Seminar in 20th Century Pacific Island History
Course Description: This seminar will examine struggles of Pacific Islanders for self-determination, mainly during the twentieth century. Despite the colonization of every island in the Pacific by l900, indigenous peoples still asserted their identity and will in various ways, from overt protest to non- compliance. The strategic and economic impact of the Second World War and Cold War hindered decolonization, even after political independence. Nevertheless, Pacific Island societies remain dynamic in their own ways and continue to find interdependent ways to survive in the modern world.
Requirements: Twelve weekly readings (1 single-author book or 3 articles) to be discussed in class, ten of which must be reviewed in 3-4 page essays (typed, double-spaced) to be duplicated and shared with the other participants (unless everyone is reading one of the required texts below). Alternatively, students may choose to write a 20-25 page research paper and then do only half as many weekly readings and written reviews. They should decide on a research topic early, with approval from the professor. Active oral participation, and regular, timely attendance are expected.
Texts for purchase:
Week I (August 26): Orientation, planning, overview.
Week II (September 25: HOLIDAY: Labor Day
Week III (Sept. 9): Guam: The Oldest Colony (Rogers)
Magellan encountered Guam in 1521, and Spain formally began to colonize it in 1668. The indigenous Chamorro resisted, nearly died out, then slowly "tamed" the Spaniards, only to be taken over by a new colonizer in 1898, the United States, and temporarily by Japan from 1941-44. Chamorros today continue to struggle against foreign domination, despite three centuries of colonial rule. How well does Robert Rogers tell this story, and what lessons can we learn from it about the impact of colonialism in Oceania?
Week IV (Sept. 16): Samoan Protest (Meleisea)
Samoan political disunity helped German and the U.S. to partition the islands in 1899, and World War I led to New Zealand's League of Nations Mandate over Western Samoa. In 1962, Western Samoa became the first Pacific Island country to achieve independence. Malama Meleisea, who is now head of the Center for Pacific Island Studies at the University of Auckland, wanted to write this story "from a Samoan point of view" (xiv). What strategies does he employ, and how effectively does he present indigenous perspectives on the Mau Movement, and on the persistence of the fa'a Samoa?
Week V (Sept. 23): Kwaio Resistance (Keesing)
The colonial notion of "pacification" assumed that native resistance was either isolated or misguided. Roger Keesing spent his anthropological career studying the Kwaio of Malaita, in the Solomon Islands. In his last major work, he develops an argument about how the Kwaio have maintained their own identity, despite pressures from colonial traders, missionaries and administrators to Westernize. What Kwaio strategies does he highlight, and how persuasive is his analysis of the nature of anti-colonial resistance?
Week VI (Sept. 30): Contesting Colonialism
This week's theme is other examples of colonial domination and resistance in Oceania. Nicholas Thomas has suggested that there was a "dialectic of international inequalities and local appropriations" that yielded complex entanglements between intruders and indigenous societies, whose responses ranged from collaboration to protest. Studies of resistance have broadened their focus to include what James Scott calls the weapons of the weak" (non- compliance). Was colonialism simply a passing phase, or was its legacy more profound?
Robert Aldrich: The French Presence in the South Pacific. 1842-1940. Judith Bennett: Wealth of the Solomons.
Joel Bonnemaison: The Tree and the Canoe.
H.C. Brookfield: Colonialism, Development and Independence: The Case of the Melanesian Islands in the South Pacific.
J.W. Davidson: Samoa mo Samoa.
Stewart Firth: New Guinea under the Germans.
James Griffin, Hank Nelson and Stewart Firth: Papua New Guinea: A Political History
Peter Hempenstall: Pacific Islanders under German Rule.
Peter Hempenstall & Noel Rutherford: Protest and Dissent in the Colonial Pacific.
Francis Hezel: Strangers in Their Own Land: A Century of Colonial Rule in the Caroline and Marshall Islands.
Margaret Jolly & Martha Macintyre (eds,): Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and Colonial Impact
Roger Keesing & Peter Corris: Lightning Meets West Wind.
Brij Lal, Doug Munro, Edward Beechert (eds.): Plantation Workers: Resistance and Accommodation
Sione Latukefu (ed.): Papua New Guinea: A Century of Colonial Impact. 1884- 1984.
Lamont Lindstrom: Cargo Cult: Strange Stories of Desire.
Grant McCall: Rapanui
Barrie MacDonald: Cinderellas of the Empire.
Maslyn and Barrie MacDonald: The Phosphateers.
Klaus Neumann: Not the Way It Really Was.
Colin Newbury: Tahiti Nui: Change and Survival in French Polynesia, 1767- 1945.
Henry Reynolds: The Law of the Land.
Margaret Rodman & Matthew Cooper: Pacification of Melanesia.
C D Rowley: The Destruction of Aboriginal Society.
Edward Schieffelin & Robert Crittenden: Like People You See in a Dream: First Contact in Six Papuan Societies.
Nicholas Thomas: Colonialism's Culture.
Nancy Viviani: Nauru: Phosphate and Political Progress.
Francis West: Hubert Murrary: The Australian Pro-Consul.
Edward Wolfers: Race Relations and Colonial Rule in Papua Guinea.
Peter Worsley: The Trumpet Shall Sound.
Peter Biskup: "Hahl at Herbertshoehe, 1896-1898: The Genesis of German Native Administration in New Guinea," in The History of Melanesia (Wagon Seminar), 77-99.
Bill Gamage: "The Rabble Strike, 1929," JPH 10-3 (1975) 3-29.
Peter Hempenstall: "Resistance in the German Pacific Empire: Towards a Theory of Early Colonial Response," Journal of the Polynesian Society 84:1 (1975) 5-24.
Garry Trompf: "Doesn't Colonialism Make You Mad? The So-called Mur- Madness' as an Index for the Study of New Religious Movements in Papua New Guinea during the Colonial Period," in Sione Latukefu (ed.): Papua New Guinea: A Century of Colonial Impact 1884-1984, 247-78.
Arthur Vidich: Political Factionalism in Palau, chapter IV.
Francis Williams: The Vailala Madness and Other Essays, IV.
Week VII (October 7): Nanshin and World War II
Imperial expansion into the Pacific Islands is often thought of as a European or American phenomenon, but in 1914, Japan seized Micronesia, where it displaced German colonialists. Japan itself had been threatened by foreign warships in the nineteenth century but had rapidly modernized and become an aggressive actor in geopolitics. To what extent did Japan offer an alternative to Euroamerican colonialism, as it had promised? What was the impact of World War II on Oceania?
The Big Death: Solomon Islanders Remember World War II.
Paul Clyde: Japan's Mandate in the Pacific.
Hilary Conroy & Harry Wray (eds.): Pearl Harbor Re-examined. Masayo Duus: Unlikely Liberators
Henry Frei: Japan's Southern Advance and Australia.
Akira Iriye: Pacific Estrangement: Japanese and American Expansion. 1897- 1911, and Power and Culture.
H. Laracy: Pacific Protest: The Maasina Rule Movement.
John Lawrey: The Cross of Lorraine in the South Pacific: Australia and the Free French Movement, 1940-42.
Mark Peattie: Nan'yo: The Rise and Fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945.
Tony Palomo: An Island in Agony.
John Stephan: Hawaii under the Rising Sun.
Geoffrey White and Lamont Lindstrom: The Pacific Theater.
Tadao Yanaihara: Pacific Islands under Japanese Mandate
Dirk Ballendorf: "Secrets without Substance: U.S. Intelligence in the Japanese Mandates, 1915-1935," JPH 19:2 (1984) 83-99.
Sachiko Hatanaka: Culture Change in Micronesia under the Japanese Administration.
K.S. Inglis: "War, Race and Loyalty in New Guinea," in The History of Melanesia (Waigani Seminar), pp. 503-29.
Hugh Laracy: "Marching Rule and the Missions," JPH 6 (1971), 96-114.
Felix Moos: "The Old and the New: Japan and the United States in the Pacific," in Daniel Hughes & Sherman Lingenfelter (eds.): Political Development in Micronesia.
Hank Nelson: "Taim Bilong Pait: The Impact of the Second World War on Papua New Guinea," in A. W. McCoy (ed.): Southeast Asia under Japanese Occupation, 144-66.
Mark Peattie: "Introduction" in Ramon Myers & Mark Peattie (eds.): The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945
David Purcell: "The Economics of Exploitation: The Japanese in the Mariana, Marshall, and Caroline Islands," JPH 11-3 (1976) 189-211.
K.E. Read: "Effects of the Pacific War in the Markham Valley, New Guinea," Oceania (8), 93-116.
Donald Shuster: "State Shinto in Micronesia during Japanese Rule, 1914-1945," Pacific Studies, 2 (Spring 1982) 20-43.
Week VIII (Oct. 14): Cold War: Free Association?
During the Cold War (1945-90), the United States and its allies tried to deny Soviet access to the Pacific Islands and used their colonies for nuclear testing. Moreover, the Solomon Report of 1963 recommended that the U S develop its "strategic" Trust Territory in Micronesia in such a way that the indigenous peoples would continue to seek U S. economic assistance. A Compact of Free Association was approved by the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia and Palau; the Northern Marianas became a U.S. Commonwealth. In return for aid money, the U.S. retains military options. How "free" is such ongoing association with a superpower?
Jim Albertini et al: The Dark Side of Paradise: Hawaii in a Nuclear World.
Bob Aldridge & Ched Meyers: Resisting the Serpent: Palau's Struggle for Self- Determination.
Bengt and Marie-Therese Danielsson: Poisoned Reign: French Nuclear Colonialism in the Pacific.
Jane Dlbblin: Day of Two Suns: U.S. Nuclear Testing and the Pacific Islanders.
Stewart Firth: Nuclear Playground.
Carl Heine: Micronesia at the Crossroads.
Daniel Hughes and Sherwood Lingenfelter (eds.): Political Development in Micronesia.
Gifford Johnson: Collision Course at Kwajalein: Marshall Islanders in the Shadow of the Bomb.
Robert Kiste: The Bikinians: A Study in Forced Migration. Paul Kluge: The Edge of Paradise.
Sherwood Lingenfelter: Yap: Political Leadership and Culture Change in an Island Society.
Mac and Leslie Marshall: Silent Voices Speak: Women and Prohibition in Truk, and Weekend Warriors.
Timothy Maga: Defending Paradise: The U.S. and Guam.
Donald McHenry: Micronesia: Trust Betrayed.
Norman Meller: Constitutionalism in Micronesia.
James Peoples: Island in Trust: Culture Change and Dependence in a Micronesian Community.
Sue Roff: Overreaching in Paradise: United States Policy in Palau since 1945.
Laura Souder: Daughters of the Island: Contemporary Chamorro Women Organizers on Guam.
Laura Souder and Robert Underwood (eds.): Chamorro Self-Determination.
William Tagupa: Politics in French Polynesia, l945-75.
Anne Perez Hattori: "Righting Civil Wrongs: The Guam Congress Walkout of l949," Isla, l995.
Stephen Henningham: France and the South Pacific, chs. 5-7.
Robert Kiste: "Termination of the U.S. Trusteeship in Micronesia," JPH, 2l:3 (1986), 127-38.
Jane Margold with Donna Bellorado: "Matrilineal Heritage: A Look at the Power of Contemporary Micronesian Women," in Madeleine Goodman (ed.): Women in Asia & the Pacific, 129-51
Leonard Mason: "A Marshallese Nation Emerges from the Political Fragmentation of American Micronesia," Pacific Studies, 13:1 (1989), 1-46.
Samuel McPhetres: "Challenges to Democracy in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas," in R.Crocombe et al: Culture and Democracy in the South Pacific.
Richard Parmentier: "The Rhetoric of Free Association and Palau's Political Struggle," The Contemporary Pacific 3-1 (1991) 146-58.
Glen Peterson: "A Cultural Analysis of the Ponapean Independence Vote in the 1983 Plebiscite," Pacific Studies, 9-1 (1985), 13-52, and "The Federated States of Micronesia's 1990 Constitutional Convention: Calm Before the Storm?" The Contemporary Pacific, 6-2 (1994), 337-69.
H. Schwalbenberg: "The Plebiscite on the Future Political Status of the Federated States of Micronesia: Factionalism, Separatism and Sovereignty," JPH, 19-3 (1984) 172- 84, and "Marshallese Political Developments: No to Commonwealth," JPH, 20-2 (1985) 172-84.
Donald Shuster: "Elections, Compact, and Assassination in the Republic of Palau," Pacific Studies, 12-1 (1988) 23-48.
Jonathan Weisgall: "The Nuclear Nomads of Bikini Atoll," Foreign Policy, 39 (1978) 74- 98.
Week IX (Oct. 21): New Caledonia or Kanaky?
French colonialism has made New Caledonia a bipolar society, in ethnic terms. Indigenous Kanak comprise 45% of the local population, caldoches (descendants of European settlers and convicts) 35%, and Asians and Polynesians 20%. The latter two social categories usually vote loyalist, while the Front de Liberation Nationale Kanak et Socialiste (FLNKS) wants independence. After violence in the 1980s, the Matignon Accord postponed a referendum on independence until 1998. The FLNKS controls the North and Islands, while the loyalist Rassemblement pour la Caledonie dans la Republique (RPCR) rules the more populous, industrial South. Nickel mining has kept France interested in retaining New Caledonia, but in the 1990s new political alignments make the future hard to predict. What do you think is the solution, "Kanaky"?
Robert Aldrich: France and the South Pacific since 1940.
John Connell: New Caledonia or Kanaky? The Political History of a French Colony.
Thierry Desjardins: Nouvelle-Caledonie: Ils veulent rester francais.
Myriam Dornoy: Politics in New Caledonia. J
ean Guiart: La terre est le sang des morts.
Stephen Henningham: France and the South Pacific.
Maurice Leenhardt: Gens de la Grande Terre, and Do Kamo.
Martyn Lyons: The Totem and the Tricolor.
David Robie: Blood on Their Banner, chapters 4-7, 14-15.
Alain Saussol: L'Heritage.
Michael Spencer et al: New Caledonia: Essays on Nationalism and Dependency.
Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff: The French Pacific Islands: French Polynesia and New Caledonia.
Jean-Marie Tjibaou: Kanake: The Melanesian Way.
Alan Ward: Land and Politics in New Caledonia
Bronwen Douglas: "Conflict & Alliance in a Colonial Context: Case Studies in New Caledonia," JPH 15-1 (1980) 21-51.
John Connell: "Wallis and Futuna: Stability and Change at the Ends of Empire," in Robert Aldrich (ed.): France, Oceania, and Australia: Past and Present, 91- 116.
Jean Guiart: "Forerunners of Melanesian Nationalism," Oceania 22-2 (1951) 81- 90, and "Progress and Regress in New Caledonia," JPH, 27-1 (1992), 3-28.
Jean Houbert: "Settlers and Natives in Decolonization," The Round Table, 295 (1985) 217-29.
Linda Latham: "Revolt Re-examined: the 1878 Insurrection in New Caledonia," JPH 10-3 (1975) 48-62.
Susanna Ounei: For Kanak Independence: The Fight Against French Rule in New Caledonia.
Karl Rensch: "Wallis and Futuna: Total Dependency," in Politics in Polynesia.
Alain Saussol: "New Caledonia: Colonization and Reaction," in R.Crocombe (ed.): Land Tenure in the Pacific.
Jean-Marie Tjibaou: "The Renaissance of Melanesian Culture in New Caledonia," Ethnies, 8-9-10 (Spring 1989), 74-78.
Yann Celene Uregei: "New Caledonia: confrontation to colonial rule," in Politics in Melanesia.
Week X (Oct. 28): The Fiji Coups
Fiji also became a bipolar society under British colonialism because in the 1870s, Governor Arthur Gordon segregated Fijians into their villages under a neo-traditional chiefly hierarchy while importing indentured labor from India to
raise sugar cane for export. At independence in 1970, the Indians comprised 50% of the population and dominated most businesses and professions but were not allowed to own land, 83% of which was reserved exclusively for Fijian families. The 1970 constitution tried to balance Indian and Fijian interests, but when the high chiefs lost power in the 1987 election, Colonial Sitiveni Rabuka pulled a military coup. Was the coup really necessary, and what have been its consequences for Fiji--and its implications in Oceania?
Ahmet Ali: From Plantation to Politics: Studies on the Fiji Indians.
Eddie Dean & Stan Ritova: Rabuka: No Other Way.
Anselmo Fatiaki et al: Rotuma: Split Island.
E.K. Fisk: The Political Economy of Independent Fiji.
Peter France: Charter of the Land.
K.L. Gillion: Fiji Indians: Challenge to European Dominance.
Stuart Greif: The Overseas Chinese in Fiji.
Michael Howard: Fiji: Race and Politics in an Island State.
Bruce Knapman: Fiji's Economic History. 1874-1939.
Brij Lal: Girmitiyas: The Origins of the Fiji Indians, Power and Prejudice: The Making of the Fiji Crisis, and Broken Waves: A History of the Fiji Islands in the 20th Century.
Timothy Macnaught: The Fijian Colonial Experience: A Study of the Neotraditional Order under British Colonial Rule.
Adrian Mayer: Indians In Fiji, and Peasants in the Pacific.
Norman Meller and James Anthony: Fiji Goes to the Polls: The Crucial Legislative Council Elections of 1963.
R.S. Milne: Politics in Ethnically Bipolar States: Guyana, Malaysia, Fiji.
Michael Mynah: Brown or White? A History of the Fiji Sugar Industry, 1873- 1973.
Robert Norton: Race Relations in Fiji.
Asesela Ravuvu: Facade of Democracy.
Deryck Scarr: Fiji: Politics of Illusion. The Military Coups, and Fiji: A Short History.
Deryck Scarr: Ratu Sukuna: Soldier, Statesman, Man of Two Worlds.
Subramani: The Indo-Fijian Experience.
J.L.V. Sukuna: Fiji: The Three-Legged Stool.
The Contemporary Pacific 2-1 (1990) special issue on Fiji.
Ron Crocombe: Land Tenure in the Pacific, chapter on Fiji.
Timothy Macnaught: "We Seem No Longer like Fijians: Some Perceptions of Social Change in Fijian History," Pacific Studies, 1-1 (1977) 15-24.
Vijay Naidu: "Fiji: The State, Labour Aristocracy and the Fiji Labour Party," in Antony Hooper et al: Class and Culture in the South Pacific, 210-29.
Asesela Ravuvu: "Fiji: Contradictory Ideologies and Development," in Antony Hooper et al: Class and Culture in the South Pacific, 230-42.
David Robie: Blood on Their Banner, chapters 11-13.
Week XI (November 4): Nation-Building in Melanesia
Despite the economic advantage of mineral wealth, the new states of Melanesia face problems uniting their culturally diverse populations into 'nation-states." The elites of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands have all rejected secession as an option and tried to enforce their inherited colonial boundaries, sometimes appealing to ideas like kastom or a "Melanesian way" to combat localism. West Papua (Irian Jaya) is in revolt against Indonesia. What do these conflicts say about "nationalism" in Melanesia?
George Atkin et al: Solomon Islands Politics.
John Beast: The Santo Rebellion.
Judith Bennett: Wealth of the Solomons.
Ben Finney: Big Men and Business: Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in the New Guinea Highlands.
James Griffin, Hank Nelson and Stewart Firth: Papua New Guinea: A Political History.
Sione Latukefu (ed.): Papua New Guinea: A Century of Colonial Impact, 1884- 1984.
Walter Lini: Beyond Pandemonium.
Ron May (ed.): Micronationalist Movements in Papua New Guinea.
R. May: Between Two Nations: The Indonesia-Papua New Guinea Border and West Papua Nationalism.
Eugene Ogan: Business and Cargo: Socioeconomic Change among the Nasioi of Bougainville.
Douglas Oliver: Black Islanders: A Personal Perspective of Bougainville, 1937- 1991.
Michael Somare: Sana: An Autobiography.
Andrew Strathern: Ongka: A Self-Account by a New Guinean Big Man.
Howard Van Trease: The Politics of Land in Vanuatu.
Alexander Wanek: The State & Its Enemies in Papua New Guinea.
Richard Feinberg: "The Solomon Islands' Tenth Anniversary of Independence: Problems of National Symbolism and National Integration," Pacific Studies, 13- 2 (1990) 19-40.
Michael Goddard: "The Rascal Road: Crime, Prestige, and Development in Papua New Guinea," CP 7-1 (1995), 55-80.
J.M. Herlihy: "Decolonization politics in Solomon Islands: the model that never was," in R. May and Hank Nelson (eds.): Melanesia: Beyond Diversity, Vol. II, pp. 571- 600.
Michael Howard: Mining. Politics, and Development in the South Pacific, chapters 1, 3, 4.
Sam Kaima: "The Evolution of Cargo Cults and the Emergence of Political Parties in Melanesia," JSO 92-93 (1991) 173-80.
Hugh Laracy: "Bougainville Secessionism," JSO 92-93 (1991) 53-60.
Norman McQueen: "Beyond Tok Win: The Papua New Guinea Intervention in Vanuatu, 1980," Pacific Affairs, 61-2 (1988) 235-52, and "Sharpening the Spearhead: Subregionalism in Melanesia," Pacific Studies, 12-2 (1989) 330-52. Eugene Ogan: "The Cultural Background of the Bougainville Crisis," JSO, 92- 93 (1991V, 61-68.
Stephen Pokawin: "Papua New Guinea: aftermath of colonialism" in Politics in Melanesia.
Ralph Premdas, Jeff Stevens & Peter Larmour: "The Western Breakaway Movement in the Solomon Islands," Pacific Studies. 7-2 (1984) 34-67.
Ralph Premdas: "Melanesian Socialism: Vanuatu's Quest for Self- Determination and Problems of Implementation," Pacific Studies, 11-1 (1987), 107-29.
Francis Saemala: "Solomon Islands: Uniting the Diversity," in Politics in Melanesia.
Yaw Safu: "Aspects of Evolving Political Culture in Papua New Guinea," in The Politics of Evolving Cultures in the Pacific Islands (BYU-Hawaii) 256-279.
Robert Tonkinson: "Vanuatu Values: A Changing Symbiosis," Pacific Studies, 5-2 (1982) 32-63.
Terence Wesley-Smith: "Lost Melanesian Brothers: The Irian Jaya Problem and Its Implications for Papua New Guinea," Pacific Studies, 10-3 (1987) 27-52.
Paias Wingti: "Standing by Our Principles in Tough Times," in From Rhetoric to Reality: Papers from the 15th Waigani Seminar, 15-21.
Week XII (Nov. 11): Mana Maori Motuhake (Walker)
Aotearoa (New Zealand) became a formal British colony by the Treaty of Waitangi of 1840, which was intended by reformers in London to avoid the injustices of earlier colonizations. Yet the Maori and English versions differed over what was ceded to Britain, land wars ensued, and the Maori became a marginalized minority. Ranginui Walker has given voice to Maori protests since the 1970s, and he now offers us a Maori history of Aotearoa. What are the strengths or weaknesses of his book? As a Maori, what solutions does he recommend?
Week XIII (Nov. 18): Hawaiian Sovereignty
Like the Maori, indigenous Hawaiians (kanaka maoli) have become a minority in their own islands (20%). Yet since the 1970s, Hawaiian activists have been waging a struggle to assert their identity and revive their culture. Kaho'olawe has been returned by the Navy to the State, and in 1993 the U.S. Congress formally apologized for complicity in the 1893 overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. Can the Hawaiian nation achieve some sort of indigenous sovereignty?
Edward Beechert: Working in Hawaii: A Labor History.
Roger Bell: Last Among Equals: Hawaiian Statehood and American Politics.
O.A. Bushnell: The Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in Hawai'i.
George Cooper and Gavan Daws: Land and Power in Hawaii: The Democratic Years.
Michael Kioni Dudley and Keoni Kealoha Agard: A Hawaiian Nation II: A Call for Hawaiian Sovereignty.
Lilikala Kame'eleihiwa: Native Land and Foreign Desires: Pehea La E Pono Ai?
George Kanahele: Ku Kanaka (Stand Tall): A Search for Hawaiian Values.
Noel Kent: Hawaii: Islands under the Influence
Lili'uokalani: Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen.
Melody MacKenzie: Native Hawaiian Rights Handbook.
Linda Parker: Native American Estate: The Struggle over Indian and Hawaiian Lands.
David Stannard: Before the Horror: The Population of Hawaii on the Eve of Western Contact.
Ronald Takaki: Pau Hana: Plantation Life and Labor in Hawaii
Haunani-Kay Trask: From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawai'i.
Emmett Aluli interview, Honolulu Magazine (July 1988) 42-51.
Poka Laenui: "The World Council of Indigenous Peoples: an Interview with Hayden Burgess," The Contemporary Pacific, 2-2 (1990) 336-48.
Davianna MacGregor: "Hawaiians: Organizing in the 1970s," Amerasia, 7-2 (1980) 45- 55.
Matthew Spriggs: "Facing the Nation: Archaeologists and Hawaiians in the Era of Sovereignty," The Contemporary Pacific 3-2 (1991) 380-92.
Haunani-Kay Trask: Hawaii: Colonization and Decolonization," in A. Hooper et al: Class a Culture in the South Pacific.
Week XIV (Nov. 25): MIRAB or Dependency?
Western Samoa and Tonga are politically independent, but about half their populations live overseas and send home money and goods to their families, while their governments rely heavily on foreign aid money from industrial countries seeking markets. Meanwhile, the Cook Islands and Niue chose Free Association with New Zealand, Tokelau likes being a New Zealand territory, and American Samoa prefers to remain a U.S. Territory. Kiribati and Tuvalu are independent but rely on foreign aid, migration, trust funds or stamp sales to provide needed foreign exchange. Scholars have invented the term MIRAB (migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy) to describe the international relationships emerging in the Pacific. Is MIRAB a form of dependency, is Free Association a transition toward independence, or are both experiments with new forms of sovereignty in an interdependent world?
Ian Campbell: Island Kingdom: Tonga. Ancient and Modern.
Murray Chapman (ed.): Nobility and Identity in the Island Pacific.
John Connell: Sovereignty and Survival: Island Microstates in the Third World.
Ron Crocombe et al: Cook Islands Politics: The Inside Story.
Te'o Fairbairn: Island Economies.
J.T. Fawcett & B.V. Carino (eds.): Pacific Bridges: The New Immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands.
Robert Franco: Samoans in Hawaii: A Demographic Profile.
Kiribati: Aspects of History.
Michael Lieber (ed.): Exiles and Migrants in Oceania. Grant McCall and John Connell (eds.): A World Perspective on Pacific Islander Migration.
Cluny Macpherson, Bradd Shore and Robert Franco (eds.): New Neighbors: Islanders in Adaptation.
Paul Shankman: Migration and Underdevelopment: The Case of Western Samoa.
Martin Silverman: Disconcerting Issues: Meaning and Struggle in a Resettled Pacific Community.
Howard van Trease (ed.): Atoll Politics: Kiribati.
H. Vilitama et al: History of Niue.
Richard Bedford: "Migration and Development in the Pacific Islands," in Ramesh Thakur (ed.): The South Pacific-Problems, Issues and Prospects, 145- 68.
I.G. Bertram and R.F. Watters: "The MIRAB Economy in South Pacific Microstates," Pacific Viewpoint, 26-3 (1985) 497-519.
Murray Chapman: "Pacific Island Movement and Socioeconomic Change: Metaphors of Misunderstanding," Population and Development Review, 17-2 (1991), 261-92.
Wendy Cowling: "Motivations for Contemporary Tongan Migration," in P. Herda, J. Terrell and N. Gunson (eds.): Tongan Culture and History, 187-205.
Hima Douglas: "Niue: The Silent Village Green," in A. Hooper et al: Class & Culture in the South Pacific.
Eni Faleomavaega: "Some Perspectives on American Samoa's Political Relationship with the United States," Pacific Studies, 13-2 (1990) 119-23.
Christian Giese & Casimilo Perez: "Tokelau: micro-politics," in Politics in Polynesia.
Geoffrey Hayes: "Migration, Metascience and Development Policy in Island Polynesia," The Contemporary Pacific 3-1 (1991) 1-58.
Francis Hezel & Thomas McGrath: "The Great Flight Northward: Federated States of Micronesia Migrants to Guam and the Northern Marianas," Pacific Studies, 13-1 (1989) 47-64.
Rodney Hills: "The 1990 Election in Tonga," The Contemporary Pacific, 3-2 (1991) 357- 79.
Le Mamea T.S. Ioane: "Pacific Islanders in New Zealand," in The Politics of Evolving Cultures in the Pacific Islands, (BYU-Hawaii) 307-20.
Tito Isala: "Tuvalu: atoll nation," in Politics in Polynesia.
Kerry James: "Tonga's Pro-Democracy Movement," Pacific Affairs, 67-2 (1994), 242-63.
Solomona Kalauni: "Niue: The World's Smallest Microstate," in Politics in Polynesia.
Arnold Liebowitz: Colonial Emancipation in the Pacific and the Caribbean, chapter on Cook Islands.
Gordon Lewthwaite, Christiane Mainzer & Patrick Holland: "From Polynesia to California: Samoan Migration and Its Sequel," JPH 8 (1973) 133-57.
Cluny MacPherson: "Economic and Political Restructuring and the Sustainability of Migrant Remittances: the Case of Western Samoa," The Contemporary Pacific, 4- 1 (1992) 109-36.
George Marcus: "Power on the Extreme Periphery: The Perspective of Tongan Elites in the Modern World System," Pacific Viewpoint, 22-1 (1981), 48-64.
Edward Michal: "American Samoa or Eastern Samoa? The Potential for American Samoa to become Freely Associated with the United States," The Contemporary Pacific, 4-1 (1992) 137-60.
Katherine Nakata: "The Costs of Fa'a Samoa Political Culture's Complementarity with the Modern World System," in The Politics of Evolving Cultures in the Pacific Islands (BYU-Hawaii) 321-57.
Iaveta Short: "The Cook Islands: Autonomy, Self-Government and Independence," in A. Hooper et al: Class and Culture in the South Pacific.
Grant Simpson: "Wallerstein's World-Systems Theory and the Cook Islands: A Critical Examination," Pacific Studies, 14-1 (1990) 73-94.
Jeffrey Sissons: "Royal Backbone and Body Politic: Aristocratic Titles and Cook Islands Nationalism since Self Government," The Contemporary Pacific 6-2 (1994), 371- 96.
Fofo Sunia: "Fa'a Amerika?" in Politics in Polynesia.
Week XV (December 2): Diasporas (Hau'ofa and Waddell)
In 1994, Tongan sociologist Epeli Hau'ofa took a stand against the gloomy economic scenarios being published about the future of Oceania. In his speech, "Our Sea of Islands," he tried to empower grassroots islander migrants and their families and connect modern diasporas with the voyaging dynamic of their ancestors. This book edited by Hau'ofa and Waddell contains a debate about whether this new approach is too optimistic or not. After reading arguments on various sides, what do you think? Are resource-poor Pacific Island countries doomed to perpetual dependency and Westernization beyond their control, or can they still choose their fates?
Week XVI (Dec. 9): A Pacific Way? (research papers due)
The post-independence quest for regional, national and modern identities in Oceania coincides with post-modernist attacks on all hegemonic paradigms. Sometimes, indigenous nationalists mobilize these critiques to liberate their own cultures from Western preconceptions, but Western critical theorists also attack essentialist versions of "culture." Whose Pacific is really "authentic" today? Can a "Pacific Way" harmonize outside influence and indigenous nationalism?
Ron Crocombe: The Pacific Way.
Alan Duff: Once Were Warriors, and Maori: The Crisis and the Challenge.
Patricia Grace: Potiki.
Epeli Hau'ofa: Tales of the Tikongs.
Jocelyn Linnekin & Lin Poyer (eds.): Cultural Identity and Ethnicity in the Pacific.
Bernard Narokobi: The Melanesian Way.
Nicholas Thomas & Margaret Jolly (eds.): The Politics of Tradition in the South Pacific.
Jean-Marie Tjibaou: Kanake': The Melanesian Way.
Albert Wendt: Sons for the Return Home, and Pouliuli.
Francis Bugotu: "The Impact of Western Culture on Solomon Islands Society: A Melanesian Reaction," in The History of Melanesia (Waigani Seminar) 549- 56.
Vicente Diaz: "Simply Chamorro: Telling Tales of Demise and Survival on Guam," The Contemporary Pacific 6-1 (1994), 29-58.
Allan Hanson: "The Making of the Maori: Culture Invention and Its Logic," American Anthropologist, 91 (1989) 890-902.
Epeli Hau'ofa: "The New South Pacific Society: Integration and Independence," in A.Hooper et al: Class & Culture in the South Pacific, and "The Future of Our Past," in R. Kiste & R. Herr (eds.): The Pacific in the Year 2000.
Vilsoni Hereniko: "Representations of Cultural Identities," in K. Howe, R. Kiste & B. Lal (eds.): Tides of History, ch. 17.
Margaret Jolly: "Specters of Inauthenticity," The Contemporary Pacific, 4-1 (Spring 1992) 49-72.
Roger Keesing: "Creating the Past: Custom and Identity in the Contemporary Pacific," The Contemporary Pacific, I (1989) 19-42.
Finau Kolo: "Historiography: The Myth of Indigenous Authenticity," in P.Herda, J.Terrell & N.Gunson (eds.): Tongan Culture and History, 1-11.
Peter Larmour: "The Politics of Race and Ethnicity: Theoretical Perspectives on Papua New Guinea," Pacific Studies, 15-2 (1992), 87-108.
Sione Latukefu: "The Definition of Authentic Oceanic Cultures with Particular Reference to Tonga," Pacific Studies, 5-2 (1980) 60-81.
Malama Meleisea: "Ideology in Pacific Studies: A Personal View," in Antony Hooper et al: Class & Culture in the South Pacific, 140-52, and Change & Adaptations in Western Samoa.
Caroline Ralston: "Maori Women and the Politics of Tradition: What Roles and Power Did, Do, and Should Maori Women Exercise?" The Contemporary Pacific 5-1 (1993), 23-44.
Albert Wendt: "Novelists and Historians and the Art of Remembering," in Antony Hooper et al: Class & Culture in the South Pacific, 78-92.
Jean-Marie Tjibaou: "Recherche didentite melanesienne et societe traditionelle," JSO 32 (1976) 281-92, and "The Renaissance of Melanesian Culture in New Caledonia," Ethnies 4 (8-9-10) l989, 74-78.
[Subject: Pacific/Comparative, History]
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