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Economies across Cultures

Anthropology (ANRG) 146

University of California, San Diego
Winter Term 1998

Dr David Akin
telf@umich.edu

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

This course examines comparative approaches to economic life in Western and non-Western societies, from early theorists to current debates. Particular attention will be given to the impact of global market forces upon production, distribution and exchange, and consumption in local-level economies.

COURSE GRADING:

(1) Quizzes 20% of course grade
(2) Mid-term exam 25% of course grade
(3) Research paper 25% of course grade
(4) Final examination 30% of course grade (March 17 11:30-2:30)
(5) Meeting the February 3 deadline for approval of your paper abstract (see below), and your participation in classroom discussions will be used to calculate borderline grades at the end.  

Tests: Several unannounced quizzes will be given during the semester, focusing on assigned readings. Your lowest quiz grade will be thrown out before determining your cumulative quiz grade. Quizzes are intended to encourage you to do the readings before lecture. Exams will cover lectures, films and readings, and will combine short answer, multiple choice and essay questions.

Research Paper: Everyone must submit a 10-12 page, double-spaced typed paper (12 pt. type, one-inch margins). Graduate student’s papers must be 20-22 pages. You must submit a satisfactory one-paragraph research paper proposal by start of class on February 3 (the earlier the better). Any topic related to the class may be acceptable, but your topic must be approved by me.

I highly recommend that you submit your abstract early in case revision is needed. The papers are due by the start of class on March 10. Early submission is encouraged.

COURSE READINGS:

Books (all available at the UCSD Bookstore, and on reserve in the undergraduate library):

Marcel Mauss 1990 [1925] The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

James Scott 1976 The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Nicholas Thomas 1991 Entangled Objects: Exchange, Material Culture and Colonialism in the Pacific. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Course Pack: Multiple copies of all course pack papers will also be available on reserve in the undergraduate library. The number of pages in parentheses after reading assignments refers to the approximate number of pages of text (i.e., not including photographs or bibliography).

LECTURE AND READING SCHEDULE

WEEK 1

January 6:

Lecture: Class Overview
Readings for this lecture: none

January 8:

Lecture: Laying groundwork
Readings for this lecture:
M. Sahlins 1972 (1965) "On the Sociology of Primitive Exchange" (46pp).
C. Levi-Strauss 1949 "The Principle of Reciprocity" (10pp).

WEEK 2

January 13:

Lecture: Malinowski and the Kula
Readings for this lecture:
B. Malinowski 1968 "Malinowski on the Kula" (22pp).
B. Malinowski 1949 "Reciprocity as the Basis of Social Cohesion" (2pp). Compare with the Marx piece attached to it: "Class Cohesion through Conflict" (1p.).
(you should also get started on The Gift)

January 15:

Lecture: Mauss and The Gift
Readings for this lecture:
M. Mauss 1925 The Gift (pp.vi-46,63-81).
R.W. Emerson nd. "Gifts" (4pp).

WEEK 3

January 20:

Lecture: The Formalist and Substantivist Debates
Readings for this lecture:
G. Dalton 1961 "Economic Theory and Primitive Society" (24pp).
E. LeClaire 1962 "Economic Theory and Economic Anthropology" (21pp).
F. Cancian 1966 "Maximization as Norm, Strategy and Theory" (5pp.).
S. Gudeman 1983 "The Bemba and the Bisa" (19pp).

January 22:

Lecture: A Theoretical Case Study: Spheres of Exchange
Readings for this lecture:
P. Bohannan 1959 "The Impact of Money on an African Subsistence Economy" (13pp).
C. Piot 1991 "Of Persons and Things..." (13pp).

WEEK 4

January 27:

Lecture: Marxist Approaches
Film: To Find the Baruya Story: Of this film by French Marxist Maurice Godelier we will view only a twenty-minute segment, concerning his analysis of the production and exchange of salt, and the socio-economic impacts of the introduction of steel tools.

January 29:

Assignment: Your paper proposals should be approved before next class, February 3.
Lecture: Peasants: Moral and Political Economies
Readings for this entire week (and into the next):
E. Wolf 1981 "The Mills of Inequality" (15pp).
K. Marx 1949 "Class Cohesion Through Conflict" (2pp).
The Moral Economy of the Peasant (focus especially on pp 1-68, 91-98, 157-240).

WEEK 5

February 3:

Lecture: A Case Study: The Devil and Commodity Fetishism
Reading for this lecture:
P. Shipton 1989 Bitter Money (pp.1-42).

February 5:

MIDTERM EXAM

WEEK 6

February 10:

Lecture: Bitter Money
Readings for this lecture:
P. Shipton 1989 Bitter Money (pp.48-82).
I. Kopytoff 1986 "The Cultural Biography of Things" (27pp).

February 12:

Lecture: A Closer Look at Currencies
Readings for this lecture:
M. Bloch and J. Parry 1989 "Introduction." to Money and the Morality of Exchange (29pp).
M. Nihill 1989 "The New Pearlshells" (16pp).
T. Crump 1990 "Money" (8pp).
W. Keane 1996 "Money as Matter and Sign" (9pp).

WEEK 7

February 17:

Lecture: Case Study: Cash and Shell Currencies in Kwaio, Solomon Islands
Readings for this lecture:
B. Saetana 1982 "The Origins of Shell Money in Kwaio" (2pp).
Entangled Objects 1-34

February 19:

Lecture: Gifts (Again) and Commodities
Readings for this lecture:
C. Gregory 1982 "Political Economy" (13pp).
J. Carrier 1991 "Gifts, Commodities, and Social Relations" (15pp).
Entangled Objects 35-82 (focus especially on pp.35-59).

WEEK 8

February 24:

Lecture: Movements and Meanings of Objects
Readings for this lecture:
Entangled Objects pp.83-124.

February 26:

Lecture: Case Study - Melanesian Big Men and Exchange
Film: Ongka's Big Moka.
Readings for this lecture:
P. Bourdieu 1977 "Symbolic Capital" and "Modes of Domination" (26pp).
Ma'aanamae 1982, and Jonathan Fifi'i 1988 "The Social Power of Kwaio Big Men" (1p).
Ongka (trans. A. J. Strathern) 1979 Moka speech from ch.13 of Ongka (4pp).

WEEK 9

March 3:

Lecture: Consumption
Readings for this lecture:
J-M. Philibert 1989 "Consuming Culture" (25pp.).
J. Carrier 1990 "Reconciling Commodities and Personal Relations in Industrial Society" (15pp).
Entangled Objects pp.125-151 (152-184 optional).

March 5:

Lecture: Globalizing the Local and Localizing the Global
Readings for this lecture:
M. Sahlins 1994 "Cosmologies of Capitalism" (27pp.).
W. Roseberry 1989 "Peasants and the World" (19pp).

WEEK 10

March 10:

Assignment: Term Papers are due by the start of class today.
Lecture: Impacts of Globalization and Economic Development
Readings for this lecture:
E. Schieffelin 1995 "Some Factors Behind Village Openness to Logging Interests" (5pp).
F. Barth 1996 "Global Cultural Diversity in a 'Full World Economy.'" (9pp)
C. Brettell and C. Sargent 1997 "Colonialism, Development, and the Global Economy" (5pp).
Entangled Objects pp.185-208.

March 12 (final class):

Film: Black Harvest
Reading for the film:
Ben Finney 1993 "From the Stone Age to the Age of Corporate Takeovers" (15pp).

TO BE ARRANGED: INFORMAL FINAL EXAM REVIEW (ATTENDANCE OPTIONAL)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Contents of Course Pack for Economies Across Cultures (ANRG 146)

Barth, Fredrik 1996 Global Cultural Diversity in a 'Full World Economy.' In, Lourdes Arizpe (ed.), The Cultural Dimensions of Global Change. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Bloch, Maurice and Jonathan Parry 1989 Introduction. In, Jonathan Parry and Maurice Bloch (eds.), Money and the Morality of Exchange. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bohannan, Paul 1959 The Impact of Money on an African Subsistence Economy. Journal of Economic History 19:491-503. First published in Economy Journal of Economic History 4:491-503.

Bourdieu, Pierre 1977 "Symbolic Capital" and "Modes of Domination", from Outline of a Theory of Practice. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Brettell, Caroline and Carolyn Sargent 1997 Colonialism, Development, and the Global Economy. In, C. Brettell and C. Sargent (eds.), Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Cancian, Frank 1966 Maximization as Norm, Strategy and Theory: A Comment on Programmatic Statements in Economic Anthropology. In, Edward LeClair and Harold Schneider (eds.), Economic Anthropology: Readings in Theory and Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Carrier, James 1990 Reconciling Commodities and Personal Relations in Industrial Society. Theory and Society 19(4):579-98.

Carrier, James 1991 Gifts, Commodities, and Social Relations: A Maussian View of Exchange. Sociological Forum 6(1):119-36.

Crump, Thomas 1990 Money. In, The Anthropology of Numbers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dalton, George 1961 Economic Theory and Primitive Society. In, Edward LeClair and Harold Schneider (eds.), Economic Anthropology: Readings in Theory and Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 1983 Gifts. In, Essays and Lectures. New York: Viking Press.

Finney, Ben 1993 From the Stone Age to the Age of Corporate Takeovers. In, Victoria Lockwood, Thomas Harding and Ben Wallace (eds.), Contemporary Pacific Societies: Studies in Development and Change. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Gregory, Christopher 1982 Political Economy. From Gifts and Commodities. NY: Academic Press.

Gudeman, Stephen 1983 The Bemba and the Bisa: Intentions of Nature. In, Economics as Culture: Models and Metaphors of Livelihood. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Keane, Webb 1996 Money as Matter and Sign. Etnofoor 11(1):71-81.

Kopytoff, Igor 1986 The Cultural Biography of Things: Commoditization as Process. In, Arjun Appadurai (ed.), The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press.

LeClaire, Edward 1962 Economic Theory and Economic Anthropology. In, Edward LeClair and Harold Schneider (eds.), Economic Anthropology: Readings in Theory and Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Levi-Strauss, Claude 1949 The Principle of Reciprocity. In, Lewis Coser and Bernard Rosenberg (eds.), Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. New York: Macmillan Co.

Malinowski, Bronislaw 1949 Reciprocity as the Basis of Social Cohesion (from Crime and Custom in Savage Society, 1926). In, Lewis Coser and Bernard Rosenberg (eds.), Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. New York: Macmillan Co.

Malinowski, Bronislaw 1968 Malinowski on the Kula. (extracts from Argonauts of the Western Pacific, 1922). In, Edward LeClair and Harold Schneider (eds.), Economic Anthropology: Readings in Theory and Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Marx, Karl 1949 Class Cohesion Through Conflict (from "Poverty and Philosophy"). In, Lewis Coser and Bernard Rosenberg (eds.), Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. New York: Macmillan Co.

Ma'aanamae 1982, and Jonathan Fifi'i 1988 The Social Power of Kwaio Big Men. Kwaio translated and edited by D. Akin.

Nihill, Michael 1989 The New Pearlshells: Aspects of Money and Meaning in Anganen Exchange. Canberra Anthropology 12(1&2):144-

Ongka (translated by Andrew Strathern) 1979 Moka speech from ch.13 of Ongka: A Self-Account by a New Guinea Big Man. NY: St. Martin's Press.

Philibert, Jean-Marc 1989 Consuming Culture: A Study of Simple Commodity Consumption. In, Henry Rutz and B. Orlove (eds.), The Social Economy of Consumption. Lanham, New York: University Press of America. [warning: students were charged $4.23 per copy copyright fee!]

Piot, Charles 1991 Of Persons and Things: Some Reflections on African Spheres of Exchange. Man (N.S.) 26:405-424.

Roseberry, William 1989 Peasants and the World. In, Stuart Plattner (ed.), Economic Anthropology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Saetana, Bita 1982 The Origin of Shell Money in Kwaio. Translated and edited by D. Akin.

Sahlins, Marshall 1972 On the Sociology of Primitive Exchange. In Stone Age Economics. NY: Aldine Atherton. Also in Michael Banton (ed.) 1965 The Relevance of Models for Social Anthropology. London: Tavistock.

Sahlins, Marshall 1994 Cosmologies of Capitalism: The Trans-Pacific Sector of "The World System." In, Nicholas Dirks, G. Eley and S. Ortner (eds.), Culture, Power, History: A Reader in Contemporary Social History. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [Students were charged $6.54 copyright for each copy!]

Schieffelin, Edward 1995 Some Factors Behind Village Openness to Logging Interests. PNG Rainforest Campaign News, Sept.10. hhtp://gaia1.ies.wisc.edu/research/ pngfores/.

Shipton, Parker 1989 Bitter Money: Cultural Economy and Some African Meanings of Forbidden Commodities. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.

Wolf, Eric 1981 The Mills of Inequality: A Marxian Approach. In, Gerald Berreman (ed.), Social Inequality: Comparative and Developmental Approaches. NY: Academic Press.

[Subject: General (not area specific), Anthropology; Economics]



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