex Tourism and Traditional Male Australian Identity" in Lanfant, Allcock and Bruner International Tourism: Identity and Change. 1995. Sage.
-Troung, Thanh-Dam Sex, Money and Morality: Prostitution and Tourism in Southeast Asia. London: Zed Books.
-Kinnaird, V. And D. Hall Tourism: A Gender Analysis.
Video Segment: "Welcome to
Week 9 (10/28): The Politics of Tourism: Tourism and the State (Focus on Indonesia)
-Adams, K. "Touting Touristic Primadonas: Tourism, Ethnicity and National Integration in Sulawesi, Indonesia." Ch 6 in Picard and Wood book.
-Picard, M. "Cultural Tourism, Nation-Building, and Regional Culture: The Making of a Balinese Identity" Ch 7 in Picard and Wood book.
-Excerpt from Adrian Vickers volume Bali: A Paradise Created.1989 Singapore: Periplus.
-Additional reading t.b.a.
-Robert Wood "Ethnic Tourism, the State & Cultural Change in Southeast Asia" Annals of Tourism Research Special issue on "Tourism and Ethnicity" 1984.
-Richter, L. "The Politics of Tourism: An Overview" In The Politics of Tourism in Asia ed by L. Richter, 1989.
-Term paper topic selection deadline: bring one paragraph write-up of term paper topic to class.
Week 10 (11/4): Tourism and Ethnicity: Case Study of Mexico
-Van den Berghe, P. The Quest for the Other (finish book)
-Wood, Robert "Touristic Ethnicity: A Brief Itinerary." In Ethnic and Racial Studies 1998. Vol 21(2):218-241.
-Esman, Margaret "Tourism as Ethnic Preservation: The Cajuns of Louisiana" in Annals of Tourism Research Special Issue on "Tourism and Ethnicity" 1984.
Video Segment: Incidents of Travel in Chichen Itza
Week 11 (11/11):Tourism and Environmental Concerns: The Ecotourism/SustainableTourism
-Butler, Richard "Alternative Tourism: The Thin Edge of the Wedge. In Valene Smith and Eadington Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism 1992 Univ. Of Penn. Press.
- Patullo, Polly "Green Crime, Green Redemption: The Environment and Ecotourism" Ch 5 in Last Resorts: The Cost of Tourism in the Caribbean. 1996. London: Cassell.
-MacCannell, Dean, "Nature Incorporated" In Empty Meeting Grounds: The Tourist Papers. 1992 London: Routledge. Pp. 114-117.
-Smith and Eadington Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism 1992 Univ. Of Penn. Press.
-"Ecotourism: Marketing Gimmick or Real Hope?" special Issue of Contours: Concern for Tourism: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Ecumenical coalition on Third World Tourism 1998 8(2).
-Goering, P. "The Response to Tourism in Ladakh" Cultural Survival Quarterly 1990 (14)1.
-Salm, Rodney "Coral Reefs and Tourist Carrying Capacity: The Indian Ocean Experience" Industry and Environment 1986 (9)1.
-Greenwood D. "Tourism as an Agent of Change: A Spanish Basque Case" 1972
Ethnology 11(1): 80-91.
Annotated Bibliography for term paper due in class.
Video: The Environmental Tourist
Week 12 (11/18): The "Touree" Talks Back: Indigenous Voices on Tourism
-Kincaid, J. A Small Place
-Trask, Haunani Kay "Lovely Hula Hands: Corporate Tourism and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture" in From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Soverignity in Hawaii. 1993. Monroe (Maine): Common Courage Press. (Short piece)
-Helu-Thaman "Beyond Hula, Hotels and Handicrafts: A Pacific Islanders Perspective of Tourism Development"
Week 13 (11/24): Open Week: I have left this week open so that the class can select a topic of interest
--Cruise ship tourism: globalization at sea
--class and tourism
Week 14 (12/2): Concluding Remarks and Final Exam
First 30-40 minutes: Test
Remainder of Class: Concluding remarks
Wed Dec 16 2:30-4:30PM: Final Exam Slot
TERM PAPERS DUE!
Oral presentation of papers in class.
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