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Tradition and Change in Pacific Art

114.107
Department of Art History
The University of Auckland
1999

Lecturer: Caroline Vercoe
Department of Art History
University of Auckland
Email: c.vercoe@auckland.ac.nz

Kia ora koutou, Talofa lava, Malo e lelei, Ni sa bula,

Kia orana, Fakaalofa lahi atu, Greetings.

Welcome to 114.107: Tradition and Change in Pacific Art

This course provides an introduction to a wide range of Pacific art both object and performance based, their origins, histories, interconnections and social functioning.

Topics covered in the course include tapa, tivaevae, dance, tatau and other forms of body adornment. The course seeks to position these art forms firmly within an art historical discipline. Issues such as gender divisions in Pacific art and the effects of tourism on Pacific art will also be considered.

In all living and evolving cultures, change, adaptation and experimentation are both natural and necessary.

Vilsoni Tausie writes:
"The word traditional has often been misleading and confusing. It connotes a static and fossilised art form, unchanged and unaffected, come what may, over the years. This is not true for what may be traditional today, may not necessarily be tomorrow. Societies change, and so must their arts, if they are to be meaningful, functional and express the sentiment inherent in that society. This is not a radical and complete break from the past, but rather a compatible and gradual modification to suit the new values, identities and concerns of that society."

Art in the New Pacific. Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, 1979, p viii.

'Tradition' can connote a fixed or static state, in which change is not encouraged and repetition is typical. This unfortunate reading of the traditional often works to create boundaries and barriers for Pacific artists. There exists an unfortunate gap between the traditional (as past and old) and the contemporary (as present and new). The constant classing of Pacific art forms as traditional only, discounts the innovative and creative work that has been going on within traditionally conceived art forms such as weaving, carving, dance and body adornment.

This course seeks to break with the idea of traditional as rigid and unchanging, and to embrace an approach in Pacific art practise which blends the traditional with the contemporary.

Class Sessions:
2 lectures and 1 tutorial per week.
All students are encouraged to attend tutorials regularly.

Selected Reading:
Neich, Roger and Mick Pendergrast. Pacific Tapa. Auckland: David Bateman, 1997.

Tausie, Vilsoni. Art in the New Pacific. Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, 1981.

Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia. Mana Wahine Maori: Selected Writings on Maori Women's Art. Culture and Politics. Auckland: New Women's Press, 1991.

Thomas, Nicholas. Oceanic Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1995.

Trask, Haunani-Kay. From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaii. Maine: Common Courage Press, 1992.

Journals:
Art in Asia Pacific.
The Contemporary Pacific: A Journal of Island Affairs
.

Tradition and Change in Pacific Art
Lecture Outline

Lecture Times:
Tuesday 2 pm
Thursday 2 pm

Week beginning:

1 March
Introduction: Notions of cultural and art historical significance
Gender divisions in Pacific art
8 March
Tapa
15 March
Weaving
Weaving. Guest speaker
22 March
Tivaevae
In the Continuum: Artists reworking Notions of the Traditional and Contemporary
29 March
Sculpture and Carving
Sculpture and Carving: focus on Aotearoa

MID SEMESTER BREAK

19 April
Sculpture and Carving: focus on Hawai'i
Sculpture and Carving: focus on Melanesia
26 April
COMPULSORY TEST
In the Continuum: Artists reworking Notions of the Traditional and Contemporary
 
3 May
In the Continuum: Focus on Melanesia
Body Adornment
10 May
Dance and Performance. Guest speaker
Body Adornment: focus on Melanesia
17 May
Tatau
Body Adornment: focus on Aotearoa. Guest lecturer: Ngarino Ellis
24 May
Tatau: focus on Samoa
Tourism and its effects and implications on Pacific art.
 
31 May
Revision

Please note that lecture topics may be subject to change.

Additional handouts and slide lists will be given out in lectures and tutorials.

Tutorial Programme

Tutorials will be held weekly and al/students are encouraged to attend.

Please note there are no tutorials in the first week of classes.

The tutorial programme is a course of study designed to be complementary to the lecture programme and of equal importance. It allows students to discuss the material and ideas presented in lectures. Students are encouraged to treat the tutorials as a forum for discussion of problems they may encounter in their readings and research.

Tutorial times:
Tuesday 3 pm
Tuesday 4 pm
Thursday 3 pm

Week beginning:

8 March:
Elam fine arts library trip
15 March:
Visit to Fale Sa. An exhibition by Ioane Ioane. Auckland Art Gallery
22 March:
Tivaevae: "My Little Art of Tivaevae" (video)
29 March:
Ways of looking at and writing about Pacific art

MID SEMESTER BREAK

19 April:
Revision: photo question preparation
26 April:
Notions of the traditional and contemporary
3 May:
Visit to Auckland Museum
l0 May:
Body adornment
17 May:
Revision - photo question preparation
24 May:
Cultural Centres
31 May:
Revision: exam preparation

Essay Questions

Assessment for 114.107 during the semester is on the basis of one test valued at 20% and one essay valued at 30%. Your final mark consists of course work 50% and exam 50%, though if the examination percentage is higher than the course work 50%, exam 50%, the final grade will be the examination percentage.

Due date: Thursday 20th May
Mark value: 30%
Word length: 1,500 words. Select one of the following questions:

1. Many writers have alluded to the problematic implications of notions of the traditional and the contemporary. Art forms produced within the Pacific often blend both traditional and contemporary references to create works within a continuum. Using specific examples to illustrate your ideas, discuss the ways in which one of the following Pacific art forms reflects this practice.

a) tapa
b) tivaevae
c) weaving
d) sculpture and/or carving

2. Adornment plays a vital role in many rituals and ceremonies within the Pacific. It can connote one's rank, ancestry and affiliation with particular groups. It also features within celebrations and times of mourning. Focusing on specific examples, discuss the importance of body adornment within the Pacific.

3. "Dancing does not involve the hands and the legs alone, rather it involves the mind, the heart and the soul. And this is the beauty of it all. The gracefulness of the hand and head movements, the skill and talent involved in the leg movements and the swaying of the hips are all visible manifestations of an artistic and creative heritage."
Vilsoni Tausie. "Creative Expression and Pacific Awareness" in Pacific Perspective. Vol 7, #12, 1987, p6.

Discuss this statement focusing on specific examples of Pacific dance.

4. Choose a particular museum display or art form produced within the Pacific, currently on exhibition in a local museum, and discuss both its cultural significance and the way that it has been displayed.

5. Are all the implications of tourism negative? Focusing on specific examples, discuss the effects of tourism on Pacific art and culture.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

RECOMMENDED READING

Neich, Roger and Mick Pendergrast. Pacific Tapa. Auckland: David Bateman, 1997.

Tausie, Vilsoni. Art in the New Pacific. Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, 1981.

Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia. Mana Wahine Maori: Selected Writings on Maori Women's Art, Culture and Politics. Auckland: New Women's Press, 1991.

Thomas, Nicholas. Oceanic Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1995.

Trask, Haunani-Kay. From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaii. Maine: Common Courage Press, 1992.

RECOMMENDED JOURNALS

Art in AsiaPacific
The Contemporary Pacific: A Journal of Island Affairs.
Pacific Perspectives

GENERAL PACIFIC

Barrow, Terence. Art and Life in Polynesia, A.H. and A.W. Reed, Wellington, 1972

Bellwood, Peter. The Polynesians: Prehistory of an Island People, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1978

Beran, Harry. Betel-Chewing Equipment of East New Guinea. Great Britain: Shire Ethnology. 1988.

Brake, Brian, James McNeish and David Simmons. Art of the Pacific, OUP, 1979

Buck, Peter. 'Arts and Crafts of Hawaii', Bishop Museum Bulletin, No. 45,Honolulu 1964

Buck, Peter. 'Samoan Material Culture', Bishop Museum Bulletin, No. 75, Honolulu 1930

Caruana, Wally. Aboriginal Art, Australia: Thames and Hudson, 1993

Cochrane-Simons, Susan (ed)., Stevenson Hugh. Luk luk Gen! Look Again Perc Tucker, Regional Gallery, Sydney 1990

Craig, Barry. Art and Decoration of Central New Guinea. Great Britain, Shire Ethnography, 1988.

D'Alleva, Anne. Art of the Pacific. London: Everyman Art Library, 1998.

Davidson, Jane. Traditional Arts of Pacific Island Women, Museum of New Zealand, 1993

Dark, P. J. C. Development of the Arts in the Pacific, Pacific Arts Association, 1984

Dark P. J. C. and Rose, R. G, (ed). Artistic Heritage in a Changing Pacific, University of Hawaii Press, 1993

Emory, K.P. Origin of the Hawaiians, J.P.S. 68 29 35, 1959

Hammond, Joyce. Tifaifai and Quilts of Polynesia, University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

Hanson, Allan and Louise (ed). Art and Identity in Oceania, University of Hawaii Press, 1990

Hardy, Jane, Megaw, J. V.S, and Megaw, M. Ruth, (ed). The Heritage of Namatjira. The Watercolourists of Central Australia, Australia: William Heinemann, 1992

Hereniko, Patricia. Pacific Artists, University of South Pacific, Suva 1986

Jennings, J.D. (ed). The Prehistory of Polynesia. Harvard University Press, 1976

Jonassen, Jon. Cook Islands Drums. Cook Islands: Ministry of Cultural Development, 1991.

Kaeppler, Adrienne. Artificial Curiosities: An Exposition of Native Manufactures, Bishop Museum Press, 1978

Kaeppler, Adrienne. Poetry in Motion: Studies of Tongan Dance. Tonga: Vava'u Press, 1993.

Kirch, P. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks, University of Hawaii Press, 1985

Kirch, P. 'Lapitoid Settlements of Futuna and Alofi Western Polynesia', Archaeology in Oceania, 1981

Kooijman, Simon. 'Tapa in Polynesia', Bishop Museum Bulletin, No. 234, Honolulu 1972

Kooijman, Simon. Tapa in Polynesia, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press, 1972.

McLean, Mervyn. Supplement: An Annotated Bibliography of Oceanic Music and Dance. Auckland, The Polynesian Society (Inc), 1981.

Mead, Sidney (ed). Exploring the Visual Art of Oceania, University of Hawaii Press 1979

Mead, Sidney M. and Kernot, Bernie, (ed). Art and Artists of Oceania, The Dunmore Press, 198$

Mead, Birks, Shaw. 'The Lapita Style of Fiji and its Associations', Memoir Supplement JPS 82 (3, 4)

Moore, Albert C. Arts in the Religions of the Pacific: Symbols of Life, London: Pinter Publishers, 1995

Neich, Roger. Material Culture of Western Samoa: Persistence and Change. Wellington: National Museum of New Zealand, 1985.

Pritchard, Mary J. 'Siapo', American Samoa Council on Culture 1984

Skinner, Henry Devenish. Comparatively Speaking: Studies in Pacific Material Culture, University of Otago Press,, pp. 27-44

Spriggs, M. 'The Lapita Cultural Complex: Origins, Distribution, Contemporaries and Successors', Journal of Pacific History 19, 1984, pp. 202-23

Stagner, Ishmael. Hula! Hawaii: Institute for Polynesian Studies, 1985.

St. Cartmail, Keith. The Art of Tonga: Ko E Ngaahi'aati'o Tonga. Nelson: Craig Potton Publishers, 1997.

Tausie (Hereniko) Vilsoni. Art in the New Pacific, Institute of Pacific Studies, 1979.

Thomas, Nicholas. Entangled Objects, Harvard University Press, 1991.

Thomas, Nicholas. Oceanic Art. Thames and Hudson, London, 1995.

Trask, Haunani-Kay. From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawai'i, Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1993

GENERAL: MAORI

Archey, Gilbert. 'Evolution of Certain Maori Carving Patterns', Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 42, 1993, pp.171-90

Archey, Gilbert. 'Maori Carving Patterns', Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 45, 1936, pp. 49-62

Archey, Gilbert. Whaowhia: Maori Art and Its Artists, Collins, Auckland, 1977

Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia. Mana Wahine Maori, New Women's Press, 1991

Barrow, T. Art and Life in Polynesia, Wellington, Reed, pp. 162-73
Maori Art of New Zealand, Wellington, Reed, 1972, pp. 71-84
An Illustrated Guide to Maori Art, Methuen, Auckland, 1984, pp.78-98

Bett, Elva. 'Maoritanga', New Zealand Art, A Modern Perspective, 1986, pp. 168-85

Binney, J., Chaplin, G., Wallace, C. Mihaia: The Prophet Rua Kenana & His Community at Maunga Pohatu, Oxford University Press, Wellington, 1979

Birdling, Bruce. 'Emily Pace', Art New Zealand, 26, 1983, pp. 38-39

Buck, P. The Coming of the Maori, Whitcombe and Tombs, Christchurch, 1966

Cape, Peter. 'The Maori', New Zealand Painting Since 7960, Collins, 1979, pp.88-92, 177-88

Colenso, W. 'On Maori Races of New Zealand', Trans. Proc. New Zealand Institute, col.1, 1905

Cowan, James. 'The Art Craftsmanship of the Maori', Art in New Zealand, December 1929

Cowan, James. The Moons of New Zealand, Whitcombe & Tomes, Wellington, 1910

Davidson, Jane, ed. Maori Art and Culture. Auckland: David Bateman Press, 1996.

Davis, F. 'Maori Art and Artists', Education 25, 1-10, School Publications, Wellington, 1976

Davis, Frank. 'What is Maori Art', Education, pp. 27-29
'Art in Pre-pakeha Times', Ibid., pp. 24-26
'The European Impact', Ibid, pp. 28-29
'The Influence of Te Kooti on Maori Art', Ibid., pp. 26-28
'The Rotorua School of Maori Arts and Crafts', Ibid., pp. 28-30
'Traditional Art in Today's Society', Ibid., pp. 26-28
'Bi-cultural Artists and the Modern Community', Ibid., pp. 27-29
'Maori Art Styles Become Individualised', Ibid., pp. 26-28
'Maori Statements in a European Idiom', Ibid., pp. 28-29
Department of Maori Affairs. 'Maori art taking Tasman by storm', Tu Tangata 29, Dept of Maori Affairs, 1986, pp. 54
'MASPAC' aims to rejuvenate Maori and South Pacific Arts', Tu Tangata
14, Dept of Maori Affairs, pp. 38-41

Doig, Fiona. Exc. Ed., Taonga Maori: Treasures of the New Zealand Maori People, pp. 89-99

Duff, Roger. 'Maori Art in Rock Drawing', Arts Yearbook, No.6, 1956

Fairburn, A.R.D. 'Polynesian Cave Drawings', Home and Building, No.6, 1949

Fox, A., 'Carved Burial Chests: A Commentary and a Catalogue', Auckland Institute and Museum Bulletin No. 13, 1983

Gathercole, Peter. 'Changing Attitudes to the Study of Maori Carving', in Exploring the Visual Art of Oceania, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 214-26

Harsant, Wendy. 'The Beauty of Taonga: Arts of the Maori' in From the Beginning.' The Archaeology of the Maori, ed. John Wilson, Auckland, Penguin, 1987, pp. 125-39

Hamilton, A. Maori Art, The New Zealand Institute, Wellington, 1901

Hamilton, H. 'The Maori as an Artist', Art in New Zealand, December 1929

Makereti. The Old Time Maori, New Women's Press, 1985

'Maori Flags and Banners', Te Ao Hou 50, Dept of Maori Affairs, pp. 32-35 McEwan, J. 'Maori Art', A.H. McLintock ed. An Encyclopaedia of New

Zealand Vol. II, Government Printer, Wellington, 1966, pp. 408-29

Mac Lean, Christopher. 'Te Kooti Houses', Historic Buildings of New Zealand: North Island, New Zealand Historic Places Trust, Wellington, 1979, pp. 168-175

Mead, S. (ed), Te Maori: Maori Art from New Zealand Collections, Heinemann, Auckland, 1984

Mead, S. Te Toi Whakairo, The Art of Maori Carving, Reed Methuen, Auckland, 1986

Mead, S. 'Maori: sharing a Taonga', in Welcome to Our World, New Zealand 1990 Commission, 1990

Mead, Dr S.M. 'Rotorua Arts Institute under fire - Tourist Zoo', Te Maori, December/January, New Zealand Maori Council, Wellington, pp. 15-16

Mead, S. The Art of Taniko Weaving, Reed, Wellington 1968

Muru, Selwyn. 'Ratana Birth Rebirth', Tu Tangata, No.1, Dept of Maori Affairs, Wellington, pp. 27-28

Neich, Roger. 'Historical Change in Rotorua and Ngati Tarawhai Woodcarving Art', M.A. thesis, Victoria University, Wellington, 1977

Neich, Roger. 'The Veil of Orthodoxy: Rotorua Ngati Tarawhai Woodcarving in a Changing Context', S. Mead and B. Kernot, eds, Art and Artists of Oceania. Dunmore Press, Palmerston North, 1983, pp. 245-65

Neich, Roger. 'The Maori Carving Art of Tene Waitere, Traditionalist and Innovator', Art New Zealand 57, pp. 73-79

Neich, Roger. 'Early Maori Figurative Painting', Art New Zealand, 45, 1987, pp. 70-74

Neich, Roger. Maori Figurative Painting, Doctoral thesis, UBI 1988

Neich, Roger. Painted Histories, Auckland University Press, Auckland, 1993

Ngata, Sir Apirana. 'The Origin of Maori Carving', Te Ao Hou, Vol.22, pp. 30-34 'The Origin of Maori Carving, Part II, Ibid., pp. 30-37
'Maori Arts and Crafts', The Maori People Today: A General Survey, ed.
I.L.G. Sutherland, Wellington. The New Zealand Institute of International Affairs and the New Zealand Council for Educational Research, pp. 307-335

O'Reilly, R.N. 'Art and the Encylopaedia: 2 Maori Art', Ascent, Vol.1, No. 2 July 1968, pp. 51-62

Pendergrast, M. Feathers and Fibre.' A Survey of Traditional and Contemporary Maori Craft. Penguin, Auckland 1984

Pendergrast, M. Te Aho Tapu.. The Sacred Thread, Reed Methuen, Auckland 1987

Phillipps, W.J. Maori Carving Illustrated, Heinemann Reed, 1989

Phillipps, W.J. 'He Koru', Art in New Zealand, Vol. 11, No. 1, September 1938, pp. 35-40

Puketapu-Hetet, E. Maori Weaving, Pitman, Auckland 1989

Robley, Major General. Moko, Southern Reprints. 1987, pp. 1-19

Romanos, Michael. 'Is TE MAORI a recipe for respect', Tu Tangata, 31, Dept of Maori Affairs, 1986. pp. 2-7

Simmons, D.R. 'Maori Dog Shaped Bowls', Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 21 (1), 1985, pp. 51-60
Whakairo.' Maori Tribal Art, Oxford Press, Auckland, 1985
'The Great New Zealand Myth and the Traditions of the Maori', Art New Zealand, 57, pp. 24-25
Skinner, H.D. 'Maori Amulets in Stone, Bone and Shell, Part II', Journal of the Polynesian Society 42, pp. 191-203
'Maori Amulets in Stone, Bone and Shell, Part V', Ibid., pp. 310-321

Taonga Maori: A Spiritual Journey Expressed through Maori Art, The Australian Museum, 1989

Taiapa, Pine. "Tukutuku", Marae 1, 2, (1953) pp. 111-16, 1974

Taiapa, Pine. "Education in a Plural Society", Te Maori January/December 1972, New Zealand Maori Council, Wellington, pp. 36-37

Taylor, Alan. 'Maori Carving: A personal view', Tu Tangata Issue 23, Department of Maori Affairs, Wellington, pp. 28-29

Taylor, Alan, 'Kupe and the Great Fleet: history in the telling', Tu Tangata, 29, Dept of the Maori Affairs, 1988, pp. 14-23

Taylor, A.L. 'Folk Traditions in Maori Art', Art New Zealand, 5, Auckland, pp. 18-22

Taylor, A. Maori Folk Art, Century Hutchinson, Auckland, 1988

Taylor, A. 'The Painted House at Patutahi', Te Ao Hou No. 46, Department of Maori Affairs, Wellington, pp. 32-36

Te Kanawa, Diggeress. Weaving a Kakahu, Bridget Williams Books

Tyler, Linda. 'Te Mihaia Hou: Maungapohatu and the Prophet Rua Kenana', in Exhibition Catalogue, Waikato Museum of Art and History, Hamilton, 1991, pp. 3-18

Winiata, Dr Maharaia. 'The Future of Maori Arts and Crafts', Te Ao Hou, 19, Dept of Maori Affairs, 1957, pp. 29-35

CATALOGUES

Dunedin Public Art Gallery. Ralph Hotere: a survey 7963-7973

Govett Brewster Gallery, New Plymouth. Nga Taonga a o Tatou Kuia, 1987. Treasures and contemporary works with illustrations

McDougall Art Gallery, South Island Rock Pillars, 1989

National Art Gallery, Wellington. Huakina (Para Matchitt), 1986
Taki Toru (Three Maori Artists), 1988
National Museum, Wellington. Taonga Mood (Treasures of the New Zealand Maori People), 1989
Kohia Ko Taikaka Anake, 1993
Pu Manawa, 1993
Sarjeant Gallery. Contemporary Work by Moon Artists from Public Collections (List works held), 1985
Te Ao Marama, 1985
Whatu Aho Rua, 1989

Waikato Art Gallery Bulletin, Ralph Hotere. 1973 Contemporary Moon Art, 1976

Wellington City Art Gallery. Te Ao a te Wahine Maori, 1986
Karanga Karanga, 1986
Whakamamae, 1988

CONTEMPORARY

Brown, G.H. 'Matt Pine', Art New Zealand, No. 19, Art Magazine Press 1981

Brown, G.H. 'Ralph Hotere', Art New Zealand No. 34, 1985, pp. 28-31

Brown, Amy. 'Maori Art Today', Art New Zealand, No. 45, 1987,-55

Dept of Maori Affairs, 'Muru Walters', Te Ao Hou No. 35, Department of Maori Affairs, Wellington, 1961. pp. 28-29

Dunn, Michael. 'Maidment Muses', Art New Zealand No. 52, 1989, pp. 52-53

Harrison, P. Tane-Nui-a-Rangi, University of Auckland, 1988

Herrington, Paki. 'Te Ao Marama - a Festival of Maori Art', Tu Tangata Issue 7, Dept of Maori Affairs, 1982, pp. 21-23

Herrington, Paki. 'Maori art at Forum North', Tu Tangata 15, 1984, pp. 16-17

Herrington, Paki. 'Huakina: an artist's project by Para Matchitt', Tu Tangata 32, 1984, pp. 59

Herrington Paki. 'Para Matchitt', Tu Tangata 6, 1982, pp. 22

Herrington, Paki. 'Sculpture and Painting by Cliff Whiting', Te Ao Hou No. 54, 1966, pp. 25

Herrington, Paki. 'the Sculpture of Arnold Wilson', Te Ao Hou No. 52, 1965, pp. 32-33

Ihimaera, Witi. 'Karaka', Art New Zealand, No. 60, 1991, pp. 78-81, 109

Ihimaera, Witi. 'New Zealand's "other" landscape', Exhibition Catalogue Gisborne Museum, p.4-6

Jahnke, Bob. 'Kohia ko Taikaka Anake', Croft New Zealand 36, Crafts Council of New Zealand, Wellington, 1991, pp. 32-35

Kernot, B. 'The Meeting House in Contemporary New Zealand', S. Mead and B. Kernot, eds. Art and Artists of Oceania, Dunmore Press 1983, pp. 181-97

Leonard, Robert. 'Against Purity: Three Word Sculptures by Michael Parekowhai', Art New Zealand, No. 59, 1991

Leech, Peter. 'Style and Change: Ralph Hotere', Art New Zealand, 1983, pp. 19 MacAskill, Jeanne. 'Te Ao Marama, Seven Maori Artists', Art New Zealand, No. 38, 1986, pp. 35-37

McLaughlin, Anne. 'Art is part and parcel of his life style - Cliff Whiting', Te Maori Vol. 6, No. 6, New Zealand Maori Council, 1974, pp. 24-25

Mallon, Sean and Pandora Fulimalo Pereira. Speaking In Colour: Conversations with Artists of Pacific Island Heritage. Wellington: Te Papa Press, 1997.

Mataira, K. Maori Artists of the South Pacific, New Zealand Maori Artists and Writers, Raglan, 1984

Matchitt, Maia. Director Kohia ko Taikaka anake, video, 25 minutes, Matchitt Productions for National Art Gallery and Te Waka Toi, Wellington, 1991

Menehira, Hazel. 'Para Matchitt: Art is a Community Affair', Te Maori Vol 6, No. 6, New Zealand Maori Council, 1974, pp. 17-19

New Zealand Council. 'Arnold Wilson - Artist and Sculptor' Te Maori Vol. 6 No.6, New Zealand Maori Council, Wellington, 1974, pp. 33

New Zealand Maori Council, 'Te Whiti a Rongoma', Te Maori Vol.1 No. 4, 1970, pp. 8-10

Nicholas, D. and Kaa, K. Interviewers: Seven Maori Artists. Government Printer, Wellington, 1986

Nicholas, Darcy. 'John Bevan Ford: Weaver of Lines, History and Genealogyt, Art New Zealand 49, pp. 51-53, 1988

Panoho, Rangihiroa. 'Maori: At the Centre, on the Margins', Headlands: Thinking Through New Zealand Art, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney 1992, pp. 147-159

Panoho, Rangihiroa. 'Paratene Matchitt: The Principle of Change in Maori Art', Art New Zealand no. 45, 1987, pp. 63-67

Panoho, Rangi. Te Moemoea No Iotefa Sargeant Gallery, Wanganui 1990

Paul, Janet. 'Baby Iron', Art New Zealand, No. 29, 1983, pp. 22-23

Pitts, Priscilla. 'Karanga, Karanga', Art New Zealand, No. 40, 1986, pp. 28-29

Pound, Francis. 'Jacqueline Fraser', Distance Looks Our Way, Sargeant Gallery, Wanganui, 1992, pp. 47-54

Pule, John. The Shark that Ate the Sun, Penguin, 1992

Ramsden, Irihapeti. 'Robyn Kahukiwa and Diane Prince: After Mana Tiriti', Art New Zealand, No. 59, pp. 72-75

Ritchie, Jim. 'Windows on a Maori World', Art New Zealand, No. 45, pp. 67-69

Ritchie, Jim. 'Kura Rewiri-Thorsen talks to Art New Zealand', Art New Zealand, No. 45, 1987, pp. 56-59

Rowe, Neil. 'Robin Kahukiwa', Art New Zealand No. 45, pp. 60-62

Schulz, Derek. 'Matt Pine', Art New Zealand, No. 41, pp. 37-9

Sutheran, heryll. 'Shona Rapira Davies at the Govett-Brewster', Art New Zealand, no. 45, pp. 45-47

Tarrant, Jocelyn. 'Selwyn Wilson: Artist and Teacher', Te Ao Hou No. 40, Department of Maori Affairs, Wellington, pp. 15-16

Taylor, Apirana & Burke, Rod. 'Kohia ko Taikaka Anake at the National Gallery' in Art New Zealand No. 58, 1991, pp. 58-63

Te Ao, Ngapine, Tamihana. 'The Gallery at its Limits: Whatu Aho Rua and Te Ao Maori at the Sargent Gallery', Art New Zealand, No. 52, pp. 56-61

Thomas, Nicholas. "The Dream of Joseph: Practices of Identity in Pacific Art" in The Contemporary Pacific, Fall 1996. University of Hawaii Press.

Thomas, Nicholas. "From Exhibit to Exhibitionalism: Recent Polynesian Presentations of "Otherness" in The Contemporary Pacific, Volume 8, Number 2. Fall 1996. University of Hawaii Press.

Vincent, Rosemary. 'Selwyn Muru's Paintings win wide acclaim', Te Ao Hou No. 46, 1964. Dept of Maori Affairs Wellington

Westra, Ans. 'Para Matchitt: Painter Sculptor', Te Ao Hou No. 45, Dept of Maori Affairs, pp. 26-28

Wilton, Louise. 'Ralph Hotere at the Dunedin Public Art Gallery', Art New Zealand, no. 35, 198 5, p.24

POST COLONIAL RESPONSES

Anderson, Richard L. Calliope's Sisters. A Comparative Study of Philosophies of Art, Prentice-Hall, 1990

Beatson, Diane, Peter Beatson & Robert Leonard. 'Making a Scene', Headlands: Thinking through New Zealand Art, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, ed. Mary Barr, 1992, pp. 203-213

Bell, Leonard. 'Landfall on the "primitive" and the visual arts till the end of the 1950's', Landfall 1993

Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture, London: Routledge, 1994

Boas, F. Primitive Art, Oslo, Aschehougt Co. 1927

Carter, Paul. The Road to Botany Bay.' An Exploration of Landscape and History, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1987

Clifford, James. 'Histories of the Tribal and the Modern', Art in America, April 1985, p.167
The Predicament of Culture.' Twentieth-Century Ethnography Literature and Art, Harvard University Press, 1988

Clifford, James and George E. Marcus (eds). Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, University of California Press, 1986

Collier, John Jr., and Collier, Malcolm. Visual Anthropology. Photography as a Research Method. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986.

Coutts-Smith. 'Some general observations on the problem of cultural colonialism', The Myth of Primitivism: Perspectives on Art, Routledge, London, ed. Susan Hiller, pp. 14-31

Dark. 'The Study of Ethno-aesthetics: The Visual Arts' in Helm, J. (ed) Essays on the Verbal and Visual Arts, American Ethnological Society, 1967

Edwards, Elizabeth, (ed). Anthropology and Photography Yale University Press, 1992

Enloe, Cynthia. Bananas, Beaches and Bases. Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, Los Angeles: The University of California Press, 1990

Fanon, F. Black Skin, White Masks, Grove Press Inc., New York 1967

Ferguson, Russell, Olander, William, Tucker, Marcia, Fiss, Daren, (ed). Discourses: Conversations in Postmodern Art and Culture, New York: The Museum of Contemporary Art, 1993

Fusco, Coco. English is Broken Here. Notes on Cultural Fusion in the Americas, New York: New Press, 1995

Gomez-Pena, Guillermo. Warrior for Gringostroika, Canada: Graywolf Press, 1993

Gunew, Sneja and Yeatman, Anna, (ed). Feminism and The Politics of Difference, Allen & Unwin Press, 1993

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hooks, bell. Art On My Mind: Visual Politics. New York: New Press, 1995

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[Subject: Art; Pacific/Comparative]


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