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Looking Back?: Gender, Sexuality and Race in Pacific Photography and Cinema

 

ARTH 191B

 

Winter Quarter 2002

Professor Margaret Jolly

Office Hours, Friday 2-4 Porter College, 205; tel 831-459-2085

Teaching Hours and Locale Monday and Wednesday 3.30-5.15, Porter College 250

 

This seminar focuses on representations of gender, sexuality and race in photography and cinema in the Pacific but situates this in relation to broader theoretical debates and comparative insights. We will be looking at a range of photographic materials and films, pondering changing representations of gender, sexuality and race in the Pacific from the late nineteenth to the late twentieth century. This viewing will be situated in a critical consideration of recent feminist and postcolonial debates about the ‘gaze’.

 

 

Evaluation (subject to discussion with students in the first seminar)

 

Attentive attendance is required at all seminars, including film screenings. Students who miss seminars and who do not submit essays by the deadlines below will be penalized unless there are compelling medical or personal reasons presented in writing.

 

 

First paper due February 6th, 6 pages 25%

Second paper due February 25th, 6 pages 25%

Seminar Participation (including presentation and discussion) 10%

Final paper – project on a chosen film or photographic corpus due March 18th – 10 pages 40%

 

 

Required Text

 

MacDougall, David 1998. Transcultural Cinema. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Available at Literary Guillotine, 204 Locust Street, downtown Santa Cruz or Bay Tree book store. Some core course readings will also be distributed in seminars.

 

Core and Background Reading

The core reading and viewing listed for each week will form the basis of seminar discussions. The background reading and viewing is complementary and should provide a good basis for essay questions. Students are always encouraged to read and view as widely as possible.

 

 

Weekly Seminar Outline

 

1. The Power of Photography and Film, January 7, 9

 

Photography as artifact and discourse; photographs in the context of broader visual economies; photography and history; the relation between still photographs and moving images.

 

Core Reading

 

Edwards, Elizabeth 1997. Making Histories: The Torres Straits Expedition of 1898. In Max Quanchi (ed) Imaging, Representation and Photography of the Pacific Islands. Special Issue, Pacific Studies 20(4): 13-34.

 

MacDougall, David 1998. Transcultural Cinema. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chapters Introduction, 1, 2, 3

 

Core Viewing

 

Images from Barthes and Quanchi.

 

Background Reading

 

Barthes, Roland 19841[1980]. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. Trans. S. Heath. London: Fontana.

 

Poole, Deborah 1997. Vision, Race and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

Sontag, Susan 1977.  On Photography. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

 

 

2.      Photography, Film and the ‘Other’: Colonial and Postcolonial Questions, January 14, 16

 

The problem of representing ‘others’; colonialism, anthropology and photography; the dilemmas of ethnographic film; India – from colonial to indigenous photography. Othering in the Pacific through the lens of National Geographic. The ethnographic films of Bateson and Mead.

 

Core Reading

 

MacDougall, David 1998. Transcultural Cinema. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chapters 4, 5,6, 7, 8

 

Pinney, Christopher 1989. Representations of India: Normalisation of the Other. Pacific Viewpoint  29(2):144-162.

 
Pinney, Christopher 1990. Classification and Fantasy in the Photographic Construction of Caste and Tribe. Visual Anthropology 3(2-3):259-288.

 

Pinney, Christopher 1992. The Parallel Histories of Anthropology and Photography. In Elizabeth Edwards (ed) Anthropology and Photography. New Haven: Yale

University Press, 74-91.

 

Core Viewing

 

Images from Pinney and Lutz and Collins.

 

Bathing Babies in Three Cultures, Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, 13 minutes

VT 2436

Childhood Rivalry in Bali and New Guinea, Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, 17 minutes

VT2437

 

Background Viewing (to be seen outside class or in students’ own time)

 

Bontoc Eulogy, Marlon Fuentes 56 minutes

VT4209

 

Background Reading

 

Lutz, Catherine A. and Jane L. Collins 1993. Reading National Geographic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Esp. Chs 5, 6, 8.

 

Moore, Rachel. 1994.   Marketing Alterity. In Visualizing Theory: Selecting Essays from V. A. R. 1990-1994, ed. Lucienne Taylor. New York and London: Routledge, 126-139.

 

Pinney, Christopher 1998. Camera Indica: The Social Life of Indian Photographs.  London: Reaktion Books.

 

Tobing, Rony Fatimah 1996. The Third Eye: Race, Cinema and Ethnographic

Spectacle. Duke University Press: Durham and London.

 

 

3.      Colonial Photography in the Pacific – Gender and Race in the Views of Travellers, Settlers and Missionaries, January 23

 

The colonial photographs of travellers, settlers and missionaries compared; travel writing and travel photography – esp. the representation of indigenous women, the missionary vision in text and image; studio and field photography.

 

Core Reading

 

D’ Ozouville, Brigitte 1997. Reading Photographs in Colonial History: A Case Study from Fiji, 1872. Max Quanchi (ed) Imaging, Representation and Photography of the Pacific Islands. Special Issue, Pacific Studies 20(4):51-76.

 

Quanchi, Max. 1997. Introduction. In Max Quanchi (ed) Imaging, Representation and Photography of the Pacific Islands. Special Issue, Pacific Studies 20(4):1-12.

 

Quanchi, Max 1997. The Invisibility of Gospel Ploughmen: The Imaging of South Sea Pastors in Papua. Iin Max Quanchi (ed) Imaging, Representation and Photography of the Pacific Islands. Special Issue, Pacific Studies 20(4):77-102.

 

 

Core Viewing

 

Images from Quanchi, Stephen, Thomas and Art Gallery of NSW.

 

The Transformed Isle. 1917. R.C. Nicholson. Methodist Missionary of Australasia. Australia. 49 minutes (if available).

 

 

Background Reading

 

Art Gallery of NSW 1997. Portraits of Oceania. Essays by Annear, Croft, Cooper and Harris, Fox and Hayes and images p.37-112. Book on sale at Bookshop Santa Cruz.

 

Blanton, C (ed.) 1995. Picturing Paradise: Colonial Photography of Samoa, 1875-1925. Daytona Beach: Southeast Museum of Photography.

 

Edwards, Elizabeth (eds) 1992. Anthropology and Photography, 1860-1920. New Haven: Yale University Press.

 

Stephen, Ann (ed.) Pirating the Pacific: Images of Travel, Trade and Tourism. Sydney: Powerhouse Museum.

 

Thomas, Nicholas 1992. Colonial Conversions: Difference, Hierarchy and History in

Early Twentieth Century Evangelical Propaganda. Comparative Studies in Society and History 34 (2): 366-389.

 

Webb, Virginia-Lee 1995. Manipulated Images: European Photographs of Pacific Peoples. In Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush (eds) Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 175-201.

 

4.      Film and the ‘Other’: Feminist Questions, January  28, 30

 

The feminist critique of the male gaze; the relation between gender, sexuality and race in looking relations; critiques of gaze theory.

 

Core Reading

 

Gaines, Jane 2000. White Privilege and Looking Relations: Race and Gender in Feminist Film Theory. In E. Ann Kaplan (ed) Feminism and Film. Oxford Readings in Feminism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 336-355.

 

Kaplan, E. Ann 2000. Is the Gaze Male? In E. Ann Kaplan (ed) Feminism and Film.

Oxford Readings in Feminism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 119-138.

 

Caroline Vercoe. 1997. Not So Nice Colored Girls: A View of Tracey Moffat’s Nice Coloured Girls. In Max Quanchi (ed) Imaging, Representation and Photography of the Pacific Islands. Special Issue, Pacific Studies 20(4):151-159.

 

Core Viewing

 

Night Cries Tracey Moffatt 19 minutes

VT 2208

 

Background Viewing (to be seen outside class or in students’ own time)

 

Surname Viet, Given Name Nam 1989. Trinh T. Minh-ha.108 minutes

 

Background Reading

 

Moore, Henrietta L. 1994. Trinh T. Minh-ha Observed: Anthropology and Others. In Lucien Taylor (ed.) Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R. 1990-1994. New York and London: Routledge, 115-125.

 

Trinh T. Minh-ha and Nancy N. Chen 2000. Speaking Nearby. In E. Ann Kaplan (ed) Feminism and Film. Oxford Readings in Feminism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 317-335. Also in Lucien Taylor (ed.) Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R. 1990-1994. New York and London: Routledge, 433-451. 

 

 

5. Silent Shadows: Documentaries and Romances of the Pacific, February 4, 6

 

Early silent cinema in the Pacific; documentaries and the ethnographic imperative- Robert Flaherty’s Moana; the confluence of documentary and romance – F. W. Murnau and Flaherty’s fraught collaboration Tabu. Contemporary critiques of documentary film.

 

Core Reading

 

Jolly, Margaret 1997. White Shadows in the Darkness: Representations of Polynesian Women in Early Cinema. In Max Quanchi (ed.) Imaging, Representation and Photography of the Pacific Islands. Special Issue, Pacific Studies 20 (4): 125-150.

 

Tobing, Rony Fatimah 1996. The Third Eye: Race, Cinema and Ethnographic Spectacle. Duke University Press: Durham and London. Chapter Five.

 

Core Viewing

 

Moana: A Romance of the Golden Age. 1926. Robert J. Flaherty. Paramount Pictures. USA. 76 minutes. VT 4448.

 

Background Viewing (to be seen outside class or in students’ own time)

 

Tabu: A Story of the South Seas. 1931. F. W. Murnau and Robert J. Flaherty. Colorhart Synchrotone, USA. 82 minutes.

VT 1997

 

 

Background Reading

 

Barsam, Richard 1988.  The Vision of Robert Flaherty: The Artist as Myth and Filmmaker. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

 

Nichols, Bill 1994. The Ethnographer’s Tale. In Lucien Taylor (ed.) Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R. 1990-1994. New York and London: Routledge, 60-83.

 

Nichols, Bill 1991. Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

 

Nichols, Bill 1994. Blurred Boundaries: Questions of Meaning in Contemporary Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

 

Reyes, Luis 1995.   Made in Paradise: Hollywood’s Films of Hawai’i and the South Seas. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing.

 

Winston, Brian 1995.   Claiming the Real: The Griersonian Documentary and its Limitations. London: British Film Institute.

 

6. Images of War: World War Two in the Pacific in Film and Photography, February 11, 13

 

The war in the Pacific – as represented to American and Australian audiences; representing race in photographs, newsreels and propaganda; documentary and romance genres again – the case of South Pacific; the erotics of the exotic and the relationship between militarization and tourism.

 

Core Reading

 

Jolly, Margaret 1997. From Point Venus to Bali Ha’i: Eroticism and Exoticism in Representations of the Pacific. In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly (eds) 1997. Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 99-122.

 

Core Viewing

 

Images from Lindstrom and White.

 

South Pacific. 1958. Joshua Logan USA Magna/S.P. Enterprises. 157 minutes.

(given length of film we will need to extend class time or work out a separate viewing time). VT 6027

 

Background Reading

 

Brothers, C. 1997. War and Photography: A Cultural History. London and New York: Routledge.

 

Lindstrom, Lamont and Geoffrey M. White 1990. Island Encounters: Black and White Memories of the Pacific War. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London.

 

Teaiwa, Teresia K. 1994. Bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans. The Contemporary Pacific 6(1) 87-109.

 

 

7. Imaging Nations: Australians and Papua New Guineans, Pakeha and Maori in Aotearoa New Zealand, February 20

 

The relation between colonialism and nationalism - in Australia and Papua New Guinea (the films of Maslyn Williams) and images of Maori in government documentaries in Aotearoa New Zealand. Documentary film in Papua New Guinea in the 1970s and 1980s, especially gender and race in the films of Connolly and Anderson: First Contact, Joe Leahy's Neighbours and Black  Harvest.

 

 

Core Reading

 

Foster, Robert J. 2001 Unvarnished Truths: Maslyn Williams and Australian Government film in Papua and New Guinea. In Naomi McPherson (ed) In Colonial New Guinea:Anthropological Perspectives. Pittsburg:University of Pittsburg Press, 64-81, 207-209, 221-241.

 

Core Viewing

 

First Contact 1982. BobConnelly and Robin Anderson, 54 minutes  

 

Background Viewing (to be seen outside class or in students’ own time)

 

Joe Leahy's Neighbours 1988. BobConnelly and Robin Anderson, 93 minutes

 

Black  Harvest. 1992. BobConnelly and Robin Anderson, 90 minutes

 

 

Background Reading

 

Blythe, Martin 1994. Naming the Other: Images of the Maori in New Zealand Film and Television. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

 

Connolly, Bob and Robin  Anderson 1987. First Contact: New Guinea Highlanders Encounter the Outside World. London: Viking Penguin.

 

 

8. Colonial Nostalgia and Decolonizing the Image, February 25, 27,

 

Trobriand Cricket – anti-colonial critique and the question of irony; the debate about Cannibal Tours - the tourist as ‘other’.

 

Core Reading

 

MacCannell, Dean 1994. Cannibal Tours. In Lucien Taylor (ed.) Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R. 1990-1994. New York and London: Routledge, 99-114.

 

Weiner, Annette 1994. Trobrianders On Camera and Off. In Lucien Taylor (ed.) Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R. 1990-1994. New York and London: Routledge, 54-59.

 

Core Viewing

 

Trobriand Cricket: An Ingenious Response to Colonialism. 1976. Directed by Jerry W. Leach and Gary Kildea. Papua New Guinea Office of Information. Distributed by University of California Media Center, Berkeley, CA. 53 minutes.

VT 6112

 

Or

 

Cannibal Tours. 1987 Dennis O’Rourke. Dennis O’Rourke and Associates. Australia. 70 minutes

VT1585

 

Background Reading

 

Thomas, Nicholas 1997. Partial Texts: Representation, Colonialism and Agency in Pacific History. In In Oceania: Visions, Artifacts, Histories. Durham, Duke University Press, 23-49.

 

 

9. Colonial and Anti-colonial Canons:  Films from 1990s Aotearoa New Zealand, March 4, 6


Gender, race and sexuality in The Piano and Once Were Warriors - two controversial films from Aotearoa New Zealand in the 1990s.

 

Core Reading

 

DuPuis, Reshela 1996. Romanticizing Colonialism:  Power and Pleasure in Jane Campion’s The Piano. The Contemporary Pacific, 8(1): 51-79.

 

Dyson, Lynda 1995 . The Return of the Repressed? Whiteness, Femininity and Colonialism in The Piano. Screen 36(3):267-276.

 

Pihima, Leonie 1994. Are Films Dangerous?: A Maori Women’s Perspective on The Piano. Hecate 20(2):339-42.

 

Reid, Mark A. 2000. A Few Black Keys and Maori Tattoos: Re-reading Jane Campion’s The Piano in Post-Negritude Times. Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 17(2).

 

Core Viewing

 

The Piano. 1992. Jane Campion. Australia New Zealand Ciby. 121 minutes

(given length of film we will need to extend class time or work out a separate viewing time).

VT 3621.

 

Background Viewing (to be seen outside class or in students’ own time)

 

Once Were Warriors, 102 minutes

VID673

 

Background Reading

 

Bruzzi, Stella 1995. Tempestuous Petticoats: Costume and Desire in The Piano. Screen 36(3):257-66.

 

Campion, Jane 1993. The Piano. Published Screenplay. New York: Hyperion.

 

Margolis, Harriet (ed.) 2000 Jane Campion’s The Piano. Cambridge Film Handbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Molloy, Maureen 1999. Death and the Maiden: the Feminine and the Nation in Recent New Zealand Films. Signs: Journal for Women in Culture and Society. 25(1): 153-170.

 

 

10. Indigeneity and Diaspora in Pacific Film and Video. March 11, 13

 

Indigenous filmmaking in the contemporary Pacific; the motif of roots and routes in the visual arts; the Story Tellers of the Pacific series and films from Pacific Islanders in Communication, Sacred Vessels.

 

Core Reading

 

Palattella, John 1998. Pictures of Us: Are Native Videomakers Putting Anthropologists Out of Business. Lingua Franca, July-August, 50-57.

 

Ginsburg, Faye 1990. Indigenous Media: Faustian Contract or Global Village? In Cultural Anthropology, 93-112.

 

Ginsburg, Faye 1994. Culture/Media: A (Mild) Polemic, Anthropology Today 10(2):5-15.

 

Core Viewing

 

Storytellers of the Pacific: Vol 3 Human Rights (Hawai’i) 20 minutes

VT 4725.3

 

And/Or

 

Sacred Vessels: Navigating Tradition and Identity in Micronesia. 1997. Directed by Vicente Diaz.   Pacific Islanders in Communication, Honolulu. 28 minutes

 

 

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