Syllabi & Bibliographies

Internet Resources


Culture and Policy in the Pacific

ART 297H



Tuesday, Thursday 9.45 – 11.00 am

7C Atherton Hall


Instructor: Dr. Margaret Werry

Office Hours: Tuesday 1.30 – 3.30pm, 202 Ihlseng Cottage (or by appointment)

Contact: mlw26@psu.edu, 865 0495 - Pennsylavania State University



Course Objectives


The goal of this course is to examine the issues and debates surrounding the tourism and culture industries in the Pacific.  By the end of the semester, students should be:

  • informed about the social and cultural diversity of the region, understanding how the culture industry varies by context throughout the Pacific;
  • able to discuss a range of benefits and problems associated with the trade in culture from a social, cultural, economic, political, and ethical perspective;
  • able to critically read the literature of the tourism industry and policy making bodies in the light of these issues;
  • able to critically read the presentation of culture in actual tourism attractions.


The Questions


What are the social and cultural consequences of tourism in these countries, and what do their residents think about it?  How does tourism affect the indigenous people tourists come to see, and who profits from this traffic?  What policies should states and businesses pursue to ensure the respectful representation of indigenous cultures in museums and tourism entertainment, and the greatest benefit to local, national and regional economic development?  What do policy makers need to know about regional history and indigenous culture, and about the culture of tourism itself?



(available at Penn State Bookstore, HUB)


  • Jamaica Kincaid, A Small Place (New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1988)
  • Kay Haunani Trask, From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawai’i, revised edition (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1999)
  • Yorghos Apostolopoulos, et al. The Sociology of Tourism: theoretical and empirical investigations (London and New York: Routledge, 2002)


Other articles and links will be available through Electronic Reserve, on the LIAS website.





Midterm Exam

Due: Tuesday, March 4


An open-book exam, based on assigned readings and discussions up to this date. 


Final Assignment

Due: Week 16 (April 29 and May 1)


In groups of three, you will present orally and in writing a report of approx. 15 pages (5 pages per student), based on assigned readings, lectures, and discussions.  The instructor will distribute full details of the assignment in Week 10 of class.


The report will take the form of a brief for the US Trade Representative to a fictional Pacific nation.  The Trade Rep is new to the post, and is being approached by local businessmen and multinational tourism corporations to help smooth the way for the expansion of the tourism industry in the region.  She wants to know about the experience of similar Pacific nations that have undertaken development strategies that made tourism a larger part of their economies: what impact has this had on the economic and social stability of these nations, and on their relations with the United States? What has public opinion in these nations had to say about the development? What do scholars, and major international and regional NGOs have to say about tourism development? What are some possible strategies that might be pursued, based on the experience of these nations?


Spring Break fieldtrip and notes

Due: Tuesday, March 18


During Spring Break, students will select a tourism or heritage attraction to visit, and submit 5 pages of fieldnotes describing their experience.  The instructor will distribute a guide to writing fieldnotes in the week before Break.


News We Can Use portfolio

Due: Tuesday, April 29, and throughout semester


Throughout the semester, you will monitor US news media, and internet news sources from Hawai’i, New Zealand, and other Pacific nations.  You should look for material pertaining to:

  • tourism and the “culture industry” in the news;
  • current affairs in the Pacific, particularly pertaining to tourism, development, publicity, cultural industries, cultural policy, or indigenous affairs


At the beginning of each class session, we will spend 5 minutes sharing and discussing the items you have selected.  You will submit a portfolio collection of these clippings, along with source citations, notes, and questions, at the end of the semester.


Portfolios will be given a letter grade based on:

  • evidence of regular and consistent newsgathering activity (you should set aside 20 minutes to ½ hour and aim to gather two or more articles each week);
  • margin notes, comments, and questions that indicate a critical engagement with these articles, and that connect with issues raised in course reading.


In-class Reading Responses

Due: 6 times, spread throughout semester

At the beginning of selected lecture/discussion classes, you will spend 5 minutes “free-writing” on a question relating to that day’s readings.  The question will be handed out with the readings, and you should use it to help you think about their content as you read, take notes, and highlight relevant passages in preparation for class.  This activity will help you organize your thoughts, and prepare for a rich and engaged discussion of that week’s material by reading actively.

In-class Reading Responses will be graded on a check +, check, check- basis.  If you have clearly not read the materials for that week, you will not be awarded a grade.


·        a check- will be awarded to adequate work, which shows that you have read and understood the material;

·        a check goes to work which shows that you have thought carefully about the question, and are able to draw on specific examples or instances in the reading to support your points;

·        a check+ is reserved for responses that make especially perceptive observations, draw connections with other issues covered in reading or lectures, and asks other pertinent questions that provoke discussion.

Mini Research presentations

Due: 11 February; 13 February


In groups of two, you will make a presentation of no more than 10 minutes to the class, and provide them with a handout that clearly summarizes the content of your presentation.  This presentation will be on one of two things:

  • the “destination image” of a specific Pacific tourism site: how does the tourism industry represent this place and its population? What kind of tourists is it aiming to attract? What kind of experience does it craft for those tourists?
  • the work of a specific policy body or NGO dealing with tourism: whose interests does this group represent, and what is its mission? What research does it do, and what activities does it engage in?  What problems does it address?  What problems does it not address?

Groups will be formed in class on 1/30, and will sign up for a specific organization or destination at that time (to prevent duplication of work).



10%             Midterm quiz

10%            Reading responses

30%             Final assignment

10%            Springbreak fieldtrip and notes

10%             News We Can Use portfolio

10%             Mini-Research Presentation

20%            Attendance and contribution to class discussion




Readings and Responsibilities

Because this course prioritizes process as much as product, a large part of your grade will be based on your participation in and preparation for class sessions.  You must complete all readings by the date specified, and to come to class prepared to complete Reading Response Assignments and actively engage in discussion of the material.  If you are absent for a class session in which reading materials or assignments are handed out, it is your responsibility to obtain these from the instructor before the next class session.



Attendance is required at all class meetings.  In the case of family emergency, illness, or injury, you are expected to notify the instructor by ‘phone or email in a timely fashion.  If you have more than two unexcused absences during the semester, your final grade will be reduced by one grade point for each missed class.  You will not receive credit for this class if you have excessive absences.  Class begins promptly at 9.45am: be on time and be prepared.


Academic Integrity Policy

University Policies and Rules Guidelines states that academic integrity is the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner. Academic integrity is a basic guiding principle for all academic activity at The Pennsylvania State University, and all members of the University community are expected to act in accordance with this principle. Consistent with this expectation, the University's Code of Conduct states that all students should act with personal integrity, respect other students' dignity, rights and property, and help create and maintain an environment in which all can succeed through the fruits of their efforts. Academic integrity includes a commitment not to engage in or tolerate acts of falsification, misrepresentation or deception. Such acts of dishonesty violate the fundamental ethical principles of the University community and compromise the worth of work completed by others.

      Academic dishonesty includes but is not limited to acts such as cheating on exams or assignments; plagiarizing the words or ideas of another; fabricating information or citations; facilitating acts of academic dishonesty by others; claiming authorship of work done by another person; submitting work completed in previous classes; and/or submitting the same work to multiple classes in which a student is enrolled simultaneously.




May 12 – 26, 2003


1 course credit (Summer Session)


Course Description:

This course takes students on a two-week study trip to Hawai’i and New Zealand, two countries with vastly different approaches to tourism.   Students will visit major tourist sights, and go behind the scenes as well, staying in a Maori community, and talking with tourism policy-makers, managers, critics and workers. On the study trip, students will be participant-observer ethnographers of tourism culture, documenting their experiences of tourism attractions and environments, and their interactions with “locals” and experts, in a detailed field-journal.



10%     A 2 page statement outlining the student’s learning goals as a participant in the study trip. Due: 10 May.

30%             Participation in all class activities and discussions

60%     A set of critical field-notes based on journal entries, reflecting analytically on the student’s experience by making reference to the authors covered in ART297H.  Due: 6 June.



Priority will be given to students who complete ART297H, but enrolling in this course does not guarantee you a place on the trip.  If more students wish to join the trip than there are spaces available, the final decision will be made by lottery.  However, the instructor reserves the right to take into consideration:

  • the student’s level of personal organization,
  • quality of the student’s participation in class and group activities,
  • the student’s ability to act as an effective cultural ambassador for Penn State,
  • the balance of the group in terms of the spread of majors and years (freshmen/seniors)


NB: This information is not final or binding. The schedule and budget are approximations only.


Schedule (draft)

May 12: Depart Pittsburgh

May 13: Orientation in Honolulu; U.S.S. Arizona visit

May 14: Meet with tourism reps; exploring Waikiki

May 15: A day at the Pacific Cultural Center

May 16: Depart Honolulu for Auckland

May 17: Arrive Auckland; visit University of Auckland Marae

May 18: Marae visit at Tokomaru

May 19: Marae visit at Tokomaru

May 20: Travel to Rotorua, and see the “sights”

May 21: A day at Whakarewarewa, and the Maori Arts and Crafts Center
May 22: Adventure travel day

May 23: Travel to Wellington, via Wairarapa  

May 24: Meet with Waitangi Tribunal, Ministry for Tourism, and Maori Affairs officials

May 25: Tour of Te Papa Tongarewa/National Museum

May 26: Depart Wellington for Pittsburgh, via Auckland


Approximate budget:


$1500 (covered by SHC Scholarship)

Ground transport (van rental)




Overnight marae stay


Incidentals and shared food fund


Tuition  (in-state)






Out of pocket expenses will include: some meals, entrance fees into attractions, public transportation fares, transport to and from Pittsburgh Intl. Airport.


Preliminary preparations:

If you are a US citizen, ensure that you have a passport that is valid for at least three months after your intended date of return.  If you are a resident alien, check with the NZ government website (http://www.immigration.govt.nz/visit/need.html) to determine whether you need to apply for a visitor’s visa. 



Information session on travel details, Schreyer Honor’s College Ambassadorial Scholarships: Tuesday, 28 January.


ART 297H – Culture and Policy in the Pacific


Preliminary Course Schedule



T 1/14              Introduction

Th 1/16            Indigenous and local perspectives

                        Jamaica Kincaid, A Small Place.

                        Lecture: Pacific cultures, Pacific histories, Pacific diversity



T 1/21              Indigenous and local perspectives:

Kay Haunani Trask, “Lovely Hula Hands: Corporate Tourism and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture,” 136-151; “The 1989 Hawai’i Declaration of the Hawai’i Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism,” 245-250;

* Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, “Kai Arahi: Women and Tourism,” Mana Wahine, 81-95.


Th 1/23            The analysis: an introduction

Crick, Sociology of Tourism, 15 – 42.
Lecture: What is Culture? What is Policy?



T 1/28              Summer Study Trip information session with Richard Stoller


Th 1/30            The Tourism Image, The Tourist Gaze: Primitivism, Authenticity

From Sociology of Tourism, John Urry, “Tourism, Culture, and Social Inequality,” 188 – 120 only.

John Urry, The Tourist Gaze (London: Sage, 2002): 2-3 only.

* Elizabeth Edwards, “Postcards – Greetings from Another World,” The Tourist Image: Myths and Mythmaking in Tourism, ed. Tom Selwyn (London: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.), 1996.

* Catherine Lutz and Jane Collins, “Fashions in the Ethnic Other,” Reading National Geographic (London and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993): 113 – 153.

* Frederick Errington and Deborah Gewertz, “Tourism and Anthropology in a Post-modern World,” Oceania 60:1 (1989), 37-54.

* Edward M. Bruner, “Of Cannibals, Tourists, and Ethnographers,” Cultural Anthropology 4:4, 1990, 438-445.


Form groups for mini-research presentations



T 2/4                Film: Cannibal Tours

Th 2/6              Exhibiting People: Ethnographic Theme Parks


* Dean MacCannell, “Staged Authenticity,” The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class (New York: Schocken Books, 1976), 91 – 107.


* Nick Stanley, “Ethnographic Theme Parks,” Being Ourselves for You: The Global Display of Cultures (London: Middlesex University Press, 1996), 36 – 55.


* Barbara Kirschenblatt-Gimblett, “Objects of Ethnography,” Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 17 – 78 (omitting 23 – 34 if you are pressed for time).



T 2/11            Mini-research presentations: Destination Image

* J D Goss, “Placing the Market and Marketing Place: Tourist Advertising of the Hawaiian Islands, 1972-92,”  Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 11 (1993): 663-688.

Th 2/13            Mini-research presentations



T 2/18              Ethnographic Theme Parks – continuation.


Th 2/20            The Economics of Tourism: Development, Resources

Stephen Britton, “Tourism, Dependency and Development: A Mode of Analysis,” Sociology of Tourism;


John Urry, “The Changing Economics of the Tourism Industry,” Sociology of Tourism (omitting 201 – 206; 211- 214)



T 2/25              Social Change and Tourism: Ethnicity

* Jocelyn Linnekin, “Consuming Cultures: Tourism and the Commoditization of Cultural Identity in the Island Pacific,” Tourism, Ethnicity, and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies, Robert E. Wood and Michael Picard eds (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1997): 215-250;


* Robert E. Wood, “Touristic ethnicity: a brief itinerary,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 21:2, 1998 (218 – 241).

Th 2/27            Social Change and Tourism: Gender and Class

* Peggy Fairburn-Dunlop, “Gender, culture, and tourism development in Western Samoa,” Tourism: A Gender Analysis, Vivian Kinnaird and Derek Hall, eds (Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 1994), 121 - 141;

* Cynthia Enloe, “On the Beach: Sexism and Tourism,” Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), 19 – 41.

Optional, but highly recommended:

C. Michael Hall, “Gender and Economic Interests in Tourism Prostitution,” Sociology of Tourism;
Maria Kousis, “Tourism and the Family in a Rural Cretan Community,” Sociology of Tourism



T 3/4                Midterm Examination

Th 3/6              Fieldnotes exercise, introduction
Film: Trekking on Tradition





T 3/18              Case Study: New Zealand
                        “Tourism Strategy 2010” Ministry of Tourism website
                        “He Matai Tapoi: Maori in Tourism” Ministry of Tourism website

Due: Fieldnotes

Th 3/20            Case Study: New Zealand

* Chapters from James Ritchie, Becoming Bicultural (Wellington: Huia Press, 1992)
* “Should Maoritanga Be Shared,” Hirini Moko Mead, Landmarks, Bridges, Visions (Wellington: VUW Press, 1997)
* “Maori: People and Culture,” Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, from Maori: Art and Culture, Ed. Marina Starzecka (London: British Museum Press, 1996)



T 3/25              Continue discussion on Ritchie, Mead, Te Awekotuku, “Tourism Strategy 2010” and “He Matai Tapoi”
Read contents of following websites:  http://www.toiiho.com/guidelines/guidelines.htm


Th 3/27            View: Once Were Warriors
                        Read:  Trask, 2-19; 41-62; 65-80; 101-109

Jonathan Okamura, “The Illusion of Paradise: Privileging Multiculturalism in Hawai’i” from Making Majorities, Ed. Dru C. Gladney (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998)



T 4/1                Eco-tourisms, and Indigenous Management

Read: Chris Ryan “Dolphins, Canoes and Marae: Ecotourism products in New Zealand,” Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism: International Case Studies, Ed. Eric Laws et al. (NY: Routledge, 1998)

Adrian Lipscomb, “Village-Based Tourism in the Solomon Islands,” Embracing and Managing Change


                        View:  Environmental Tourism

                        Form groups for Final Projects           


Th 4/3              Guest lecture from Kelly Bricker



T 4/8                Sasha Davis, guest lecture on tourism at Bikini Atoll
                        Read all the contents of the following website:


Th 4/10            Hawai’i: Case study, continued.
                        Tourist Arts, Heritage Management, and Culture


Jane Desmond, “Let’s Lu’au” Staging Tourism: Bodies on Display from Waikiki to Sea World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).



T 4/15              Tourist Arts, Heritage Management, and Culture


“Looking in the Mirror at Fort DeRussy,” Oh Say Can You See?: The Semiotics of the Military in Hawai’I (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), 43 – 76.


Th 4/17            Tourist Arts, Heritage Management, and Culture


William Tramposch, “Te Papa: an invitation for redefinition,” Museum International 50:3 (1998): 28 – 32.


Ngawini Keelan, “Maori Heritage: Visitor Management and Interpretation,” Heritage Management in Australia and New Zealand. Ed.s Michael Hall and Simon McArthur. (Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1993), 95 – 102.


Sidney Moko Mead, “Nga Timunga Me Nga Paringa o Te Mana Maori: the Ebb and Flow of Mana Maori and the Changing Context of Maori Art,” Te Maori: Maori Art from New Zealand Collections (NY: Harry Abrams, Inc., 1984), 20 – 36.


Sidney Moko Mead, “The Nature of Taonga,” Landmarks, Visions, Bridges, 179 – 189.



T 4/22              Group work on reports

Th 4/24            Final reports



T 4/29              Final reports, SRTEs

Due: News We Can Use portfolio


Th 5/1              Final reports;
                        Briefing about study trip.



Some starting points


New Zealand sources



Major daily paper from Auckland, New Zealand.



Access to selected articles from various New Zealand papers



News items and press releases, accredited news agency



Hawai’i sources



The Hawai’i Tribune – Major state daily paper



The Honolulu Advertiser – Honolulu’s biggest circulation daily



The Star Bulletin – Another Honolulu based daily



United States


The New York Times has fantastic coverage of culture and travel related issues.  You should skim through the “World” section, “Arts and Leisure,” the “Travel” supplement, and also look in the “Business” pages.




You will find many, many other sources online – please share them with the rest of the class as you find them.  Be careful that you know where this news is coming from, though.  Much of the “news” published online comes from partisan sources that, unlike newspapers, have no commitment to being objective or even being accurate.


Upload: 4/29/2003

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