Topics in Contemporary Pacific Art
Department of Art History
University of Auckland
Kia ora koutou, Talofa lava, Malo e lelei, Ni sa bula,
Aloha, Kia orana, Fakaalofa lahi atu, Greetings.
This course focuses predominantly on contemporary art practice in the Pacific. It traces developments from traditionally based art forms, as well as the role and impact of new technologies and materials.
The course provides an introduction to post-colonial theory and non-western feminisms. Issues such as the role and agency of museums and appropriation will also be discussed.
Course work Requirements:
It is worth noting that in most instances
students gain higher marks in course work than in examination.
Topics in Contemporary Pacific Art
There are two lectures per week: Tuesday 4-5 PM, Friday 4-5 PM
Tutorial times: Tuesday 11 - 12 pm, Friday 2-3 pm
• Film and Video: Focus on Lisa Reihana
Please note that there are no tutorials in the first week of semester.
Tutorials are held weekly and all students are encouraged to attend. The programme is a course of study designed to be complementary to the lecture programme and of equal importance. It allows students to discuss the material and ideas presented in lectures. Students are encouraged to treat the tutorials as a forum for discussing any problems they encounter in their reading and research.
• Emic and Etic Perspectives: Ways of Looking, Reading and Writing About Pacific Art
MID SEMESTER BREAK
Assessment for 114.317 during the semester is on the basis of two essays valued at 25% each. Your final mark consists of course work 50% and exam 50%, through if the examination percentage is higher than the course work 50%, exam 50%, the final grade will be the examination percentage.
Essay One: August 21
Essay Two: October 9
Mark Value: 25% each
Word Length: Essays should be 2,000 words minimum, 2,500 words maximum
Caroline's Office Hours:
Topics for Essay One
Choose one of the following:
1. A number of artists of Pacific descent produce works which reflect both traditional and contemporary aspects of their cultural experience. Focusing on no more than two artists, discuss how their works function within a continuum context. Clearly define the notion of continuum in your discussion.
2. "Cultural identity and values are politically and historically charged issues for peoples ... whose access to exercising political power and controlling their symbolic representations has been limited within a mainstream culture."
Coco Fusco. English is Broken Here: Notes on the Cultural Fusion in the Americas. New York: The New Press, 1995. p 27.
Discuss this quote in relation to no more than two artists whose work reflects a political agenda.
3. "Landscape may be represented by painting, drawing, or engraving; by photography, film, and theatrical scenery; by writing, speech, and presumably even music and other 'sound images.' Before all these secondary representations, however, landscape is itself a physical and multi sensory medium ... in which cultural meanings and values are encoded".
W J T Michell, ed. Landscape as Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994, p 14.
Discuss the ways in which no more than two Pacific artists represent the land or landscape.
4. "Representations of Pacific Islanders from the 18th century to the
1980s became the domain of Europeans. whose views of the Pacific and its
inhabitants were ethnocentric at best and racist at worst".
Many Pacific artists today use strategies such as parody and ironic wit to re-work negatives cultural stereotypes in order to highlight their implications and raise issues. Focusing on no more than two Pacific artists, discuss how their works reflects this interest.
5. "The constructions of race and gender within negative contexts are two sides of the same coin that Maori women deal with on a daily basis. Clearly the historical construction of what counts as difference has served, in terms of both race and gender ideologies, to place Maori women on the margins."
Patricia Johnson and Leonie Pihama. "What Counts as Difference and What Differences Count: Gender, Race and the Politics of Difference." In Toi Wahine: Worlds of Maori Women. Irwin, Kathie and Irihapeti Ramsden, eds. Auckland: Penguin, 1995, p 82.
Focusing on the work of no more than two Pacific artists, discuss the ways in which they deal with gender issues
5. "Almost nothing displayed in museums was made to be seen in them. Museums provide an experience of most of the world's art and artifacts that does not bear even the remotest resemblance to what their makers intended."
Susan Vogel. "Always True to the Object, in Our Fashion" in Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display. Ivan Karp and Steven D. Lavine, eds Washington: Smithsonian Institution. 1991, p191.
Focusing on a particular exhibition or museum display
featuring Pacific art, discuss the institution of the museum or art gallery,
as well as the role of curator, as a "way of looking". Illustrate your
ideas by focusing on specific examples. You may wish to focus on an exhibition
which sought to re-work conventional museums strategies.
Topics for Essay Two
1. "Making a film is as risky as it is exciting. When you put something up before the public they do not have to go and see it, and they do not have to like it if they do see it. Films offer us life from someone else's perspective and invite us to share the dreams, hopes and visions of others. The majority audience may turn down the invitation, but for the Maori and indigenous people around the world who have their spirituality continuously under attack, sharing the dreams and visions of the others is an experience beyond they self. The value of that should not be underestimated."
Merata Mita. "The Soul and the Image" in Film in Aotearoa New Zealand. Jonathan Dennis and Jan Bieringa. eds. Wellington: University of Victoria Press, 1996, p 53.
Discuss particular issues or ideas explored in no more than two works produced by Pacific video or film makers.
2. "For centuries Western civilisation not only occupied the summit [of the pyramid], but also formed its own crust all around this pyramid; the rationality of the Enlightenment turning the whole thing into a white monolith. But as this rationality began to falter by the end of the nineteenth century and there appeared cracks in the monolith, it seems that other cultures poured out of its repressed interior, its unconscious
Susan Hiller. ed. The Myth of Primitivism. New York: Routledge. 1991, p 180.
Using the above quote as a starting point, discuss the western notion of primitivism in relation to its implications regarding Pacific art forms. Develop you ideas around specific examples of works.
3. "Self-determination for Pacific Island women is expressed within the parameters of colonialism, as part of the broader economic and political context of their unique island histories. Thus what Pacific Island women contribute to their particular struggle or independence depends primarily on their cultural heritage and their colonial histories rather than on feminist movements in the colonial nations."
Haunani-Kay Trask. "Pacific Island Women and White Feminism" in From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaii. Maine: Common Courage Press, 1993, p 276.
Discuss a range of Pacific writers and artists whose work reflects a dissatisfaction with western notions of feminism.
4. "What is theoretically innovative, and politically crucial, is the need to think beyond narratives of originary and initial subjectivities and to focus on these moments or processes that are produced in the articulation of cultural differences. These in-between' spaces provide the terrain for elaborating strategies of selfhood- singular or communal - that initiate new signs of identity, and innovative sites of collaborations, and contestation, in the act of defining the idea of society itself."
Homi Bhabha. Introduction: Locations of Culture" in The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994, p 1.
Discuss this quote in relation to the work of no more than two
GUIDE TO ESSAY WRITING
It will be worth your while to take essays seriously. Past experience has shown that few students do better in exams than in their course work. Many who fail the former are pulled through by the latter. Besides, essays are valuable preparation for exams. You are not barred from answering questions in exams on subjects you have chosen for your essays.
Good essays are not written in a day - Allow plenty of time.
Appropriate reading may occupy you for a number of weeks. The writing stage should not be left until the night before the essay is due.
Dictionaries and encyclopaedias of art can be a useful starting place. the main points to do with a subject or artist will be brought together succinctly there. General books of art history give a useful padding out of these main points. But you should not limit your reading to this sort of material. More specialised books and articles will be important too, both for the additional material they offer, and for the diversity of opinions. No one critic can be regarded as an unchallenged authority. Use the bibliography in your booklet or consult your tutor or the Fine Arts Library staff.
With a range of viewpoints and examples thus at your disposal you should also look for yourselves at as many good reproductions of relevant art works as possible. Where critics disagree, you will be in a position to present (with documentation) all cases and perhaps come to some conclusions of your own. Be careful of this however. It is not acceptable to present an essay full of your own opinions if you neither show adequate knowledge of the writings of the art historians, nor support your opinions by reasoned and documented argument. But, using critics' methods as a guide, you may very readily expand upon their findings.
When note-taking keep a note of the book and page number from which ideas were taken. Then if you wish to refer to a specific point of contentious issue you will know later on where to refind it if you wish to; and will be able to footnote accurately (see below for footnoting procedure). Do not take too many notes. Condense material as you go along. This will help you avoid plagiarism. If an important point is particularly well expressed in a book you are free to quote verbatim provided you indicate your source in your footnotes.
Consider the question carefully. Spend time working out what the question is driving at, what sort of issues are going to be most important. Do not waste time on irrelevancies. A life of the artist is not required as an introduction to the essay unless certain events are felt to have had direct bearing upon the issue central to the essay. It is assumed that you will have familiarised yourselves with such background material. Marks are likely to be lost for irrelevant padding of this nature. Some contemporary, social and political history may illuminate the topic significantly. Include it, but again only if relevant.
Spend some time organising your argument. Bring related material together. Jumping about from point to point, returning to something dealt with two pages back simply betrays inadequate organisation. If you are dealing with a group of works it may be best not to deal with each work exhaustively in succession but to approach rather from the point of view of a sequence of issues: composition, colour, iconography, etc. In this way you will of course skip about from picture to picture but the essay will be held together by a succession of ideas. Do not spend time describing a work unless by doing so you are furthering the argument of your essay.
Even if an essay is chiefly about one painting or one artist, don't be afraid to refer to other paintings of artist's work if you feel that such reference is illuminating. It is often by way of these comparisons and contrast that the salient features of a work of art are most easily recognised. Keep such comparisons brief and to the point.
A good essay will have an introduction where the main direction of the argument is outlined, perhaps along with certain general points which would be lost in the more detailed analysis which is to follow.
Take note of the required word length. You do not have to abide by this exactly. But something that is drastically short will indicate too little reading and thought, or too narrow an interpretation of the subject. Too long an essay will probably be verbose or
When finally writing up the essay, do a rough draft first. Be prepared to re-write, and reshuffle your material if your argument does not flow coherently. Use a dictionary. Check your completed essay for mistakes
CONTEMPORARY PACIFIC ARTISTS
Brown, G.H. 'Matt Pine', Art New Zealand, No. 19, Art Magazine Press 1981
Brown, G.H. 'Ralph Hotere', Art New Zealand No. 34, 1985, pp. 28-31
Brown, Amy. 'Maori Art Today', Art New Zealand, No. 45, 1987, pp. 52-55
Dept of Maori Affairs, 'Muru Walters', Te Ao Hou No. 35, Department of Maori Affairs, Wellington, 1961, pp. 28-29
Dunn, Michael. 'Maidment Muses', Art New Zealand No. 52, 1989, pp. 52-53
Harrison, P Tane-Nui-a-Rangi, University of Auckland, 1988
Herrington, Paki. 'Te Ao Marama - a Festival of Maori Art', Tu Tangata Issue 7, Dept of Maori Affairs, 1982, pp. 21-23
Herrington, Paki. 'Maori art at Forum North', Tu Tangata 15, 1984, pp. 16-17
Herrington, Paki. 'Huakina: an artist's project by Para Matchitt', Tu Tangata 32, 1984, pp. 59
Herrington Paki. 'Para Matchitt', Tu Tangata 6, 1982, pp. 22
Herrington, Paki. 'Sculpture and Painting by Cliff Whiting', Te Ao Hou No. 54, 1966, pp. 25
Herrington, Paki. 'the Sculpture of Arnold Wilson', Te Ao Hou No. 52, 1965, pp. 32-33
Ihimaera, Witi. Conference at Te Kaha, exhibition catalogue, Gisborne Museum & Arts Centre, 1977. pp. 22-24
Ihimaera, Witi. 'Karaka', Art New Zealand, No. 60, 1991, pp. 78-81, 109
Ihimaera, Witi. 'New Zealand's "other" landscape', Exhibition Catalogue Gisborne Museum, p.4-6
Jahnke, Robert. 'Kohia ko Taikaka Anake', Craft New Zealand 36, Crafts Council of New Zealand, Wellington, 1991, pp. 32-35
Leonard, Robert. 'Against Purity: Three Word Sculptures by Michael Parekowhai', Art New Zealand, No. 59, 1991
Leech, Peter. 'Style and Change: Ralph Hotere', Art New Zealand, 1983, pp. 19
MacAskill, Jeanne. 'Te Ao Marama, Seven Maori Artists', Art New Zealand, No. 38, 1986, pp. 35-37
McLaughlin, Anne. 'Art is part and parcel of his life style - Cliff Whiting', Te Maori Vol. 6. No. 6, New Zealand Maori Council, 1974, pp. 24-25
Mallon, Sean and Pandora Fulimalo Pereira Speaking In Colour: Conversations with Artists of Pacific Island Heritage. Wellington: Te Papa Press, 1997.
Mane-Wheoki, Jonathan. 'Notes towards a History of Contemporary Maori Art', in an Exhibition Catalogue Three Contemporary Maori Artists, Christchurch City Council, Christchurch 1990
Mataira, K. Maori Artists of the South Pacific, New Zealand Maori Artists and Writers, Raglan, 1984
Matchitt, Maia. Director Kohia ko Taikaka anake, video, 25 minutes, Matchitt Productions for National Art Gallery and Te Waka Toi, Wellington, 1991
Kernot, B. 'The Meeting House in Contemporary New Zealand', S. Mead and B. Kernot, eds. Art and Artists of Oceania, Dunmore Press 1983, pp. 181-97
Menehira, Hazel. 'Para Matchitt: Art is a Community Affair', Te Maori, Vol 6, No. 6, New Zealand Maori Council, 1974, pp. 17-19
New Zealand Council. 'Arnold Wilson - Artist and Sculptor' Te Maori Vol. 6 No. 6, New Zealand Maori Council, Wellington, 1974, pp. 33
New Zealand Maori Council, 'Te Whiti o Rongomai', Te Maori Vol. 1 No. 4, 1970, pp. 8-10
Nicholas, D. and Kaa, K. Interviewers: Seven Maori Artists. Government Printer, Wellington, 1986
Nicholas, Darcy. 'John Bevan Ford: Weaver of Lines, History and Genealogy', Art New Zealand 49, pp. 51-53, 1988
Panoho, Rangihiroa. 'Developments in Maori Art: Paratene Matchitt', MA thesis, University of Auckland, 1988
Panoho, Rangihiroa. 'Haongia te Taonga', Art New Zealand, No. 40, 1986, pp. 31-33
Panoho, Rangihiroa. 'Maori: At the Centre, on the Margins', Headlands: Thinking Through New Zealand Art, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney 1992, pp. 147-159.
Panoho, Rangihiroa. 'Paratene Matchitt: The Principle of Change in Maori Art', Art New Zealand No. 45, 1987, pp. 63-67
Panoho, Rangihiroa. Whatu Aho Rua: a weaving together of traditional and contemporary taonga, Sarjeant Gallery, Wellington, 1992
Paul, Janet. 'Baby Iron', Art New Zealand, No. 29, 1983, pp. 22-23
Pitts, Priscilla. 'Karanga. Karanga', Art New Zealand, No. 40, 1986, pp. 28-29
Pound, Francis. 'Jacqueline Fraser', Distance Looks Our Way, Sargeant Gallery, Wanganui, 1992, pp. 47-54
Ramsden, Irihapeti. 'Robyn Kahukiwa and Diane Prince: After Mana Tiriti', Art New Zealand, No. 59, pp. 72-75
Ritchie, Jim. 'Windows on a Maori World', Art New Zealand, No. 45, pp. 67-69
Ritchie, Jim. 'Kura Rewiri-Thorsen talks to Art New Zealand', Art New Zealand, No. 45, 1987, pp. 56-59
Rowe, Neil. 'Robin Kahukiwa', Art New Zealand No. 45, pp. 60-62
Schulz, Derek. 'Matt Pine', Art New Zealand, No. 41, pp. 37-9
Sutheran, heryll. 'Shona Rapira Davies at the Govett-Brewster', Art New Zealand, No. 45, pp. 45-47
Tarrant, Jocelyn. 'Selwyn Wilson: Artist and Teacher', Te Ao Hou No. 40, Department of Maori Affairs, Wellington, pp. 15-16
Taylor, Apirana & Burke, Rod. 'Kohia ko Taikaka Anake at the National Gallery' in Art New Zealand No. 58, 1991, pp. 58-63
Te Ao, Ngapine, Tamihana. 'The Gallery at its Limits: Whatu Aho Rua and Te Ao Maori at the Sargent Gallery', Art New Zealand, No. 52, pp. 56-61
Thomas, Nicholas. The Dream of Joseph: Practices of Identity in Pacific Art" in The Contemporary Pacific, Fall 1996. University of Hawaii Press.
Thomas, Nicholas. "From Exhibit to Exhibitionalism: Recent Polynesian Presentations of 'Otherness'" in The Contemporary Pacific, Volume 8, Number 2, Fall 1996. University of Hawaii Press.
Thompson, ed. Aboriginal Voices: Contemporary Aboriginal Artists, Writers and Performers. Australia: Simon Schuster, 1990
Vincent, Rosemary. 'Selwyn Muru's Paintings win wide acclaim', Te Ao Hou No. 46, 1964. Dept of Maori Affairs Wellington
Westra, Ans. 'Para Matchitt: Painter Sculptor', Te Ao Hou No. 45, Dept of Maori Affairs, pp. 26-28
Wilton, Louise. 'Ralph Hotere at the Dunedin Public
Art Gallery', Art New Zealand, No. 35, 198 5. p.24
Art Press. Felix Gonzalez-Torres, 1993
Auckland City Art Gallery, Aspects of Recent New Zealand Art, Sculpture 2, Taiarotia 1994
Corrin, Lisa G. Mining the Museum: An Installation by Fred Wilson. New York: The New Press, 1994.
Dunedin Public Art Gallery. Ralph Hotere: a survey ]963-]973
Govett Brewster Gallery, New Plymouth. Nga Taonga a 0 Tatou Kuia, 1987. Treasures and contemporary works with illustrations
Florida State University Gallery and Museum. Dispossessed Installations, 1992.
Jacob, Mary Jane. Culture in Action: Sculpture Chicago. Seattle: Bay Press, 1995.
McDougall Art Gallery, South Island Rock Pillars, 1989
Manawatu Art Gallery. John Be van Ford, 1986 Albert McCarthy, 1989
He Pini, (John Bevan Ford), 1989
MIT List Visual Arts Center, Corporal Politics, 1993
Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney. Tyerabarrbowaryaou II: J Shall Never Become A White Man, 1994
Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney. Art Taiwan: The Contemporary Art of Taiwan. 1995
National Art Gallery, Wellington. Huakina (Para Matchitt), 1986 Taki Toru (Three Maori Artists), 1988
National Gallery of Australia. Roads Cross: The Paintings of Rover Thomas, 1994
National Museum, Wellington.
Taonga Maori (Treasures of the New Zealand Maori People), 1989
Kohia Ko Taikaka Anake, 1993
Pu Manawa, 1993
Queensland Art Gallery. The Second Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art,
Contemporary Work by Maori Artists from Public Collections (List works held), 1985
Te Ao Marama, 1985
Matt Pine: Selected Works, ]965-]985, 1986
Culture and Response: Two Views, 1988
Whatu Aho Rua, 1989
Solomon-Godeau Abigail. Mistaken Identities. Santa Barbara: University Art Museum 1999
The Asia Society Galleries, New York. Asia/America: Identities in Contemporary Asian American Art. 1994
Venice Bienalle, 1990. Australian Artists: Rover Thomas - Trevor Nickolls
Waikato Art Gallery Bulletin,
Ralph Hotere, 1973
Contemporary Moon Art, 1976
Wellington City Art Gallery.
Te Ao 0 te Wahine Maori, 1986
Karanga Karanga. 1986
Whitney Museum of American Art. Black Male: Representations
of Masculinity in Contemporary American Art, 1994
Barrow, Terence. Art and Life in Polynesia, AH. and A.W. Reed, Wellington, 1972
Bellwood. Peter. The Polynesians: Prehistory of an Island People, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1978
Beran, Harry. Betel-Chewing Equipment of East
New Guinea. Great Britain: Shire Ethnology, 1988.
Buck, Peter. 'Arts and Crafts of Hawaii', Bishop Museum Bulletin, No. 45, Honolulu 1964
Buck, Peter. 'Samoan Material Culture', Bishop Museum Bulletin, No. 75, Honolulu 1930
Caruana, Wally. Aboriginal Art, Australia: Thames and Hudson, 1993
Cochrane-Simons, Susan (ed)., Stevenson Hugh. Luk luk Gen! Look Again Perc Tucker, Regional Gallery, Sydney 1990
Craig, Barry. Art and Decoration of Central New Guinea. Great Britain, Shire Ethnography, 1988.
Davidson, Jane. Traditional Arts of Pacific Island Women, Museum of New Zealand, 1993
Dark, P. J. C. Developments of the Arts in the Pacific, Pacific Arts Association, 1984
Dark, P. J. C. and Rose, R. G, (ed). Artistic Heritage in a Changing Pacific, University of Hawaii Press, 1993
Emory, K.P. Origin of the Hawaiians, J.P.S. 68 29 35, 1959
Hammond. Joyce. Tifaifai and Quilts of Polynesia, University of Hawaii Press, 1986.
Hanson, Allan and Louise (ed). Art and Identity in Oceania, University of Hawaii Press, 1990
Hardy Jane. Megaw, J. V.S, and Megaw, M. Ruth, (ed). The Heritage of Namatjira. The Watercolourists of Central Australia, Australia: William Heinemann, 1999
Hereniko, Patricia. Pacific Artists, University of South Pacific, Suva 1986
Jennings, J.D. (ed). The Prehistory of Polynesia. Harvard University Press, 1976
Jonassen, Jon. Cook Island Drums. Cook Islands: Ministry of Cultural Development, 1991.
Kaeppler, Adrienne. Artificial Curiosities: An Exposition of Native Manufactures, Bishop Museum Press, 1978
Kaeppler, Adrienne. Poetry in Motion: Studies of Tongan Dance. Tonga: Vava'u Press, 1993.
Kirch, P. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks, University of Hawaii Press, 1985
Kirch, P. 'Lapitoid Settlements of Futuna and Alofi Western Polynesia', Archaeology in Oceania, 1981
Kooijman, Simon. 'Tapa in Polynesia', Bishop Museum Bulletin, No. 234, Honolulu 1972
Kooijman, Simon. Tapa in Polynesia, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press, 1972.
McLean, Mervyn. Supplement: An Annotated Bibliography of Oceanic Music and Dance. Auckland, The Polynesian Society (Inc), 1981.
Mead, Sidney (ed). Exploring the Visual Art of Oceania, University of Hawaii Press 1979
Mead, Sidney M. and Kernot, Bernie, (ed). Art and Artists of Oceania, The Dunmore Press, 1983
Mead, Birks, Shaw. 'The Lapita Style of Fiji and its Associations', Memoir Supplement JPS 82 (3, 4)
Moore, Albert C. Arts in the Religions of the Pacific: Symbols of Life, London: Pinter Publishers, 1995
Panoho, Rangi. Te Moemoea No lotefa, Sargeant Gallery, Wanganui 1990
Pritchard, Mary J. 'Siapo', American Samoa Council on Culture 1984
Pule, John. The Shark that Ate the Sun, Penguin, 1992
Skinner, Henry Devenish. Comparatively Speaking: Studies in Pacific Material Culture, University of Otago Press,, pp. 27-44
Spriggs, M. 'The Lapita Cultural Complex: Origins, Distribution, Contemporaries and Successors', Journal of Pacific History 19, 1984, pp. 202-23
Stagner, Ishmael. Hula! Hawaii: Institute for Polynesian Studies, 1985.
St. Cartmail, Keith. The Art of Tonga: Ko E Ngaahi'aati'o Tonga. Nelson: Craig Potton Publishers, 1997.
Tausie (Hereniko) Vilsoni. Art in the New Pacific, Institute of Pacific Studies, 1979
Thomas, Nicholas. Entangled Objects, Harvard University Press, 1991
Thomas, Nicholas. Oceanic Art. Thames and Hudson, London, 1995.
Trask, Haunani-Kay. From a Native Daughter: Colonialism
and Sovereignty in Hawaii , Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1993
Archey, Gilbert. 'Evolution of Certain Maori Carving Patterns', Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 42, 1993, pp. 171-90
Archey, Gilbert. 'Maori Carving Patterns', Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 45, 1936, pp. 49-62
Archey, Gilbert. Whaowhia: Moon Art and Its Artists, Collins, Auckland, 1977
Te Awekohuku, Ngahuia. Mana Wahine Maori, New Women's Press, 1991
Art and Life in Polynesia, Wellington, Reed, pp. 162-73
Maori Art of New Zealand, Wellington, Reed, 1972, pp. 71-84
An Illustrated Guide to Maori Art, Methuen, Auckland, 1984, pp. 78-98
Bett, Elva. 'Maoritanga', New Zealand Art, A Modern Perspective, 1986, pp. 168-85
Binney, J.. Chaplin, G.. Wallace, C. Mihaia: The Prophet Rua Kenana & His Community at Maunga Pohatu, Oxford University Press, Wellington, 1979
Birdling, Bruce. 'Emily Pace', Art New Zealand, 26, 1983. pp. 38-39
Buck, P. The Coming of the Maori, Whitcombe and Tombs, Christchurch, 1966
Cape, Peter. 'The Maori', New Zealand Painting Since ]960, Collins, 1979, pp. 88-92, 177-88
Colenso, W. 'On Maori Races of New Zealand', Trans. Proc. New Zealand Institute, col. 1, 1905
Cowan, James. 'The Art Craftsmanship of the Maori', Art in New Zealand, December 1929
Cowan, James. The Moons of New Zealand, Whitcombe & Tomes, Wellington, 1910
Davis, F. 'Maori Art and Artists', Education 25, 1-10, School Publications,
'What is Maori Art', Education, pp. 27-29
'Art in Pre-pakeha Times', Ibid., pp. 24-26
'The European Impact', Ibid, pp. 28-29
'The Influence of Te Kooti on Maori Art', Ibid., pp. 26-28
'The Rotorua School of Maori Arts and Crafts', Ibid.,
'Traditional Art in Today's Society', Ibid., pp. 26-28
'Bi-cultural Artists and the Modern Community', Ibid., pp. 27-29
'Maori Art Styles Become Individualised', Ibid., pp. 26-28
'Maori Statements in a European Idiom', Ibid., pp. 28-29
Department of Maori Affairs. 'Maori art taking Tasman by storm', Tu Tangata 29, Dept of Maori Affairs, 1986, pp. 54
'MASPAC' aims to rejuvenate Maori and South Pacific Arts', Tu Tangata 14, Dept of Maori Affairs, pp. 38-41
Doig, Fiona. Exc. Ed., Taonga Maori: Treasures of the New Zealand Maori People, pp. 89-99
Duff, Roger. 'Maori Art in Rock Drawing', Arts Yearbook, No. 6, 1956
Fairburn, A.R.D. 'Polynesian Cave Drawings', Home and Building, No. 6, 1949
Fox, A., 'Carved Burial Chests: A Commentary and a Catalogue', Auckland Institute
and Museum Bulletin No. 13, 1983
Gathercole, Peter. 'Changing Attitudes to the Study of Maori Carving', in Exploring
the Visual Art of Oceania, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 214-26
Harsant, Wendy. 'The Beauty of Taonga: Arts of the Maori' in From the Beginning: The Archaeology of the Maori, ed. John Wilson, Auckland, Penguin, 1987, pp. 125-39
Hamilton, Augustus. The Art and Workmanship of the Maori Race in New Zealand, Dunedin, Fergusson and Mitchell, pp. 134-63
Hamilton, A. Maori Art, The New Zealand Institute, Wellington, 1901
Hamilton, H. 'The Maori as an Artist', Art in New Zealand, December 1929
Makereti. The Old Time Moon, New Women's Press,
McEwan, J. 'Maori Art', A.H. McLintock, ed. An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand Vol. 11. Government Printer, Wellington, 1966, pp. 408-29
MacLean, Christopher. 'Te Kooti Houses', Historic Buildings of New Zealand: North Island, New Zealand Historic Places Trust, Wellington, 1979, pp. 168-i 75
Mead, S. (ed), Te Maori: Maori Art from New Zealand Collections, Heinemann, Auckland, 1984
Mead, S. Te Toi Whakairo, The Art of Maori Carving, Reed Methuen, Auckland, 1986
Mead, S. 'Maori: sharing a Taonga', in Welcome to Our World, New Zealand 1990 Commission, 1990
Mead, Dr S.M. 'Rotorua Arts Institute under fire - Tourist Zoo', Te Maori, December/January. New Zealand Maori Council, Wellington, pp. 15-16
Mead, S. The Art of Taniko Weaving, Reed,
Neich, Roger. 'Historical Change in Rotorua and Ngati Tarawhai Woodcarving Art', M.A. thesis, Victoria University, Wellington, 1977
Neich, Roger. 'The Veil of Orthodoxy: Rotorua Ngati Tarawhai Woodcarving in a Changing Context'. S. Mead and B. Kernot, eds, Art and Artists of Oceania. Dunmore Press, Palmerston North, 1983, pp. 245-65
Neich, Roger. 'The Maori Carving Art of Tene Waitere, Traditionalist and Innovator', Art New Zealand 57, pp. 73-79
Neich, Roger. 'Early Maori Figurative Painting', Art New Zealand, 45, 1987, pp. 70-74
Neich, Roger. Maori Figurative Painting, Doctoral thesis, UBI 1988
Neich, Roger. Painted Histories, Auckland University Press, Auckland, 1993
Ngata, Sir Apirana. 'The Origin of Maori Carving', Te Ao Hou, Vol.22, pp. 30-34 'The Origin of Maori Carving, Part II, Ibid., pp. 30-37
'Maori Arts and Crafts', The Maori People Today: A General Survey, ed. I.L.G. Sutherland, Wellington. The New Zealand Institute of International Affairs and the New Zealand Council for Educational Research, pp. 307-335
O'Reilly, R.N. 'Art and the Encylopaedia: 2 Maori Art', Ascent, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 1968, pp. 51-62
Pendergrast, M. Feathers and Fibre: A Survey of Traditional and Contemporary Maori Craft, Penguin, Auckland 1984
Pendergrast, M. Te Aho Tapu: The Sacred Thread, Reed Methuen, Auckland 1987
Phillips, W.J. Maori Carving Illustrated, Heinemann Reed, 1989
Phillips, W.J. 'He Koru', Art in New Zealand, Vol. 11, No.1, September 1938, pp. 35-40
Puketapu-Hetet, E. Maori Weaving, Pitman, Auckland 1989
Robley, Major General. Moko, Southern Reprints, 1987 pp. 1-19
Romanos, Michael. 'Is TE MAORI a recipe for respect',
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