Society & Culture in the Pacific
Anth 104: 1996
|Thursday||Fr. Polynesia||Nancy Pollock|
|Thursday||Cook Islands||Ni`i Bishop|
Tutorials start in the second week of the semester.
The tutorial programme is an essential complement to the lectures, and provides time of discussion to which all students are expected to contribute. Students are expected to attend every tutorial unless they have communicated an excuse to the Course Coordinator. Marks for contribution to tutorials and physical presence at them are part of the total marks for this course (see ASSESSMENT). Specific reading for the tutorial programme will be handed out later. In the examination each student will be expected to demonstrate in depth knowledge of one society gained in the tutorial.
Each student will attend ONE of the following according to Tutorial Groups:
O'Meara, Tim, 1989: Samoan Planters. Holt, Rinehart .
Course Notes, 1995: ANTH 104 Tonga Society and Culture in the Pacific, Notes Distribution Centre. VUW.
3. FRENCH POLYNESIA
Pollock, N.J. & Crocombe, R., 1988: French Polynesia . Inst. of Pac. Studies, Univ. of the South Pacific.
Ravuvu, Asesela, 1983: Vaka i Taukei . The Fijian Way of Life. Suva, Inst. of Pacific Studies.
5. COOK islands
Course Notes, 1995: ANTH 104: Society Culture in the Pacific (price t.b.a.). Notes Distribution Centre, VUW.
Each student will be required to take a map test and a mid-semester test and write a research essay, as well as to participate weekly in one tutorial group and present the tutorial assignment A final examination is worth fifty percent of the final grade.
MAP TEST: Location of islands, and indication whether they are high or low. Use a large map of the Pacific Islands. Good ones are NZMS (New Zealand Map Service) 275 or 276, or STUDY HALL - Great Britain Admiralty. Naval Intelligence Division, Pacific Islands. Vols. 1-4(1944). [Library call-mark DU 29 G786P]
RESEARCH ESSAY: A student will select a topic from the list provided, read widely on that topic in order to present a clear argument. A good research essay is based on reading a number of different sources for a given topic, choosing the points to be argued carefully to fit the assignment so that a clear argument is presented. The essay itself must be well structured (see Essay Writing guide attached).
When writing an essay students are expected to select one main text and to consult several others. All essays are limited to 1500 words. They must follow the format set out at the back of this booklet: failure to do so will reap penalty marks. If an essay is not handed in by the due date marks will be deducted.
MID SEMESTER TEST: A 50 minute short answer and short paragraph test covering lecture material and course reading including tutorial reading.
At the end of the course each tutorial group will be expected to share with the rest of the class information about the particular society it has been studying. The format should be interesting. It may take the form of a skit, slide show, panel discussion etc., but each member of the tutorial must contribute significantly to the final production.
|Map test||5||July 24|
|Semester test||15||August 21|
|Research Essay||20||September 16|
|Tutorial Assignment and weekly participation||10||To be arranged|
|Examination||50||To be arranged|
WORKLOAD: Including class contact and tutorial time and preparation, the average workload for this course is approximately 12 hrs per week.
Terms will be awarded Thurs. Oct. 17, 1996. To gain terms a student must have submitted all assignments and attended 9 tutorials unless formally excused by the Course Coordinator. A student may not sit the examination if s/he has not gained terms.
- Failure to notify the Course coordinator of inability to sit a Test before the Test is given will be considered as failure to submit that assignment.
- A student who misses a Test, having notified the Coordinator as to the reason, must sit a make-up within one week of the scheduled test date.
- Penalty for lateness is 5% of mark for essay per day.
- An essay submitted with inadequate referencing will receive an zero grade. with opportunity to resubmit.
- Plagiarism or the copying of other people's work either in part or whole without identifying it as such will lead to a failing mark.
- Failure to attend 9 tutorials will mean a student will not gain terms, thus the student is not allowed to sit the final exam.
11. FINAL GRADING
Students' grades are worked out on the basis of 100 marks. 50 marks for course work 50 marks for the final examination paper. Students should check their total marks with Course Coordinator before going to the examination.
Success in this course depends on reading widely, particularly for the essay. The prescribed booklet for the course provides an article to be read in conjunction with week's lectures. Additional reading for the tutorial is listed in the tutorial program. Books and articles must be consulted when writing your essay and the designated referencing system used (see Essay Writing below., and Procedures for Referencing at the front of your Course Notes).
13. COURSE COORDINATOR
All inquiries, comments, clarifications, complaints etc. should be directed in the first instance to the Course Coordinator.
14. GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES:
If you have particular grievances concerning teaching quality, unfair assessment or poor feedback on assignments, you should take the matter up with the course co-ordinator and then, if necessary, with the Chairperson of Department. If you are unable to resolve the problem, you should make an appointment to see an Associate Dean for advice.
Physical Setting, Native Cultures of the Pacific Islands, Univ. of Hawaii Press, pp 1-13 (1989)
Biogeographical Aspects of Isolation in the Pacific, Ambio 13(5-6): 302-304 (1984)
The Prehistory of Oceania, Current Anthropology 16(1):9-17 (1975)
Dispersal, Colonization and Adaptation, Chap. 4 in The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge University press, pp 71-95 (1984)
Lapita, in The Prehistory of Polynesia, J Jennings (editor). Canberra: Australian National University, pp 27-60 (1979)
Salvation, Chap XIII in The Pacific Islands. A Doubleday Anchor Book, National history Library, NY pp 174-185 (1961)
Pollock, Nancy J
Land holding on Namu Atoll, Marshall Islands, in Land Tenure in Oceania, H Lundsgaarde, editor. Univ. of Hawaii Press, pp 100-129 (1974)
The Politics of Culture in the Pacific in Cultural Identity and Ethnicity in the Pacific, J Linnekin and L Poyer (eds). Univ. of Hawaii Press, pp 149-174 (1990)
Art and Aesthetics, in Developments in Polynesian Ethnology, A Howard and R Borofsky, eds. Univ. of Hawaii Press, pp 211-240 (1989)
Islands Under PressurePopulation Growth and Urbanization in the South Pacific, Ambio 13(5-6):306-312 (1984)
Gounis, Constantinos and Henry Rutz
Urban Fijians and the Problem of Unemployment in Bakker, Solrun et al Fijians in Town. Univ. of the South Pacific, pp 50-87 (1986)
New Zealands Admission of Asians and Pacific Islanders, in Pacific Bridges, J T Fawcett and B Carino (eds) Center for Migration Studies, N.Y., pp 199-228 (1987)
On the Future of Samoan Ethnicity in New Zealand, in Tauiwi, Spoonley, P., C. Macpherson, D. Pearson, and C. Sedgwick (eds). The Dunmore Press Ltd., Palmerston North, pp 107-127 (1984)
Dependence, Independence, Interdependence, Chap. 15 in The New South Pacific, Ron Crocombe, pp 165-176 (1983).
FIJI: TUTORIAL READINGS
Nayacakalou (1978) Tradition and Change in
the Fijian Village., So. Pac. Soc. Sci.
Ravuvu, A. (1983) Vaka i Taukei The Fijian Way of Life.
WEEK 1: JULY 17
Geography, Location, Population, Size, etc:
Hass, T. (ed.), N.Z. and the South Pacific, pp 49-68.
France, P., "Fiji and the Fijians," in Charter of the Land. OUP.
WEEK 2: JULY 24
Prehistory and History
Where did the original settlers of Fiji come from?
Frost, Everitt (1979) The Prehistory of Polynesia, Jennings (ed.) Groube, L.
____________ (1971) "Tonga, Lapita pottery and Polynesian origins," Journal Pol. Soc. 80(3):278-316).
France, Peter (1966), "The Kaunitoni Migration." Pacific History :107-113.
WEEK 3: JULY 31
Missions - What were traditional Fijians beliefs?
What was the influence of the various Western Churches on Fijians?
Ravuvu, A. (1983), Vaka i Taukei, Chap.8
Burton & Deane (1936), A Hunderd Years of Grace. OUP.
Thornley, H.W. (1977), "The Vakamisoneri in Lau. Fiji," in Journal of Pac. Hist. X11(2):107-112.
Williams, T. (1982), Fiji and the Fijians.
WEEK 4: AUG 7
What are the basic resources on which the economy is based? Are they used in the interest of Fiji residents or Europeans?
Ravuvu, A. (1983), Vaka i Taukei, Chap.5
Chandra, S. (1981), "The production, marketing and consumption of root crops," in (Fisk ed.), Traditional Agriculture. Development Studies Centre. Monograph No. ll, Canberra. (Also a NZAAS paper.)
WEEK 5: AUG 14
What are the main changes over the past 10 years affecting Indo Fijians?
Stanner, W.H. (1953), Fiji in The South Seas in Transition. Aus. Pub.Co.
Norton, Robert (1977), Race and Politics in Fiji. Univ. of Queensland.
Gillion, Robert (1977), The Fiji Indians, Univ. of Queensland.
Jayawardena, "The disintegration of caste in Fiji Indian rural society," in Anthropology in Oceania., Hiatt (eds), Angus & Robertson.
WEEK 6: SEPT 4
WHAT is "native customary tenure"? How has it changed?
Ravuvu, A. (1983), Vaka i Taukei, Chap.5
Chapelle, Tony (1978), "Customary Land Tenure in Fiji," JPS 87(2):71-88.
France, Peter (1969), Charter of the Land. OUP.
Nayacakalou, R. (1971), Fiji in Land Tenure in the Pacific.
Walter, Michael (1978), "The Conflict of the Traditional and the Traditionalized," JPS 87(2).
WEEK 7: SEPT 11
Social Organization - ranking and social status
Ravuvu, Asesla (1983), Vaka i Taukei, Chap. I & 4
Ravuvu, Asesla (1978), Sex attitudes and family size in Fiji. Pacific Perspective 7(1 & 2).
Walter, Michael (1978) "An examination of hierarchical notions in Fijian society," in Oceania 49(1).
Mamak & Bedford (1978), "Race, Class & Ethnicity," in Pub de la Oceanistes, No.39.
Ali, Ahmed (1977), "Fijian chiefs and constitutional change," 1874-1937." J. de la Soc des Oceanistes 54 & 55:33.
WEEK 8: SEPT 18
Nation, John (1978), Customs of Respect - the traditional basis ofLand. ANU Dev. Studies Centre, Mono. No. 4.
Ali, Ahmed (1975), "Problems of Constitution making in Fiji. Pacific Perspective 4(1/2):74-80.
__________ (1977), "The Fiji General Election of 1977." J. Pac Hist. XII(4) 189-201.
__________ (1978), "Ethnicity and Politics in Fiji." ANZJS 14(2).
Norton, R.E. (1977), Race and Politics in Fiji. Univ. Queensland.
Lal, Brij (1987), Power and Prejudice.
WEEK 9: SEPT 25
What Development Possibilities? Tourism?
Samy, John (1975), "Crumbs from under the table - the workers share in tourism." Pacific Way, p.205.
Britton, Stephen (1980), "Tourism and economic vulnerability," in Shand, R.T. (ed.), The Island States of the Pacific and Oceans. Dev. Studies Centre. Mono. No.23. Fiji Development Plans, especially 1976-80.
Dakavula, Jone (1978), "Development for whom in Fiji?" In Pacific Dossier. Aust. Council for Overseas Aid.
WEEK 10: OCT 2
Urbanisation - is it inevitable?
Mamak, Alex (1977), "Aspects of social life in urban housing estate," in Living in Town (Harre & Knapman eds), pp.33-42.
Walsh Cros (1977), "Urbanisation in Fiji." Pacific Perspective 14.
Harre, J. & Knapman (1977), Living in Towns, So. Pac. Soc. Sci. Assn.
Nair, S. (1980), Rural Born Fijians & Indo Fijians in Suva Migration Study., Dev. Studies Centre, ANU.
Whitehead, Clive (1981), Education in Fiji., ANU Pac. Res. Mono.No. 6.
Vinakece (1981), "Youth and crime in a Fijian urban housing estate." Pacific Youth.. Inst. Pac. St., Life in Towns.
WEEK 11: OCT 9
Plural Society - Is Fiji a good example?
Fiji and its role in the Pacific community.
Norton, Robert (1977), Race and Politics in Fiji. Univ. Queensland.
Milne, R.S. (1978), "The Pacific Way." Pacific Affairs 48(3):413-4
Mamak & Bedford (1978), "Race, Class & Ethnicity," in Pub de la Oceanistes No.39.
Walsh, C. (1976), "The ethnic variable in Fiji urbanisation," in Kosinski & Webb, Pop. at Microscale.
TONGA: TUTORIAL READINGS
|Urbanowicz, Charles||1991||Tonga, in Encyclopedia of World Cultures. New Haven: HRAC.|
|Kolo, F.||1990||In Herda, P. et al, Historiography the Myth of Indigenous Authenticity, Tongan Culture and History, Dept of Pacific and SE Asian History, ANU, pp 1-11.|
|Maywald, B.||1990||Chap. 11, in Herda, P. et al, Women of the Lotu, In Tongan Culture and History, Det. of Pacific and SE Asian History, ANU, pp 111-133.|
|Maude, A. & Sevele||1987||Equality overtaking privilege, in Crocombe. R. (ed.) Land Tenure in the Pacific. USP.|
|Maesulia, Alfred||1991||Tongan agriculture, IRETA. So.Pacific Agricultural News.|
|*Tupouniua, P.||1977||A Polynesian Village, Chap. 3 Tonga Development Plan.|
|*Kaeppler, Adrienne||1971||Rank in Tonga, Ethnologv 10:174-193.|
|James, K.E.||1990||Chap.8. Gender relations in Tonga, in Herda, P. et al, Tongan Culture andHistorv. Dept of Pacific & S.E. Asian History, ANU., pp.93- 100.|
|*Biersack, Aletta||Tongan exchange structures, JPS 91(2):1181-212.|
|*Kaeppler, Adrienne||1978||Tongan funerals in a changing society, in Trade and Exchange in Oceania.|
|Afeaki, Emiliana||1983||Tonga, the last Pacific Kingdom, in Meleisea, M. (ed.), Polynesia. Inst.Pac. Studies, pp.56-78.|
|*Needs, Andrew||1988||N.Z. aid and the development of class in Tonga. Massey: Dept of Sociology.|
|Finau, Bishop||1991||One day our children will laugh at how foolish we are, in Matangi Tonga.,|
|Cowling, W.||1990||Chap. 15. Motivations for contemporary Tongan migration, in Herda, Terrell & Gunson (eds), Tongan Culture and History. ANU, RsPacS., pp.187-205.|
|Kavaliku, Langi||1977||'Ofa! The Treasure of Tonga, in Pacific Perspective 6(2): 47-67.|
*Recommended text not in Course Notes
Cook Islands: Tutorial Readings
Week 1: Background: Population size, island differences, main centres geographic features + map
Ron Crocombe & M.T. Crocombe, Cook Islands. In Encvclopaedia of World Cultures., Terence E. Hayes ed., Vol.2: Oceania. Boston, G.K. Hall, 1991, pp.40-42.
Week 2: Prehistory, History and Cosmology
Reilly, Michael, In the Beginning was the Word. In The Journal of Pacific History 28(1):3-14 - for Mangaia, 1993.
Week 3: Missions
Crocombe, M. Maretu's Life. In Cannibals and Converts. Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies [NB no copyright on this material], 1983, pp
Week 4: Economy
The Cook Islands. In South Pacific Agriculture: Choices and Constraints. In R.G.Ward and A. Proctor eds, Asian Development Bank, Canberra, 1980, pp. 369-380,
Week 5: Land rights
Crocombe, Ron. The Cook Islands: fragmentation and emigration. In Land Tenure in the Pacific (no editor). University of the South Pacific, Suva, 1987, pp. 59-73.
Browne, Tina. Traditional Rights and Customary Usage in the Cook Islands. In Land Issues in the Pacific, Institute of Pacific Studies, Suva 1994, pp 205 -211.
Week 6 Social Organization
Siikala, Jukka Chiefs, Gender and Hierarchy in Ngaputoru. In Culture and Historv in the Pacific, J. Siikala ed., The Finnish Anthropological Society, Helsinki, 1 990, pp . 1 07 - 1 24 .
Week 7: Leadership
Sissons, Jeff. The Place of Chiefs in Cook Island Politics. In The Contemporarv Pacific 6(2):371-396, 1994.
*Davis, T. et al. editors Cook Island Politics. The Polynesian Press, 1979.
Week 8: Migration
Loomis, T. Cook Island Remittances. In Migration. Pacific Research. Monograph No. 24, pp.61-81. Canberra: Australian National University.
Week 9: Urbanisation
Vini, Nihi Outer Islanders on Rarotonga. In In Search of a Home, (no editor). Institute of Pacific Studies, Suva, 1987, pp.103-109.
Batchelor, John Squatters on Rarotonga. In In Search of a Home. (no editor) Institute of Pacific Studies, Suva, 1987, pp.230-23s.
Week 10: Tourism and Education
Wong, Chris - Tourism in the Cook Islands, Paper for ES CAP seminar, Suva, 1986.
Week 11: Post-Colonial directions
Short, Iaveta, The Cook Islands, Autonomy, Self Government and Independence. In Class and Culture in the South Pacific. A. Hooper et al., eds, University of the South Pacific, Auckland, 1987, pp. 176-185.
Ingram, Pam Takiora. The Culture of Politics and the Politicization of Culture in the Cook Islands. in Culture and Democracv in the South Pacific, (no editor), Institute of Pacific Studies, Suva [no royalties], 1992, pp.153-170.
*Alternative text/not in Course Notes.
SAMOA: TUTORIAL READINGS
O'Meara, Tim Samoan Planters: Tradition and Economic Development in Polynesia, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1989.
WEEK 1: JUL 17
The islands, geography, population size, resources and natural hazards.
What are the main indigenous resources; what are the main cash crops?
WEEK 2: JUL 24
What impact did Europeans have on Samoans?
See: A Contest of Powers, O'Meara, Chapter 1
See also: Lagaga, Chapter 3 by Malama Meleisea
WEEK 3: JUL 31
What were the aims of the missionaries? What did they achieve through lotu?
See: O'Meara pp 42-55.
See also: Lagaga, Chapter 4 by Malama Meleisea
WEEK 4: AUG 7
How is land used in rural Samoa? Who controls use?
See: O'Meara Chapter 2
WEEK 5: AUG l4
What were men's work tasks and women's work tasks in the village?
See: O'Meara Chap. 4
WEEK 6: SEPT 4
What responsibilities are shared in the 'aiga'? What are the responsibilities of the father, the mother, brother and sister?
See: O'Meara Chap. 4
WEEK 7: SEPT 11
What role does the Matai play -- in the village? -- in 'Apia? And overseas?
See: O'Meara Chap. 5
WEEK 8: SEPT 18
How did the economy change after Independence? What are the sources of cash?
See: O'Meara Chap. 6
WEEK 9: SEPT 25
How important are remittances to families in villages? Who in New Zealand sends remittances and on what occasions?
See: O'Meara Chap. 7 See also: Pitt and Macpherson's Emerging Pluralism
WEEK 10: OCT 2
What are the main elements of Fa'asamoa? How has this concept changed over time? Who commends correct observance of fa'asamoa?
See: Ngan-Woo, Feleti's Fa'asamoa - The World of Samoans, Office of the Race Relations Conciliator (1985)
WEEK 11: OCT 9
What are the relations between Western Samoa and between W. Samoa and other Pacific countries?
What are the terms under which Samoans can migrate to New Zealand, as visitors, and as permanent residents?
[Subject: Anthropology; Pacific/Comparative; Polynesia]
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