Micronesian Women in History and Culture
MI691 Seminar in Micronesian Studies
Fall Semester 1999
Micronesian Studies Program
University of Guam
Mangilao, Guam 96923
Seminar Description and Objectives
The significance of women and gender has been marginalized in the study of Micronesian histories and cultures. One of our goals this semester will be to bring the lives, experiences, identities, and discourse of Micronesian women, past and present, to the center of discussion and analysis. We will then be better able to explore the various ways in which gender and gender relations are constructed in Micronesian historical and cultural contexts. We begin the seminar with a critical examination of the theoretical issues that have informed the cross-cultural study of women and gender, specifically within Third World and Micronesian contexts. The main part of the seminar will be devoted to more historical and ethnographic concerns such as the place of women in the making of precontact, colonial and postcolonial histories; women's roles in various dimensions of culture; the domains of power and interest that serve to inform the lives of contemporary Micronesian women; and the active involvement of women in the maintenance of "traditional" culture or custom as well as in aspects of cultural appropriation and accommodation. We will also examine how Micronesian women have been represented in more popular discourse and the images that have developed as a result. The seminar will conclude with looking at new directions of research concerning Micronesian women.
Requirements and Expectations
This is a reading seminar which will focus largely on your discussion, writings, comments, and questions. Each of the seminar's 16 weeks (excluding the first seminar meeting) will deal with a particular topic relevant to our inquiry into Micronesian women in historical and ethnographic perspective. I will offer introductory comments for each week's seminar topic and lead most seminar discussions where you will be the main discussants. It is therefore imperative to the success of the seminar that you attend all sessions. More than one unexcused absence will result in no credit being earned for the seminar.
You will also be requested to produce a short three to four page (typewritten) summary/critique of your readings and investigations for thirteen of the sixteen weeks of the seminar. The choice of which three sessions to read only and not to write is yours with the exception of weeks 12 and 14 when all of you are asked to submit written work. Your written presentation should address/generate one or more of the theme questions for the week and demonstrate your overall command of the readings. All written assignments must be handed in on the Wednesday of the week's session. In addition, each of you will be asked to give an oral presentation (approximately 20 minutes in length) of the reading and (possible) writing you have done for one particular session (with the exception of Weeks 12 and 14 when all of you will be giving oral presentations). For this session you will also be expected to lead the seminar discussion. The session for your oral presentation must be chosen and scheduled with me during the second week of the seminar. There will be no final examination or research paper. Your grade for the seminar will be based on your written and oral presentations as well as on your discussions and interactions.
Readings: Given the vast body of literature on Micronesia, we will find there is surprisingly little that focuses specifically on women and gender. The material I have chosen is based on what I believe is important and relevant to the seminar's objectives and is also quite exhaustive of the Micronesian gender literature. For each session there will be several required readings that consist mainly of articles, papers, and dissertation/book chapters. You will also be asked to read four books throughout the seminar. The articles, papers, and chapters I will photocopy for you and distribute them during the seminar sessions. Three of the required books we can order through amazon.com if necessary. One is available through the MARC Publication Series. Many of the articles, dissertations, and books should also be available through the RFK Library and/or MARC.
Week 1, August 18: Introduction and Orientation.
Week 2, August 23-25: Theoretical Approaches to Feminism, Anthropology, and Third World Women
We begin our exploration into the history and ethnography of Micronesian women by reading several recent scholarly works that examine the theoretical issues that inform Third World feminism generally and feminist ethnography in particular. We will be concerned with the ways in which these theoretical approaches contribute to research and writing about Micronesian women. The thematic questions for this seminar are: What is entailed in the relationship between feminism and anthropology? How has "the postmodernist turn in anthropology" effected the practice of feminist anthropology/ethnography, and specifically the study of the female "other"? What of the feminist critique of postmodernism? What of the relationship between "third world women and the politics of feminism"? What insights can we gain about the study of Micronesian women from these theoretical discussions, refinements and debates?
Frances Mascia-Lees, et al., "The postmodernist turn in anthropology: Cautions from a feminist perspective". Signs, 15 (1989).
Chandra Talpade Mohanty, "Introduction, Cartographies of Struggle: Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism," IN Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. by Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres (1991).
Cheryl Johnson-Odim, "Common Themes, Different Contexts: Third World Women and Feminism: IN Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. by Mohanty, et al.
Kamala Visweswaran, Fictions of Feminist Ethnography, Chapter 2.
Week 3, August 30-September 1: Micronesian Women in Local and Global History: Indigenous Perspectives and Early Cross-cultural Encounters.
The study of Micronesian history constitutes many complex and extremely important themes and issues, ones which are examined, at best only superficially, in a semester-long seminar. Given this complexity, our inquiry into Micronesian pasts during this and next week's sessions will be rather specific in focus. It is also important to point out that much of the literature that presents Micronesian history has not considered women and their place in the making of the islands' historical landscapes. Let us consider, then, women in these rich and varied landscapes by first examining the work that has explored certain aspects of indigenous history from a female perspective. We will also look at women's experiences with and response to early cross-cultural encounters.
The questions that will be dealt with in this session are: How have women been represented in local history? What of female representations of their pasts? Does the limited research on women and indigenous Micronesian histories tell us something of the cultural/social valuation of women? May it also reveal something about outside(r) interests and perceptions of Micronesian women and gender? What are these interests and perceptions? Were women trafficked or traffickers in their exchange relationships with Micronesian men and in their interactions with Euro-American traders/whalers? Were Micronesian women "remade" and "domesticated" in the image of Protestant and Catholic missionaries? Were gender relations altered with the acceptance of Christianity?
Patricia Grimshaw, "New England Missionaries Wives, Hawaiian Women, and the 'Cult of True Womanhood'", IN Family and Gender in the Pacific, ed. by Margaret Jolly and Martha Macintyre, 1989.
Margaret Jolly, "'To Save the Girls for Brighter and Better Lives': Presbyterian Missions and Women in the South of Vanuatu: 1848-1870", Journal of Pacific History, 26:1 (1991).
Kimberlee Kihleng, Women In Exchange: Negotiated Relations, Practice, and the Constitution of Female Power in Processes of Cultural Reproduction and Change in Pohnpei, Micronesia. PhD dissertation (UH 1996), Chapters 2 and 5 (to p. 218).
Laura Torres Souder, "Unveiling Herstory: Chamorro Women in Historical Perspective". Pacific History: Papers from the 8th PHA Conference.
David Hanlon, Upon A Stone Altar, Chapters 3 & 4.
Francis Hezel, First Taint of Civilization, Chapter 5
Week 4, September 8: Gender and Colonialism in Micronesia.
(Monday, Sept. 6--Holiday)
This week we continue our exploration into women in global history by focusing on the more formalized colonial experience of Micronesian women. The early colonial administrations of the Spanish, Germans, and Japanese will be examined, and you will also read two article on American colonialism (a topic which will be discussed in more detail later in the seminar). Three theoretical readings from studies of women in other parts of the Pacific will assist you in understanding some of the key issues involved in the study of women and colonization. The Micronesian material is selective given the limited nature of research undertaken on this topic. Our job will be to critically examine this material through a gender lens.
Questions to consider as you read: What were colonial perceptions of Micronesian women and of gender relations? What aspects of men's and women's lives changed as a result of colonization? Were these changes necessarily detrimental? Did colonialism impact female roles and identity differentially so in comparison to male roles and notions of self? What of colonialism's effect on Micronesian gender relations? Were women devalued in the eyes of their men and larger society? Please feel free to draw on last week's readings in writing your essay--as you can see, they are all interrelated.
Jocelyn Linnekin, Sacred Queens and Women of Consequence, Chapters 1 and 8.
Christine Gailey, "Putting Down Sisters and Wives: Tongan Women and Colonization". Women and Colonization.
Margaret Jolly, "The politics of difference: Feminism, colonialism and decolonisation in Vanuatu," IN Intersexions: Gender/class/ culture/ethnicity, ed. by Gill Bottomley, et al. (1991)
Suzanne Falgout, The Women Left Behind: Changes in Pohnpei Women's Identity in World War II. Unpublished paper.
Ann Hattori, Feminine Hygiene: Gender, Health, and U.S. Naval Government of Guam, 1898-1941. Unpublished paper
Laura Torres Souder, Daughters of the Island, Chapters 2 & 7.
Teresia K. Teaiwa, "Microwomen: U.S. Colonialism and Micronesian Women Activists." Pacific History: Papers from the 8th PHA Conference.
Week 5, September 13-15: Micronesian Women in Work and Production.
In this seminar we begin our examination of the ethnography of Micronesian women by looking at their work and roles in production. Women's productive activities are based largely on traditional skills and practices, although many Micronesian women have entered the labor force as government workers or in the private sector. The increased reliance on wage labor is a long-term effect of colonialism and capitalist penetration. Traditional forms of female labor, however, which include mainly cloth production and taro cultivation, remain defining features of women's identities throughout Micronesia. They also represent aspects of traditional culture or custom as it is presently thought and lived. The first two readings for this week are theoretical; one examines the effects of colonialism and capitalism on women's work across cultures, and the second focuses on women and cloth in Oceania. The remaining readings ethnographically examine the work of Micronesian women and/or female products in their various dimensions.
Questions to think about as your read: What have been the effects of colonialism and capitalism on women's work cross-culturally and in Micronesia? What of the work of Micronesian men and the gender division of labor? Do women have control over the products of their labor? What does this tell us, if anything, about their position in society? Why is cloth important in Oceania, and specifically Micronesia? What of the significance of taro cultivation? What of contemporary forms of female work (i.e. wage-labor) and their relationship to issues of female identity as well as cultural identity in changing societies?
Henrietta Moore, Feminism and Anthropology, Chapter 4 (to p.116).
Annette Weiner, "Why Cloth? Wealth, Gender, and Power in Oceania". Cloth and Human Experience.
Donald Rubinstein, Fabric Arts and Traditions. The Art of Micronesia, 1986.
Kimberlee Kihleng, PhD dissertation, Chapter 4.
Karen Nero, Understanding the Meanings of Work: Palauan Perspectives. Unpublished paper
Laura Torres Souder, Daughters of the Island, Chapters 4 and 5.
Week 6, September 20-22: Gender in Micronesian Kinship: Early Concerns and Recent Perspectives.
The fact of matrilineality in Micronesian kinship gives women a primary place of value in society that is definitively their own. Although kinship studies have formed a main part of anthropological inquiry in Micronesia since the 1950's, it is only recently that the essential issue of gender has been addressed (beyond that of biological reproduction). The rethinking of kinship in terms of gender has offered new perspectives on Micronesian kinship systems. In this week's seminar we begin our exploration of these new perspectives by focusing on theoretical and ethnographic concerns about matrilineal descent and how the incorporation of gender can offer greater insight into the descent principle itself as well as into other aspects of kinship. We start, once again, with two theoretical readings; the first is the seminal work of David Schneider on matrilineal descent groups, and the second is a much more recent feminist analysis of kinship and gender. We then look at selected research on Micronesian kinship that has brought gender more into the forefront of analysis.
Questions to think about for this session: Does the Micronesian material support Schneider's theoretical analysis of matrilineal descent groups? Is there a "matrilineal puzzle" in Micronesian kinship systems? Where do women fit in the "puzzle"? Does the inclusion of gender assist in solving the "puzzle"? What have been the "analytical dichotomies" that have informed gender studies as well as kinship studies? Are these dichotomies relevant in Micronesian contexts? How does a focus on "social wholes" enhance our understanding of gender and kinship cross-culturally and particularly within Micronesia?
David Schneider, "The distinctive features of matrilineal descent groups". Matrilineal Kinship.
Sylvia Junko Yanagisako and Jane Fishburne Collier, "Toward a Unified Analysis of Gender and Kinship". Gender and Kinship: Essays Toward a Unified Analysis.
Glenn Petersen, Ponapean matriliny: Production, exchange, and the ties that bind. American Ethnologist, Vol. 9(1): 129-142 (1982).
Juliana Flinn, "Matriliny Without Conflict: The Case of Pulap". Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 95(2) (1986).
Kimberlee Kihleng, PhD dissertation, Chapter 1 (pp.27-36), Chapter 3 (to p. 124) and Chapter 5 (pp. 218-246).
Week 7, September 27-29: Gender and Social Organization: The View From Palau.
We continue our examination of kinship and gender in Micronesia by reading a detailed analysis of Palauan social organization as offered by Deverne Reed Smith in Palauan Social Structure. For this session I would like you to do a review of Smith's work focusing on the ways in which she includes gender in her study of the various dimensions of Palauan social structure, and the results of this inclusion.
Week 8, October 4-6: Women In Exchange: Interweaving Persons and Things.
As you read in Smith's book, the principle and process of exchange can be essential to understanding kinship and gender as well as politics and hierarchy in Micronesia. In this seminar we look in greater detail at Micronesian women in the relations and practice of exchange. A great deal of research has been undertaken on the roles of women in Melanesian and Polynesian exchange beginning with the work of Annette Weiner in the Trobriand Islands. With few exceptions, however, there has been very little research conducted in Micronesia. In this seminar we will draw on Smith's Palauan analysis as well as on the dissertation research I conducted on exchange with Pohnpeian women. You will also be asked to read the introductory chapter of Weiner's most recent work, Inalienable Possessions, where she develops a more advanced theory of exchange based on the "paradox of keeping-while-giving". The final readings for the week include Micronesian ethnographic responses to Weiner's theoretical work.
The thematic questions for this session include: What is involved in the "paradox of keeping-while-giving" and in that of inalienable possessions? How do these new perspectives on interpreting exchange in the Pacific incorporate gender? What of Micronesian exchange and notions of cross-siblingship, gendered wealth, and power? Are Micronesian women key and active participants in exchange as both relations and practice? In what ways and/or in what kinds of exchange?
Annette Weiner, Introduction. Inalienable Possessions.
Kimberlee Kihleng, PhD dissertation, Chapter 1 (pp. 36-53), Chapter 3 (pp. 125-153), Chapter 5 (pp. 246-259), and Chapter 6.
Karen Nero, "Shifting Powers: The Brother-Sister Dyad, Wealth, and Political Structures in Palau". ASAO paper (1996).
James Egan, "Keeping While Giving Land: Gendered Wealth, The Cross Sibling Dyad and the Production of Hierarchy in Yap". ASAO paper (1997).
Week 9, October 13: Micronesian Women's Organizations: Themes of Empowerment and Identity.
(Monday, Oct. 11--Holiday)
Formal and informal women's organizations have been a significant aspect of women's lives in Micronesia throughout much of its history(ies). Many of the informal organizations are traditional and kin-based, and involve the exchange of material resources and labor. Formal organizations, such as women's church groups and professional groups, go beyond the realm of kinship but maintain the notions of sharing and exchanging, to offer Micronesian women new avenues of empowerment. These organizations have also come to serve as a primary feature of female identity in contemporary Micronesian societies. Let's look at some of these women's organizations and the significant role(s) they play in the lives of Micronesian women in local-level society and beyond.
Questions to consider: What kinds of organization exist for or have been established by Micronesian women? What does the existence of these organizations reveal about the issues and concerns that are of importance to Micronesian women? Are these groups traditionally-based or more recently established, and how would this speak to women's roles in a changing Micronesia? What forms of support and avenues of empowerment do they provide for women? In what ways? How have these organizations come to represent as well as negotiate aspects of female identity in contemporary social and political contexts?
Petra Steimle, "The Status of Women in Palau". Pacific History: Papers from the 8th PHA Conference.
Laura Torres Souder, Daughters of the Island, Chapters 5, 6 and 7.
Kimberlee Kihleng, PhD dissertation, Chapters 6 (pp.314-328) and 7 (pp. 337-365).
Week 10, October 18-20: Activism Among Micronesian Women.
Political activism among Micronesian women is largely a colonial phenomenon; a response to the various influences, often negative, of colonial policies and practices as imposed upon Micronesian societies. Micronesian women throughout history have, nonetheless, been key players in the political arenas of their island societies even if as behind-the-scene decision makers and power sharers. This week we examine the activism of Chuukese women, and specifically that of the Protestant church women's organization, in the prohibition movement in Chuuk by reading Silent Voices Speak by Mac and Leslie Marshall. I would like you to review the Marshalls' book paying close attention to what we learn of Chuuk, Chuukese women, gender relations, and the problems caused by alcohol in the lagoon area. Do previously silent voices speak in this work?
Week 11, October 25-27: Gender and Politics in Micronesia.
We continue our discussion of women in local and more global politics by critically reading the innovative ethnography offered by Lynn Wilson, Speaking to Power. In this work, Wilson utilizes a feminist poststructural framework to explore not only U.S. militarism and Belau's antinuclear movement, but more importantly, local contests, discourse, and constructions of gender, power, and tradition in contemporary Belauan society. Review Wilson's book focusing on the ways in which she represents Belauan women, locally inflected power dynamics, gender relations, and U.S. colonial administrative policies in Belau. Do Belauan female voices speak in Wilson's work?
Week 12, November 1-3: Micronesia, Women, and You.
We are now three-quarters of the way through the seminar and I would like you offer your more personal reflections, thoughts, and perhaps political position. I request a five-page typewritten essay on a topic focusing on the literature that presents Micronesian women in history and culture. There is no need for footnotes or bibliographies. I ask only that your essay be descriptive, thoughtful, responsive to the theoretical and ethnographic issues of the topic you have chosen, and candid in acknowledging the aspects of uncertainty, representation and subjectivity involved in any ethnographic or historical inquiry of Micronesian women. If it helps, you can model your essay after an author we have dealt with in the seminar whose writings you find particularly effective.
Week 13, November 8-10: The Language and Literature of Micronesian Women.
Micronesian female voices are also heard in the language they use--their discourse--and the words they write--their literature. Female notions of self are likewise expressed through dance performance. Let us attempt to "hear" the voices of Micronesian women and understand their nonverbal expressions of identity by initially reading a theoretical work about the relationship of literature to feminist ethnography. We will then consider a study of the relationship between gender and honorifics in Pohnpei, the writings of an indigenous female scholar on native resistance to the ideology of the bomb (nuclear militarism) and the bikini (touristic representations), a collection of short stories and poems by Chamorro women writers, and an article on defining custom and gender through dance on Pollap Atoll. If you are interested in looking further at creative writing by indigenous Micronesians, see Mark Skinner's "Contemporary Micronesian Literature: A Preliminary Bibliography."
The thematic questions for the week: What are the "fictions of feminist ethnography? What is or should be the relationship between autobiography and ethnography from a feminist view? a "native" view? How are power relations located, legitimized, or mitigated in female discourse and literary works ("fictions")? What is the relationship between honorific speech, creative writing, dance performance and the politics of female representation in Micronesia? What of the meaning of "bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans"?
Kamala Visweswaran, Introduction. Fictions of Feminist Ethnography.
Elizabeth Keating, Power Sharing: Rank, Gender, and Social Space in Pohnpei, Micronesia. PhD dissertation, UCLA 1994, Chapter 5
Storyboard 5: A Journal of Pacific Imagery, 1998, Poems by Tina Taitano DeLisle, Ann Perez Hattori, and C.T. Perez, short story by C.T. Perez.
Teresia Teaiwa, "bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans." The Contemporary Pacific, Spring 1994.
Juliana Flinn, 'Who Defines Custom: Dance and Gender in a Micronesian Case". Anthropological Forum Vol. 6(4) (1993).
Week 14, November 15-17: Imaging Micronesian Women.
The written word is not the only vehicle through which knowledge of Micronesian women is conveyed and interpreted. In this seminar we will critically consider how Micronesian women have been portrayed, represented and "imaged" in films and/or videos. First read the articles by Jim Mellon entitled, "Images of Micronesia on Film and Video", Pacific History: Papers from the 8th PHA Conference, and by Margaret Jolly, "From Point Venus to Bali Ha'i: Eroticism and Exoticism in Representations of the Pacific," IN Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure: Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific, ed. by L. Manderson and M. Jolly. The RFK Library and MARC have a sufficient number of the films/videos listed at the end of Mellon's article and also of the Micronesian Seminar video list. You are to choose one film/video and view it carefully. For the seminar you will write a critique of the film/video you have reviewed keeping in mind the issues presented in the two articles you have read. I would also like you to give an oral presentation by showing a short five minute segment that demonstrates what you believe are the insights, problems, and other interesting features of the film/video you have selected. I will need to know the name of the film/video you will be viewing at least one week before the seminar meets (November 8) in order to arrange the necessary logistics for viewing the films/videos during the seminar.
In writing your critique keep in mind the politics of film making itself as well as the politics or message of the film/video. Questions to consider: Who produced the video? Who is the primary audience? What does the film/video tell us about Micronesia generally and about women and gender specifically? What does it tell us about the film maker? Is the imaging of Micronesian women favorable or critical? Why? Do you feel the film is accurate/fair representation of Micronesian women? Why? Why not?
Week 15, November 22-24: Women in Nuclear Micronesia: The View From the Marshalls.
Since the beginning of American colonialism in Micronesia, the region has been and continues to be involved in one of the most critical issues of our times--the nuclear issue. In this seminar we examine the active and vocal roles that Marshallese women have played in the antinuclear, anticolonial movement in the Marshall Islands in the aftermath of American nuclear testing in the 1940's and 1950's by looking at the work of Jane Dibblin, Day of Two Suns: U.S. Nuclear Testing and the Pacific Islanders. I would like you to provide a critical analysis of Dibblin's book paying close attention to how well she conveys the effects of nuclear testing and militarization on Marshallese culture, and specifically on the lives of Marshallese women.
Week 16, November 29-December 1: Contemporary Issues and Concerns of Women in postcolonial/neocolonial Micronesia.
While cultures are dynamic and constantly in a state of flux, contemporary Micronesian societies are experiencing rapid cultural change and social transformation as a result of the region's continued incorporation into a capitalist world system largely as new independent nations, but also as neocolonial territories. Key issues of concern are tourism and "development", migration, nationalism and self-determination movements, and various social ills such as domestic violence, class/ethnic tensions, and alcohol abuse. Unfortunately, few of these issues have been fully addressed in terms of women and gender in the Micronesian context. During this seminar we will focus on the material that does address the ways in which a rapidly changing Micronesia effects women's lives specifically in relation to family and community, gender and ethnic conflict, domestic violence, and migration. Next week's seminar will look at nationalism and tourism with regard to new feminist research agendas.
The thematic questions include: What are some of the more prevalent effects of recent culture change in Micronesia? How have these effects impacted women and gender relations? Have they differentially devalued women and their roles in society? How have women managed the conflicts that arise as a result of changing gender roles throughout Micronesia? Are their more positive aspects associated with development and change for Micronesian women and men?
Robert Underwood, "Families, Women, and Rapid Change". ISLA Vol. 1(2) 1992.
Laura Torres Souder, "Conflict Management by Micronesian Women, A Strategy for Progress". ISLA Vol. 1(2) 1992.
Karen Nero, "The Hidden Pain: Drunkenness and Domestic Violence in Palau". Pacific Studies Vol.13(3) 1990.
Juliana Flinn, "Pregnancy and Motherhood Among Micronesian Students in the United States". Encounters with Biomedicine: Case Studies in Medical Anthropology.
Week 17, December 6: New Directions of Feminist Research in Micronesia.
We end the semester by focusing on new directions of research concerning Micronesian women. Speaking as a feminist ethnographer, understanding difference (indigenous rank, class, ethnicity, rural/urban sites, education) among Micronesian women regionally and at the local-level is an extremely important topic of future research. Another key research concern is that of female identities--their construction and negotiation--in various contemporary Micronesian societies as women resist as well as accommodate colonialism and capitalism. I also see the study of women's participation/exclusion in postcolonial nation-building and self-determination efforts to be highly significant and relevant. The roles of women in various Micronesian diasporic communities is also an area for future research consideration particularly in the Guam context.
I would like you to offer your insights and ideas on new directions for feminist research given your areas of interest and expertise as well the information you have gained from this seminar. You are asked to read three articles on other parts of the Pacific--two dealing with women and nationalism in Melanesia (keeping in mind postcolonial Micronesia) and one on native Hawaiian women and tourism (considering Guam and CNMI are prime tourist destinations with the rest of Micronesia developing tourism). For your final Micronesia-focused reading, in addition to the chapter on tourism in the CNMI listed below, I want you to critically review "Women-Centered Research Agenda for Micronesia", ISLA: Journal of Micronesian Studies Vol. 1(2) 1992 based on the topics and themes discussed throughout the seminar and specifically in the last two sessions.
Zohl De Ishtar, "Toursim Is Not Good for Children-Northern Marianas," IN Daughters of the Pacific, 1994.
Margaret Jolly, "Women-Nation-State: Women as Signs and Subjects in Discourses of Kastom, Modernity, and Christianity," IN Narratives of Nation in the South Pacific. ed. by Ton Otto and Nicholas Thomas, 1997.
Haunani-Kay Trask, "Lovely Hula Hands: Corporate Tourism and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture," IN From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaii, 1993.
Laura Zimmer-Tamakoshi, Nationalism and Sexuality in Papua New Guinea, Pacific Studies, Vol. 16, No.4, 1993.
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