Culture and Policy in the Pacific
Tuesday, Thursday 9.45 – 11.00 am
7C Atherton Hall
Instructor: Dr. Margaret Werry
Office Hours: Tuesday 1.30 – 3.30pm, 202 Ihlseng Cottage (or by appointment)
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, 865 0495 - Pennsylavania State University
The goal of this course is to examine the issues and debates surrounding the tourism and culture industries in the Pacific. By the end of the semester, students should be:
What are the social and cultural consequences of tourism in these countries, and what do their residents think about it? How does tourism affect the indigenous people tourists come to see, and who profits from this traffic? What policies should states and businesses pursue to ensure the respectful representation of indigenous cultures in museums and tourism entertainment, and the greatest benefit to local, national and regional economic development? What do policy makers need to know about regional history and indigenous culture, and about the culture of tourism itself?
(available at Penn State Bookstore, HUB)
Other articles and links will be available through Electronic Reserve, on the LIAS website.
Due: Tuesday, March 4
An open-book exam, based on assigned readings and discussions up to this date.
Due: Week 16 (April 29 and May 1)
In groups of three, you will present orally and in writing a report of approx. 15 pages (5 pages per student), based on assigned readings, lectures, and discussions. The instructor will distribute full details of the assignment in Week 10 of class.
The report will take the form of a brief for the US Trade Representative to a fictional Pacific nation. The Trade Rep is new to the post, and is being approached by local businessmen and multinational tourism corporations to help smooth the way for the expansion of the tourism industry in the region. She wants to know about the experience of similar Pacific nations that have undertaken development strategies that made tourism a larger part of their economies: what impact has this had on the economic and social stability of these nations, and on their relations with the United States? What has public opinion in these nations had to say about the development? What do scholars, and major international and regional NGOs have to say about tourism development? What are some possible strategies that might be pursued, based on the experience of these nations?
Spring Break fieldtrip and notes
Due: Tuesday, March 18
During Spring Break, students will select a tourism or heritage attraction to visit, and submit 5 pages of fieldnotes describing their experience. The instructor will distribute a guide to writing fieldnotes in the week before Break.
News We Can Use portfolio
Due: Tuesday, April 29, and throughout semester
Throughout the semester, you will monitor US news media, and internet news sources from Hawai’i, New Zealand, and other Pacific nations. You should look for material pertaining to:
At the beginning of each class session, we will spend 5 minutes sharing and discussing the items you have selected. You will submit a portfolio collection of these clippings, along with source citations, notes, and questions, at the end of the semester.
Portfolios will be given a letter grade based on:
In-class Reading Responses
Due: 6 times, spread throughout semester
· a check- will be awarded to adequate work, which shows that you have read and understood the material;
· a check goes to work which shows that you have thought carefully about the question, and are able to draw on specific examples or instances in the reading to support your points;
a check+ is reserved for responses that make especially
perceptive observations, draw connections with other issues covered in reading
or lectures, and asks other pertinent questions that provoke discussion.
Mini Research presentations
Due: 11 February; 13 February
In groups of two, you will make a presentation of no more than 10 minutes to the class, and provide them with a handout that clearly summarizes the content of your presentation. This presentation will be on one of two things:
Groups will be formed in class on 1/30, and will sign up for a specific organization or destination at that time (to prevent duplication of work).
10% Midterm quiz
10% Reading responses
30% Final assignment
10% Springbreak fieldtrip and notes
10% News We Can Use portfolio
10% Mini-Research Presentation
20% Attendance and contribution to class discussion
Readings and Responsibilities
Because this course prioritizes process as much as product, a large part of your grade will be based on your participation in and preparation for class sessions. You must complete all readings by the date specified, and to come to class prepared to complete Reading Response Assignments and actively engage in discussion of the material. If you are absent for a class session in which reading materials or assignments are handed out, it is your responsibility to obtain these from the instructor before the next class session.
Attendance is required at all class meetings. In the case of family emergency, illness, or injury, you are expected to notify the instructor by ‘phone or email in a timely fashion. If you have more than two unexcused absences during the semester, your final grade will be reduced by one grade point for each missed class. You will not receive credit for this class if you have excessive absences. Class begins promptly at 9.45am: be on time and be prepared.
Academic Integrity Policy
University Policies and Rules Guidelines states that academic integrity is the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner. Academic integrity is a basic guiding principle for all academic activity at The Pennsylvania State University, and all members of the University community are expected to act in accordance with this principle. Consistent with this expectation, the University's Code of Conduct states that all students should act with personal integrity, respect other students' dignity, rights and property, and help create and maintain an environment in which all can succeed through the fruits of their efforts. Academic integrity includes a commitment not to engage in or tolerate acts of falsification, misrepresentation or deception. Such acts of dishonesty violate the fundamental ethical principles of the University community and compromise the worth of work completed by others.
Academic dishonesty includes but is not limited to acts such as cheating on exams or assignments; plagiarizing the words or ideas of another; fabricating information or citations; facilitating acts of academic dishonesty by others; claiming authorship of work done by another person; submitting work completed in previous classes; and/or submitting the same work to multiple classes in which a student is enrolled simultaneously.
ART 297H: STUDY TRIP
May 12 – 26, 2003
1 course credit (Summer Session)
This course takes students on a two-week study trip to Hawai’i and New Zealand, two countries with vastly different approaches to tourism. Students will visit major tourist sights, and go behind the scenes as well, staying in a Maori community, and talking with tourism policy-makers, managers, critics and workers. On the study trip, students will be participant-observer ethnographers of tourism culture, documenting their experiences of tourism attractions and environments, and their interactions with “locals” and experts, in a detailed field-journal.
10% A 2 page statement outlining the student’s learning goals as a participant in the study trip. Due: 10 May.
30% Participation in all class activities and discussions
60% A set of critical field-notes based on journal entries, reflecting analytically on the student’s experience by making reference to the authors covered in ART297H. Due: 6 June.
Priority will be given to students who complete ART297H, but enrolling in this course does not guarantee you a place on the trip. If more students wish to join the trip than there are spaces available, the final decision will be made by lottery. However, the instructor reserves the right to take into consideration:
NB: This information is not final or binding. The schedule and budget are approximations only.
May 12: Depart Pittsburgh
May 13: Orientation in Honolulu; U.S.S. Arizona visit
May 14: Meet with tourism reps; exploring Waikiki
May 15: A day at the Pacific Cultural Center
May 16: Depart Honolulu for Auckland
May 17: Arrive Auckland; visit University of Auckland Marae
May 18: Marae visit at Tokomaru
May 19: Marae visit at Tokomaru
May 20: Travel to Rotorua, and see the “sights”
May 21: A day at Whakarewarewa, and the Maori Arts and
May 23: Travel to Wellington, via Wairarapa
May 24: Meet with Waitangi Tribunal, Ministry for Tourism, and Maori Affairs officials
May 25: Tour of Te Papa Tongarewa/National Museum
May 26: Depart Wellington for Pittsburgh, via Auckland
Out of pocket expenses will include: some meals, entrance fees into attractions, public transportation fares, transport to and from Pittsburgh Intl. Airport.
If you are a US citizen, ensure that you have a passport that is valid for at least three months after your intended date of return. If you are a resident alien, check with the NZ government website (http://www.immigration.govt.nz/visit/need.html) to determine whether you need to apply for a visitor’s visa.
Information session on travel details, Schreyer Honor’s College Ambassadorial Scholarships: Tuesday, 28 January.
ART 297H – Culture and Policy in the Pacific
Preliminary Course Schedule
T 1/14 Introduction
Th 1/16 Indigenous and local perspectives
Jamaica Kincaid, A Small Place.
Lecture: Pacific cultures, Pacific histories, Pacific diversity
T 1/21 Indigenous and local
Kay Haunani Trask, “Lovely Hula
Hands: Corporate Tourism and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture,” 136-151;
“The 1989 Hawai’i Declaration of the Hawai’i Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism,”
Th 1/23 The analysis: an introduction
T 1/28 Summer Study Trip information session with Richard Stoller
Th 1/30 The
Tourism Image, The Tourist Gaze: Primitivism, Authenticity
From Sociology of Tourism, John
Urry, “Tourism, Culture, and Social Inequality,” 188 – 120 only.
John Urry, The Tourist Gaze
(London: Sage, 2002): 2-3 only.
* Elizabeth Edwards, “Postcards –
Greetings from Another World,” The Tourist Image: Myths and Mythmaking in
Tourism, ed. Tom Selwyn (London: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.), 1996.
* Catherine Lutz and Jane Collins, “Fashions in the Ethnic Other,” Reading National Geographic (London and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993): 113 – 153.
Form groups for mini-research presentations
T 2/4 Film: Cannibal Tours
Th 2/6 Exhibiting People: Ethnographic Theme Parks
* Dean MacCannell, “Staged Authenticity,” The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class (New York: Schocken Books, 1976), 91 – 107.
* Nick Stanley, “Ethnographic Theme Parks,” Being Ourselves for You: The Global Display of Cultures (London: Middlesex University Press, 1996), 36 – 55.
* Barbara Kirschenblatt-Gimblett, “Objects of Ethnography,” Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 17 – 78 (omitting 23 – 34 if you are pressed for time).
T 2/11 Mini-research presentations: Destination Image
Th 2/13 Mini-research presentations
T 2/18 Ethnographic Theme Parks – continuation.
Th 2/20 The Economics of Tourism: Development, Resources
John Urry, “The Changing Economics of the Tourism Industry,” Sociology of Tourism (omitting 201 – 206; 211- 214)
T 2/25 Social Change and Tourism: Ethnicity
* Robert E. Wood, “Touristic
ethnicity: a brief itinerary,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 21:2, 1998 (218
Th 2/27 Social Change and Tourism: Gender
* Peggy Fairburn-Dunlop, “Gender,
culture, and tourism development in Western Samoa,” Tourism: A Gender
Analysis, Vivian Kinnaird and Derek Hall, eds (Chichester: John Wiley and
Sons, 1994), 121 - 141;
* Cynthia Enloe, “On the Beach:
Sexism and Tourism,” Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of
International Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), 19
Optional, but highly
C. Michael Hall, “Gender and
Economic Interests in Tourism Prostitution,” Sociology of Tourism;
T 3/4 Midterm Examination
Th 3/6 Fieldnotes exercise, introduction
WEEK NINE – SPRING BREAK
T 3/18 Case Study: New Zealand
Th 3/20 Case Study: New Zealand
T 3/25 Continue discussion on Ritchie,
Mead, Te Awekotuku, “Tourism Strategy 2010” and “He Matai Tapoi”
Th 3/27 View:
Once Were Warriors
Jonathan Okamura, “The Illusion of Paradise: Privileging Multiculturalism in Hawai’i” from Making Majorities, Ed. Dru C. Gladney (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998)
T 4/1 Eco-tourisms, and Indigenous Management
View: Environmental Tourism
Form groups for Final Projects
Th 4/3 Guest lecture from Kelly Bricker
T 4/8 Sasha Davis, guest lecture on
tourism at Bikini Atoll
Th 4/10 Hawai’i:
Case study, continued.
Jane Desmond, “Let’s Lu’au” Staging Tourism: Bodies on Display from Waikiki to Sea World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).
T 4/15 Tourist Arts, Heritage Management, and Culture
“Looking in the Mirror at Fort DeRussy,” Oh Say Can You See?: The Semiotics of the Military in Hawai’I (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), 43 – 76.
Th 4/17 Tourist Arts, Heritage Management, and Culture
William Tramposch, “Te Papa: an invitation for redefinition,” Museum International 50:3 (1998): 28 – 32.
Ngawini Keelan, “Maori Heritage: Visitor Management and Interpretation,” Heritage Management in Australia and New Zealand. Ed.s Michael Hall and Simon McArthur. (Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1993), 95 – 102.
Sidney Moko Mead, “Nga Timunga Me Nga Paringa o Te Mana Maori: the Ebb and Flow of Mana Maori and the Changing Context of Maori Art,” Te Maori: Maori Art from New Zealand Collections (NY: Harry Abrams, Inc., 1984), 20 – 36.
Sidney Moko Mead, “The Nature of Taonga,” Landmarks, Visions, Bridges, 179 – 189.
T 4/22 Group work on reports
Th 4/24 Final reports
T 4/29 Final reports, SRTEs
Due: News We Can Use portfolio
Th 5/1 Final reports;
NEWS WE CAN USE
Some starting points
New Zealand sources
Major daily paper from Auckland, New Zealand.
Access to selected articles from various New Zealand papers
News items and press releases, accredited news agency
The Hawai’i Tribune – Major state daily paper
The Honolulu Advertiser – Honolulu’s biggest circulation daily
The Star Bulletin – Another Honolulu based daily
The New York Times has fantastic coverage of culture and travel related issues. You should skim through the “World” section, “Arts and Leisure,” the “Travel” supplement, and also look in the “Business” pages.
You will find many, many other sources online – please share them with the rest of the class as you find them. Be careful that you know where this news is coming from, though. Much of the “news” published online comes from partisan sources that, unlike newspapers, have no commitment to being objective or even being accurate.
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