GENDER ISSUES IN THE CONTEMPORARY PACIFIC ISLANDS
University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Fall 1998
Instructor: Anne Perez Hattori
University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Honolulu, HI 96822
Office: Sak B203
In recent years, gender has become a popular lens through which Pacific Islanders' historical and contemporary experiences have been analyzed and understood. At the very least, many of the recent gender-informed studies have brought the experiences of Pacific women out of the margins of history, and have thus enhanced and deepened our knowledge of Islanders' pasts. The same can be noted of current studies of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and gender liminal persons. But these works do more than simply expand our range of analysis to include a wider variety of historical actors and agents. The field of gender studies also sensitizes us to a wider world of symbols, signs, and metaphors which inform Islanders' lives, both past and present.
We will consider the experiences of men and women from across the Pacific Islands in particular historical and contemporary contexts. We will focus on the ways in which the varied histories of such encounters as colonialism, militarism, tourism, and contemporary feminism have influenced and have been influenced by particular gender relationships in the Islands. We will also attend to questions of representation--to the ways in which Islanders have been portrayed and understood by both indigenous and non-indigenous authors in popular cultural media such as film, video, magazines, creative writing, and photography, as well as in an ever-expanding body of academic writing. Furthermore, our focus on gender will be combined with a consideration of issues of race, power, and class.
Attendance and participation: 10%
Because this course will meet only once a week, I request your prompt attendance at each meeting. Furthermore, while I will begin each session with an introductory lecture on the weekly topic, for the most part this class will be a discussion-oriented one which will rely upon the active participation of you and your fellow classmates.
Critical review essays: 6 @ 10% each = 60%
For 6 weeks of the semester, you must submit a 2-3 page essay which engages in a critical analysis of the readings for the week. You may choose whichever 6 topics most interest you. Essays must be submitted at the end of the class period.
These short papers are not intended to be summaries, but are rather analytic thought-pieces. Approach the articles critically, always interrogating the relevance and politics of what you read. Remember to consider the articles in the context of the overall theme for the week. What did or didn't you like about the article's contents? What did or didn't you agree with? What did you consider to be provocative and why? Did you read anything that disturbed you and why? These are the kinds of issues I want you to address.
Discussion Facilitator: 2 @ 15% each = 30%
You will be asked to lead 2 class sessions of your choosing--which you will sign up for in the second and third weeks of class. In conducting the class for those weeks, I would ask you to prepare a short (10-15 minutes) presentation based upon the required readings which both summarizes and critiques their themes and approaches. You should also prepare questions and discussion points in order to facilitate the participation of all class members. I would encourage you to come and visit me in my office to discuss possible ideas for classroom conversation.
Zohl de Ishtar, Daughters of the Pacific
Sia Figiel, Where We Once Belonged
Lynn Wilson, Speaking to Power: Gender and Politics in the Western Pacific
WEEKLY SCHEDULE OF READINGS:
Wk 1, Aug. 26: COURSE INTRODUCTION
Wk 2, Sept. 2: SURVEYING THE EURO-AMERICAN GENDER CANON
Audre Lorde, "Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining Difference." Sister Outsider, Essays and Speeches. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press, 1984, 114-123.
Henrietta Moore, "The Divisions Within: Sex, Gender and Sexual Difference." A Passion for Difference: Essays in Anthropology and Gender, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994, 8-27.
Joan Scott, "Gender: A Useful Category of Analysis." American Historical Review 91:5, 1053-1075.
Moira Gatens, "A Critique of the Sex/Gender Distinction." In Sneja Gunew, ed., A Reader in Feminist Knowledge. London: Routledge, 1991, 139-157.
Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.
Christine Stansell, "The Road From Seneca Falls." The New Republic Aug 10, 1998, 26-38.
Wk 3, Sept. 9: INTRODUCTION TO GENDER ISSUES IN THE PACIFIC
Christine Dureau, "From Sisters to Wives: Changing Contexts of Maternity on Simbo, Western Solomon Islands." Maternities and Modernities: Colonial and Postcolonial Experiences in Asia and the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press, 1997, 239-274.
Dan Taulapapa McMullin, "Cities of the Plain Like Islands in the Sea." Wasafiri 25, Spring 1997, 57-59.
"Polynesia: The Third Sex," Pacific Islands Monthly 49:8, August 1978, 10-13.
Caroline Ralston, "Polyandry, 'pollution,' 'prostitution,': the problems of eurocentrism and androcentrism in Polynesian studies." In Barbara Caine, E.A. Grosz, and Marie de Lepervanche, eds., Crossing Boundaries: Feminisms and the Critique of Knowledges. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1988, 71-80.
Haunani-Kay Trask, "Feminism and Indigenous Hawaiian Nationalism." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 21:4, Summer 1996, 906-915.
Raleigh Watts, "The Polynesian Mahu." Oceanic Homosexualities, 171-184.
Niko Besnier, "Polynesian Gender Liminality in Time and Space." In Gilbert Herdt, ed., Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. New York: Zone Books, 1994, 285-328.
Allan Hanson, "Female Pollution in Polynesia?" The Journal of the Polynesian Society 91:3, September 1982, 335-381.
Kerry E. James, "Effeminate Males and Changes in the Construction of Gender in Tonga." Pacific Studies 17:2, June 1994, 39-69.
Stephen O. Murray, "Female Homosexuality in Pacific Societies: Introduction." Oceanic Homosexualities. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992, 397-405.
Caroline Ralston, "The study of women in the Pacific." The Contemporary Pacific 4:162-175.
Wk 4, Sept. 16: GENDER AND LITERATURE (SHORT STORY, POETRY)
Afu Billy, "Against My Will." In Afu Billy, Hazel Lulei, and Jully Sipolo, eds. Mi Mere: Poetry and Prose by Solomon Islands Women Writers. Honiara: University of the South Pacific, Solomon Islands Centre, 1983, 17-19.
Canisius Filibert, "The Call of Mother" in Storyboard: A Journal of Pacific Imagery 1, 1991, Mangilao, Guam: University of Guam Press, 38-41. Also "Time" and "Wolf" in Storyboard 4, 1996, 30-31.
Pesi Fonua, "Point of No Return." In Albert Wendt, Ed. Nuanua: Pacific Writing in English Since 1980. Honolulu: University of Hawai`i Press, 1995, 362-367.
Epi Enari Fuaau, "The Olomatua." In Nuanua, 267-272.
Lisa Kahaleole Chang Hall and J. Kehaulani Kauanui, "Same-Sex Sexuality in Pacific Literature." In Russell Leong, ed., Asian American Sexualities: Dimensions of the Gay & Lesbian Experience. New York and London: Routledge, 1996, 113-118.
Keri Hulme, "While My Guitar Gently Sings." Te Kaihau=The Windeater. New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1987, 107-117.
Lani Kaahumanu, "Hapa haole wahine." In Loraine Hutchins and Lani Kaahumanu, eds., Bi Any Other Name: Bisexual People Speak Out. Boston: Alyson Publications, Inc., 1991, 306-323.
Kauraka Kauraka, "Darkness within the Light." In Nuanua, 50-51.
Celo Kulagoe, "The Toothpick." In Nuanua, 334.
Jully Makini, "Civilised Girl," "A Man's World," and "Roviana Girl." In Nuanua, 341-342.
Dan Taulapapa McMullin, "Mala in Minnesota: Notes on Sex, Race and Violence."
Grace Mera Molisa, "Custom," "Neo-Colonialism," and "Status Costs." In Nuanua, 390-393.
Caroline Sinavaiana, "Ianeta's Dance" and "War News." In Nuanua, 287-288.
Jully Sipolo, "Wife Bashing," "Development," "Mother," "Urban Life" and "Anti-Climax." In Praying Parents: A Second Collection of Poems. Honiara, 1986.
Jully Sipolo, "The Hypocrite," "A Man's World," and "Civilized Girl." In Civilized Girl. Suva: South Pacific Creative Arts Society, 1981.
Florence Syme-Buchanan, "Boat Girl." In Nuanua, 53-56.
Konai Helu Thaman, "You, The Choice of my Parents." In Terry Locke, Peter Low and John Winslade, eds. White Feathers: An Anthology of New Zealand and Pacific Island Poetry on the Theme of Peace. Christchurch, NZ: Hazard Press, 1990, 81.
Talosaga Tolovae, "Polynesian Old Man." In Nuanua, 362.
Momoe Von Reiche, "My Husband." In White Feathers, 47.
Wk 5, Sept. 23: GENDER AND REPRESENTATION
Margaret Jolly, "From Point Venus to Bali Ha'i: Eroticism and Exoticism in Representations of the Pacific." In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly, eds., Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure: Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997, 99-122.
Catherine Lutz and Jane Collins, Reading National Geographic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, 119-153.
Bernard Smith. European Vision and the South Pacific. New York, 1985.
Nicholas Thomas, "Melanesians and Polynesians: Ethnic Typifications inside and outside Anthropology." In Oceania: Visions, Artifacts, Histories. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997, 133-155.
Wk 6, Sept. 30: GENDER AND COLONIALISM
Wayne Fife, "Models for Masculinity in Colonial and Postcolonial Papua New Guinea." The Contemporary Pacific 7:2, Fall 1995, 277-302.
J. Kehaulani Kauanui, "Off-Island Hawaiians 'Making' Ourselves At 'Home': A (Gendered) Contradiction in Terms?" Forthcoming.
Grace Mera Molisa, "Colonised People." In Colonised People. Port Vila, Vanuatu: Black Stone Publications, 1987.
Ruperake Petaia, "Kidnapped." In White Feathers, 105-106.
Noenoe Silva, "Ku'e! Hawaiian Women's Resistance to the Annexation." In Joyce N. Chinen, Kathleen O. Kane, and Ida M. Yoshinaga, eds. Women in Hawai`i: Sites, Identities, and Voices. Social Process in Hawai`i 38, 1997, 3-15.
Laura Torres Souder, "Psyche under siege: Uncle Sam, look what you've done to us." In 'Atu Emberson-Bain, ed., Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island Women. Suva: Marama Publications, 1994, 193-195.
Teresia Teaiwa, "Microwomen: U.S. Colonialism and Micronesian Women Activists." In Donald H. Rubinstein, ed. Pacific History: Papers from the 8th Pacific History Association Conference. Mangilao, Guam: University of Guam and Micronesian Area Research Center, 1992, 125-141.
Margaret Jolly and Martha Macintyre, eds., Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Moana Sinclair, "Land Legislation in Aotearoa: The Continuous Resistance by Maori Women." In Diana Vinding, ed., Indigenous Women: The Right to a Voice. Copenhagen: IWGIA, 1998, 95-112.
Laura Torres Souder, "Unveiling Herstory: Chamorro Women in Historical Perspective." Pacific History: Papers from the 8th PHA Conference, 143-161.
Daphne Zale, "Women Ask for Peace and Justice on Bougainville." In Indigenous Women, 113-121.
Wk 7, Oct. 7: GENDER AND FILM (DOCUMENTARY)
E. Ann Kaplan, excerpt from Looking for the Other: Feminism, Film, and the Imperial Gaze. New York: Routledge, 1996.
SUGGESTED FILM LIST (choose one):
Guardians of the Flute
Happy Birthday Tutu Ruth
Islands on the Edge of Time
Land Divers of Melanesia
Storytellers of the Pacific
Tatau: What One Must Do
Wk 8, Oct. 14: GENDER AND HEALTH
Donald Denoon, "Medical Care and Gender in Papua New Guinea." In Family and Gender in the Pacific, 95-107.
Anne Perez Hattori, "Feminine Hygiene: Gender, Health, and US Naval Policies on Guam," forthcoming.
Margaret Jolly, "Other mothers: maternal 'insouciance' and the depopulation debate in Fiji and Vanuatu, 1890-1930." In Maternities and Modernities, 177-212.
Emily Martin, "The egg and the sperm: how science has constructed a romance based on the stereotypical male-female roles." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16:3, 485-501.
Margaret Jolly, "Desire, Difference and Disease: Sexual and Venereal Exchanges on Cook's Voyages in the Pacific." In Ross Gibson, ed., Exchanges. Sydney: Museum of Sydney, 1996, 187-217.
Nicholas Thomas, "Sanitation and seeing: the creation of state power in early colonial Fiji." Comparative Studies in Society and History 32: 149-170.
Wk 9, Oct. 21: GENDER AND MILITARISM
Kathy Ferguson and Phyllis Turnbull, "Military Presence/Missionary Past: The Historical Construction of Masculine Order and Feminine Hawai`i." Women in Hawai`i, 94-107.
Zohl de Ishtar, Daughters of the Pacific. Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex Press, 1994, 19-40, 187-203.
Cecilia Perez, "Inside Out." In Indigenous Women: The Right to a Voice, 86-88.
Teresia Teaiwa, "bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans." The Contemporary Pacific 6:1, Spring 1994, 87-109.
Jane Dibblin. Day of Two Suns: U.S. Nuclear Testing and the Pacific Islanders. London: Virago, 1988.
Cynthia Enloe. Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
Wk 10, Oct. 28: GENDER AND LITERATURE (NOVELS)
Sia Figiel, Where We Once Belonged. Auckland, NZ: Pasifika Press, 1996.
Caroline Sinavaiana, Book Review, The Contemporary Pacific 10(2), Fall 1998, 483-488.
Wk 11, Nov. 4: GENDER AND FEATURE FILM
SUGGESTED FILM LIST (choose one):
Once Were Warriors
Wk 12, Nov. 11: HOLIDAY, VETERANS DAY
Wk 13, Nov. 18: GENDER AND POLITICS
Lynn Wilson, Speaking to Power: Gender and Politics in the Western Pacific. New York and London: Routledge, 1995.
Zohl dé Ishtar, Daughters of the Pacific, 43-63.
Wk 14, Nov. 25: GENDER AND TOURISM
Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, "Poi Atu Taku Poi: Tourism and Women's Dance in Te Arawa." Mana Wahine Maori: Selected Writings on Maori Women's Art, Culture and Politics. Auckland: New Women's Press, 1991, 125-134.
Zohl dé Ishtar, Daughters of the Pacific, 84-97.
Patricia Grace, "Parade." Waiariki. Auckland, NZ: Longman Paul, 1975, 81-89.
Konai Helu Thaman, "Environment-friendly or the new sell? One woman's view of ecotourism in Pacific Island countries." In Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth?, 183-191.
Haunani-Kay Trask, "Lovely Hula Hands." From A Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawai`i. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1993, 179-197.
Wk 15, Dec. 2: GENDER AND FEMINISM IN THE CONTEMPORARY PACIFIC
Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, "Dykes and Queers: Facts, Fairytales and Fictions." Mana Wahine Maori: Selected Writings on Maori Women's Art, Culture and Politics. Auckland: New Women's Press, 1991, 36-41.
Lynette Cruz and Ulla Hasager, "Pacific Women: Experiences with International Networking." In Indigenous Women: The Right to a Voice, 285-294.
Zohl dé Ishtar, Daughters of the Pacific, 218-232.
Jackie Huggins, "Aboriginal Women and the Women's Liberation Movement of Australia." Indigenous Women on the Move. Copenhagen: IWGIA, 1990, 37-46.
Bernadette Hussein, "Women and Children: Where do they stand?" Pacific Islands Monthly April 1997, 16-18.
Margaret Jolly, "Woman Ikat Raet Long Human Raet O No? Women's Rights, Human Rights and Domestic Violence in Vanuatu." Feminist Review 52, Spring 1996, 169-190.
Alaima Talu, "The role of Women in the Development of Kiribati." Pacific History: Papers from the 8th Pacific History Association Conference, 177-182.
Wk 16, Dec. 9: PARTY!
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