HHB245 AUSTRALIA AND THE SOUTH PACIFIC
After the founding of permanent European settlement on the western shores of the Pacific in 1788, a sustained though tenuous relationship linked the Australian colonies and later the Commonwealth of Australia to the adjacent islands of the Southwest Pacific. Up to the 1830s the economic success of the colonies was so closely linked to the islands, historians to describe the economic links of that era, coined a phrase “Australia’s Pacific frontier”. In the latter part of the 19th century, regional and sub-regional strategic, imperial and colonial schemes and policies were voiced and acted upon. Australia’s South Sea Islander community of today is linked to this era through the descendants of “Kanakas” indentured in the sugar, pastoral and other tropical Australian industries. The 20th century relationship includes ideological, social, cultural and political concerns as well as aid, trade and commercial links. Immigration directly and through New Zealand has also created a Pacific Islander community of recent migrants in Australia. This unit is based on a critical study of the evolving relationship between Australia and the Pacific Islands and how historians have interpreted this relationship. This unit is part of a series on the histories and cultures of the Pacific Islands; HHB242 Culture Contact in the Pacific; HHB243 The Pacific since 1945; HHB245 Australia and the South Pacific; HHB248 The USA in the Asia-Pacific; HHB122 Colonialism and independence in the Asia-Pacific and HHB320 Independent Project (by Fieldwork in Samoa/Tonga).
To develop an understanding and critical appreciation of Australia's historical links with the peoples, states and territories of the Pacific Islands region.
At the end of the unit students will be able to;
(i) describe and critically analyse bilateral, multilateral and international links between Australia and the Pacific Islands.
(ii) demonstrate knowledge of the links between Australia and Pacific Islands
(iii) argue in a structured, informed manner and apply historical methodologies in their research and presentations
Assessment items offer an opportunity to present orally (in seminar format), write research papers and short answer questions on specific readings and complete a summative written examination (essay format). All assessment will be completed by April 28 2002 (week 8). All items must be submitted. All items are an individual assignment.
Summary of assessment tasks
1 Short answers; Greg Fry, 1997, " Framing the Islands ...."
10% Due 10 March (Week 2)
2 Short answers; Stephen Henningham, 1995, “The limits of power ..."
10% Due 17 March (Week 3)
3 Class presentation, 10 minutes on essay topic,
10% Due 24 March or 14 April (Week 4 or Week 6)
4 1500 word essay; based on chapter from Thompson Australia and the Pacific …. 30% Due 14 April (Week 6)
5 Examination; One compulsory essay (from "Kanaka" lectures, Weeks 2 and 3) and two essays from the special lecture topics (Weeks 4 and 6) ), 40%
Due 28 April 2002 (3 hours, Saturday, 9.00-12.00)
5 PRESCRIBED TEXTS
(both available from the QUT Bookshop)
6 RECENT SELECTED REFERENCES
All items are on LAC as well as the original source in the library, Carseldine. Collected editions, Books and Journals listed below not held by the Library, may be located in photocopy form in the LAC collection. For further references consult;
Quanchi M, 1984, Australia-Pacific bibliography (held in Library CA)
Quanchi M, 2000, Australia and the Pacific Islands; a Bibliography 1984-1999, Carseldine, QUT (held in Library CA)
Moore CR, 1992, Pacific History Journal bibliography, PMB, ANU, Canberra;
Moore CR, 1992, New Guinea History; a bibliography of journal articles on Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya, St Lucia, University of Queensland
Anderson D, ed, 1990, The PNG-Australia relationship; problems and prospects, Sydney, Pacific Security Research Institute/Institute of Public Affairs
Arthur WS, 2001, “Autonomy and identity in the Torres Strait; a borderline case”, JPH, 36, 2, pp.215-24
Australia and the South Pacific (Joint Parliamentary Inquiry) Canberra, AGPS 1978
Australia's relations with the South Pacific (Joint Parliamentary Inquiry) Canberra, AGPS 1989
Australia's relations with the South Pacific, AIDAB submission to the Joint Parliamentary Inquiry, Canberra, AGPS 1987
Australia’s South Sea Islanders; papers on the Call for recognition 1992 (bound, held in Carseldine Library)
Australia and the South Pacific; recent Ministerial releases, speeches, statements and statistics 1994 (bound, held in Carseldine Library)
Australian South Sea Islander Community; Queensland Government Action Plan, 2001, Brisbane, Queensland Government
Babbage R, 1989, "Australian interests in the South Pacific", in Albinski H, et.al., The South Pacific; political, economic and military trends, Washington, Brasseys
Bandler F, 1979, Wacvie, Rigby
Bandler F and Fox L, 1980, Marani in Australia, Rigby
Banks G and Ballard C, eds, 1997, The Ok Tedi settlement; issues, outcomes and implications, Canberra NCDS
Bennett J, 2000, “Across the Bougainville Strait; commercial interests and colonial rivalry c1880-1960”, JPH, 35, 1, pp.67-82
Bennett S and Quanchi M, 1994, "South Sea Islanders in Australia; from kidnapping to a call for recognition" The History Teacher, Vol 32/4, pp.23-41
Berry M, 2001, Refined white, Innisfail, Australian Sugar Industry Museum
Boyd M, 1978, "Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific" in Hayburn R, ed, Australia and New Zealand Relations, Dunedin, University of Otago Press
Buckley K and Klugman K, 1983, The Australian presence in the Pacific; Burns Philp 1914-1946, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
Buckley K and Klugman K, 1986, South Pacific Focus; Burns Philp’s trading viewed through photographs early this century, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
Bulbeck C, 1992, Australian women in Papua New Guinea, Melbourne, CUP
Burmester H, 1983, "Outposts of Australia in the Pacific Ocean", Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol 29, pp.14-25
Cahill P, 1997, "A prodigy of wastefulness, corruption, ignorance and indolence; the Expropriation Board in New Guinea 1920-1927", JPH, Vol 32, 1, pp.2-28
Campbell IC, 1998, “Anthropology and the professionalism of colonial administration in Papua and New Guinea”, JPH, 33, 1, pp.69-90
Campbell IC, 2000, “The ASOPA controversy; a pivot of Australian policy for Papua and New Guinea 1945-49”, JPH, 25,1, 83-99
Chinnery S, 1998, Malaguna Road; the Papua and New Guinea Diaries of Sarah Chinnery, Canberra, National Library of Australia
Cleland R, 1999, “Across the decades” in Carrying the banner, Nedlands, UWA, pp.45-55
Colquhoun AR, 1902, The mastery of the Pacific, New York, Macmillan
Connell J, 1987, “Trouble in paradise; the perception of New Caledonia in the Australian Press”, Australian Geographical Studies, Vol 25, 2, pp.54-65
Crocombe R, 2001, The South Pacific, Suva, IPS
Dalton J, 1993, “The South Pacific in the post-Cold war world; old friends or new allies and alliances ?” Unpublished paper, Military History Conference, Ontario, Canada.
Denoon D, ed, 1997, Emerging from empire; decolonisation in the Pacific, Canberra ANU
Denoon D, Mein-Smith P and Wyndham M, 2000, A history of Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific, London, Blackwell
Denoon D, 2000, Getting under the skin; the Bougainville Copper Agreement and the creation of the Panguna mine, Melbourne, MUP
Dibb P, 1989, "One strategic entity; An Australian defence perspective on the South Pacific", in Hegarty D and Polomka P, eds, The security of Oceania in the 1990s, Canberra, ANU, pp.66-70
Dixon R, 1996, “Playing Tarzan; Australian photography and travel writing about Melanesia 1920-1945”, Australian Journal of Art, 13, 133-42
Dixon R, 2001, Prosthetic Gods; travel, representation and colonial governance, St Lucia, UQP (see Chp 3 (on Frank Hurley), 5 (on Frank Clune) and 6 (on James McAuley)
Doran S, 2001, “Toeing the line; Australia’s abandonment of traditional West New Guinea policy”, JPH, 36, 1, pp.5-18
Douglas N, 1996, "The allocentrics", Chp 2 in They came for savages; 100 years of tourism in Melanesia, Lismore, Southern Cross University Press
Dorney S, 1995, "Reporting from Port Moresby", Lal BV and Nelson H, eds, Lines across the sea; colonial inheritance in the post-colonial Pacific, Brisbane, PHA, pp225-29
Downs I, 1980, The Australian Trusteeship; Papua New Guinea 1945-75, Canberra, AGPS
Edmund M, 1992, No regrets, Brisbane, UQP
Eggleston FW, 1928, The Australian mandate in New Guinea, Melbourne, Victorian Branch of the League of Nations Union
Evans G, 1989, “Australia in the South Pacific”, World Review, Vol 28/2
Evans G and Brant B, 1991, Australia's foreign relations in the world of the 1980's, Melbourne, OUP ("The South Pacific", pp.161-80)
Evans R, Moore C, Saunders K and B Jamison, eds, 1997, 1901 Our Future's past; documenting Australia's federation, Sydney, Macmillan, (See pp.211-29)
Fatnowna N, 1988, Fragments of a lost heritage, Sydney, Angus and Robertson
Fife W, 1998, “Education and society in PNG; towards social inequality 1870-1945”, Man and Culture in Oceania, 14, 61-79
Fife W, 1996, “Education and society in PNG; towards independence 1945-1975”, Man and Culture in Oceania, 14, 61-79
Fletcher CB, 1917,The new Pacific; British policy and German aims, London
Fry G, 1981, "Regionalism and international politics of the South Pacific", Pacific Affairs, Vol 54, 3, pp.458-60 and 476-84
Fry G, 1982, "Melanesian and South Pacific regional politics", in May R and Nelson H, eds, Melanesia beyond diversity, Canberra, RSPacS, ANU, pp.651-73
Fry G, 1983, A nuclear free zone for the Southwest Pacific; prospects and significance, Working Paper No 75, Canberra, SDSC, ANU
Fry G, 1987, "Regional arms control in the South Pacific" in Ball D and Mack A, eds, The future of arms control, Canberra, ANU pp.137-56
Fry G, 1991a, ed, Australia's regional security, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
Fry G, 1991b, "Constructive commitment with the South pacific; Munroe doctrine or new partnership" in, Australia's regional security, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
Fry G, 1991c, "The region in review", The Contemporary Pacific, Vol 3/2, pp.384-8
Fry G, 1991d, Australia's South Pacific policy; from strategic denial to constructive commitment, Working Paper No 8, Canberra, RSPacS, ANU
Fry G, 1992a, "Australia and the South Pacific" in Boyce RJ and Angel JR, eds, Diplomacy in the marketplace; Australia in world affairs 1981-90
Fry G, 1992b, "The region in review; international issues and events 1991", The Contemporary Pacific, Vol 4/2, pp.379-86
Fry G, 1992c, Peace keeping in the South Pacific; some questions and prior considerations, Dept of International relations, Canberra ANU
Fry G, 1993a, "The region in review; international issues and events 1992", The Contemporary Pacific, Vol 5/2, pp.390-402
Fry G, 1993b, "At the margin; the South Pacific and the changing world order", in Richardson JL and Leaver R, eds, The post-cold war order; diagnoses and prognoses, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
Fry G, 1994, "Climbing back on the map? The South Pacific Forum and the new development orthodoxy”, Journal of Pacific History, Vol 29,3, pp.64-72
Fry G, 1996, Framing the Islands; knowledge and power in changing Australian images of the South Pacific, Canberra, Working Paper, Dept of International Relations ANU
Fry G, 1997a, "The South Pacific experiment; reflections on the origins of regional identity", Journal of Pacific History, Vol 32, 2, pp.180-202
Fry G, 1997b, "Australia and the South Pacific; the rationalist ascendency" in Cotton J and Ravenhill J, eds, Seeking Asian engagement; Australia in world affairs 1991-95, Melbourne, OUP, p.291-308 (note; Australia in world affairs is published each five years, various authors)
Fry G, 1997c, "Framing the Islands; knowledge and power in changing Australian images of the South Pacific", The Contemporary Pacific, Vol 9, 2, 305-344
Gammage B, 1999, The sky travellers; journeys in New Guinea 1938-1939, Melbourne, MUP
Gammage B, 1996, “Police and power in the pre-war PNG Highlands”, JPH, 31, 2, 62-77
Gistitin C, 1995, Quite a colony; South Sea Islanders in central Queensland 1867-1993, AEBIS Publishing
Golski K, 1998, Watched by ancestors; an Australian family in PNG, Sydney, Hodder Headline Australia
Gray G, 1996, “The next focus of power to fall under the spell of this little gang; anthropology and Australia’s post war policy in PNG, War and Society, 14, 2, 101-17
Gray G, 2000, “Managing the impact of war; Australian anthropology and the Southwest Pacific” in McLeod R, ed, Science and the Pacific war; science and survival in the Pacific 1939-1945, Dordrecht, Kluwer, 187-210
Grubb F, 2001, “Social science versus social rhetoric; methodology and the Pacific Island Labour trade to Queensland, Australia”, Historical Methods, Vol 34, No 1, pp.5-36
Hainsworth DR, 1965, “The search for a staple; the Sydney sandalwood trade 1804-1809”, Business Archives and History, Vol 4/1
Hainsworth DR, 1968, Builders and adventurers, Melbourne, Cassells
Hainsworth DR, 1971, The Sydney traders, Cassell, Australia
Hamel-Green, 1991, “Regional arms control in the South Pacific; Island state responses to Australia’s nuclear free zone initiative”, The Contemporary Pacific, Vol 3/1
Hardy J and Frost A, eds, 1990, European voyaging towards Australia Canberra, Highland Press/AAH
Hardy J and Frost A, eds, 1989, Studies from Terra Australis to Australia, Canberra, Highland Press/AAH
Hasluck P, 1976, A time for building; Australian administration in Papua and New Guinea 1951-1963, Melbourne, MUP
Hayward P, 1998, Music at the borders; Not Drowning Waving and their engagement with Papua New Guinea culture (1986-96), Sydney, John Libby
Healy A, 1987, "Monocultural administration in a multicultural environment; the Australians in Papua New Guinea", in Eddy JJ and Nethercote JJ, eds, From colony to coloniser; studies in Australian administrative history, Sydney, Hale and Ironmonger, pp.207-24
Healy AM, 1997, “Colonial law as metropolitan defence; the curious case of Australia in New Guinea”, in Hiery H and MacKenzie JM, eds, European impact and Pacific influence; British and German policy in the Pacific Islands and the indigenous response, London, Tauris Academic Studies, pp.214-30
Henderson W, 1977, West New Guinea; the dispute and its settlement, South Orange NJ, Seton hall University Press
Henningham S, 1995, “The limits on power; Australia and New Zealand and the region” in his The Pacific Island States; security and sovereignty in the post-cold war world, London, Macmillan, pp.114-136
Henningham S, 1992, "Australia and the South Pacific" in Mediansky FA, ed, Australia in a changing world, Sydney, Macmillan
Herr RA, “Australia and the southwest Pacific” in Boyce P and Angel J (eds) Independence and alliance; Australia in World affairs 1976-1980, Allen and Unwin 1983
Hill H, 1984, “Superpower of the Pacific; Australia and its island neighbours” in Eastwood J, et.al., (eds), Labour essays, Melbourne
Hopkins J, 1995, “The place of foreign Pacific Islanders in Torres Strait and Papua 1863-1878”, Journal of the RHSQ, Vol 15, No 12, pp.571-78
Hudson WJ, 1978, Billy Hughes in Paris; the birth of Australian democracy, Melbourne, MUP
Hyndman D, 2001, “Academic responsibilities and representation of the Ok Tedi crisis in postcolonial Papua New Guinea”, TCP, 13, 1, pp.33-54
Inglis A, 1997, re-reading the White Women’s Protection ordinance”, in Hiery H and MacKenzie JM, eds, European impact and Pacific influence; British and German policy in the Pacific Islands and the indigenous response, London, Tauris Academic Studies, pp.324-37
Jackson RT, 1988, “The Australian colonial experience in Papua New Guinea” in Heathcote RL (ed) The Australian experience, Melbourne, Longman Cheshire
Jupp J (ed), 1988, The Australian people, Sydney, Angus and Robertson, (pp.722-7 on "Kanakas")
Keays S, 1996, “A case for Carpentaria; Queensland and the eastern New Guinea colonies to 1900”, Journal of the RHSQ, 16, 1, pp.1-13
Kelly D, 1993, Canoes of the dead, St Lucia, UQP (a novel)
Kituai A, 1998, My gun my brother; the world of PNG colonial police 1920-1960, Honolulu, UH Press
Knapman B, 1986, “Merchant capital in the extreme periphery; Burns Philp (South Sea Coy Ltd) in Fiji 1920-1939”, Historical Studies, Vol 22, No 86, pp.93-115
Knapman C, 1993, “Reproducing empire; exploring ideologies of gender and race on Australia’s Pacific frontier” in S Margarey, et.al., Debutante nation; feminism contests the 1890s, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
Lal BV and Fortune K, eds, The Pacific Islands; an encyclopedia, Honolulu, UH Press (and on CDRom)
Latukefu S, 1992, Papua New Guinea; a century of colonial impact, Port Moresby, UPNG Press
Lewis D, 1996, The plantation dream; developing British New Guinea and Papua 1884-1942, Canberra, ANU
Lini W, 1982, “Australia and the south Pacific; a Vanuatu perspective”, Australian Outlook , Vol 36/2
Longhurst R and Grano SA, eds, 2001, Embarquement pour le Queensland; Des Loyaltiens en terre australienne, (Across the Coral Sea; Loyalty Islanders in Australia), Noumea, Australian Consulate (catalogue for an exhibition)
Macdonald B, 1988, In pursuit of the sacred trust; Trusteeship and independence in Nauru, Wellington, NZIIA
Macintosh J, nd, Worlds apart; Tonga/Australia, Springwood NSW, Butterfly Books
MacWilliam S, 1977, "Australian companies and the challenge of decolonisation" Burns Philp" in Denoon D, ed, Emerging from empire; decolonisation in the Pacific, Canberra, RSPacS, ANU, pp.134-39
Maude H, 1967, “The Tahitian pork trade 1800-1830” in Maude HE, Of islands and men, Melbourne, OUP
May R, 1977, "Nugget, Pike and the boys in Papua New Guinea" in Denoon D, ed, Emerging from empire; decolonisation in the Pacific, Canberra, RSPacS, ANU, pp.118-33
McCosker A, 1998, Masked eden; a history of Australians in New Guinea, Maleny, Matala Press
Meanjin (special Papua New Guinea issue), Vol 34/3, 1975
Meanjin (special Pacific issue) Vol 53/4, 1994
Mercer P, White Australia defied; Pacific Islander settlement in North Queensland, Townsville, James Cook University 1995
Merchant S, 1989, "Australia's defence cooperation program and regional security" in Hegarty DW and Polomka P, eds, The security of Oceania in the 1990s, Canberra ANU pp.71-8
Moore CR, 1985, Kanaka; a history of Melanesian Mackay, Port Moresby, IPNGS/UPNG Press
Moore CR, 1990, “Revising the revisionists; the historiography of immigrant Melanesians in Australia 1847-1990”, Pacific Studies, Vol 15, 2, 61-86
Moore CR, 1993, “The counterculture of survival; Melanesians in the Mackay district of Queensland 1865-1906” in Lal BV, Munro D and Beechert ED (eds) Plantation workers, Honolulu, UH Press
Moore CR, 1993, “Australia’s Pacific Islanders 1906-1991” in Reynolds H (ed) Race relations in north Queensland, 2nd Edition
Moore CR, 1977, "Decolonising the history of Australia's South Sea Islanders", in Denoon D, ed, Emerging from empire; decolonisation in the Pacific, Canberra, RSPacS, ANU, pp.194-203
Moore CR, ed, 1998, A Papua New Guinea Political Chronicle 1967-1991, Bathurst, Crawford
Moore CR, 1999, “Goodbye Queensland, Goodbye White Australia, Goodbye Christians; Australia’s South Sea Islander community and deportation 1901-1908”, The New Federalist, Vol 4, pp.22-29
Moore CR, 2000, “Refocussing indigenous trade and power; the dynamics of early foreign contact and trade in Torres Strait, Cape York and Southeast New Guinea in the Nineteenth century”, Journal of the RHSQ, Vol 18, No 7, pp.289-302
Moore CR, 2001, “The South Sea Islanders of Mackay, Queensland, Australia” in Fitzpatrick J, ed, Endangered peoples of Oceania, Westport, Greenwood Press, pp.167-81
Moore CR, Quanchi M and Bennett S, 1997, Australian South Sea Islanders; a curriculum resource for secondary schools, Brisbane, AusAID/Queensland Government
Munro D, 1995, “The labour trade in Melanesians to Queensland; a historiographic essay” in Journal of Social History, Vol 28 No 3
Munro D, 1994/5, “The Queensland labour trade”, Journal of Pacific Studies 18, pp.105-36 (this special issue contains several essays on the Queensland Labour Trade)
Nelson H, 1977, Black white and gold; gold mining in Papua New Guinea 1878-1930, Canberra, ANU Press
Nelson, H, 1989, “Masters in the tropics” in Gammage B and Spearritt P, (eds), Australians 1938, Fairfax, Syme and Weldon
Nelson H, 1996, The war diaries of Eddie Allan Stanton, Papua, 1942-45, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
Nelson H, 1995, "From ANZAC Day to Remembrance Day; remnants of Australian rule in Papua New Guinea", Lal BV and Nelson H, eds, Lines across the sea; colonial inheritance in the post-colonial Pacific, Brisbane, PHA, pp.25-36
Nelson H, 1998, “From frontier to territory; colony and nation; Australia and New Guinea” in Elizalde D, ed, Les relaciones internacionales en el Pacifico (siglos XVIII-XX) colonizacion, descolonizacion y encuentro cultural, Madrid, CSdeIC, pp.671-94
Nelson H, 2000, “Gallipoli, Kokoda and the making of national identity”, in Nile R, ed, The Australian legend and its discontents, St Lucia, UQP, 200-217
Nelson H, 2001, “Isla del oro; seeking New Guinea gold” in McCalman I, Cook A and Reeves A, eds, Gold; forgotten histories and lost objects of Australia, Cambridge, CUP, 189-206
Nelson H, 2000, “Liberation; the end of Australian rule in PNG”, JPH, 35, 3, 269-80
Newbury C, 1988, “Spoils of war; sub-imperial collaboration in South West Africa and New Guinea 1914-20”, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol 16, pp.86-106
Ogan, E, 1996, “Copra came before copper; the Nasioi of Bougainville and plantation colonialism 1902-1964, PS, 19,1, pp.31-51
Overlack P, 1998, "Bless the Queen and curse the colonial office; Australasian reaction to German consolidation in the Pacific 1871-99", JPH, Vol 33, 2, pp.133-52
Overlack P, 1992, “Australian defence awareness and German naval planning in the Pacific 1900-1914”, War and Society, Vol 10, 1, pp.37-51
Parker RS, 1995, "Appraising the colonial record; Australia in Papua New Guinea", Lal BV and Nelson H, eds, Lines across the sea; colonial inheritance in the post-colonial Pacific, Brisbane, PHA, pp.9-24
Peacock A, 1995, "Ministerial memoir; Papua New Guinea's transition to independence" Lal BV and Nelson H, eds, Lines across the sea; colonial inheritance in the post-colonial Pacific, Brisbane, PHA, pp.1-8
Piper J, 1990, “Don’t sit under the coconut tree with anyone else but me!, Australian policy towards the South Pacific”, in Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol 44/2
Piper J and Urwin G, 2001, “Australian policy towards Papua and New Guinea and the South Pacific; critique and response”, unpublished paper, Canberra, ANU
Pollock NJ, 1992, “The mining of Nauru and its aftermath; political implications of rehabilitation” in Rubinstein D, (ed), Pacific history; Papers of the 8th PHA Conference, Guam, PHA
Pollock N, 1995, "Nauru's post-independence struggles" Lal BV and Nelson H, eds, Lines across the sea; colonial inheritance in the post-colonial Pacific, Brisbane, PHA, pp49-56
Pollock J, 1977, "Nauru; decolonising, recolonising - but never a colony", in Denoon D, ed, Emerging from empire; decolonisation in the Pacific, Canberra, RSPacS, ANU, pp.102-5
Poulgrain G, 1999, “Delaying the discovery of oil in West New Guinea’, JPH, Vol 34, 2, pp.205-18
Pouwer J, 1999, “The colonisation, decolonisation and recolonisation of West New Guinea”, JPH, 24, 2, pp.157-79
Protocols Guide; Drumming the story; its our business, 2001, Mackay, Mackay and District Australian South Sea Islander Association.
Quanchi M, 1994, “A trip through the islands in 1918”, Meanjin, Vol 53, No 4, pp.714-22
Quanchi M, 1997, “Thomas McMahon; photography as propaganda in the Pacific", History of Photography, Vol 27/ 1, pp.42-53
Quanchi M, 1998, "Lobbying, ethnicity and marginal voices; the Australian South Sea Islanders call for recognition", The History Teacher, Vol 36, 1, pp.31-41
Quanchi M, 1998, "Australia's South Sea Islanders; a call for recognition", Journal of the Pacific Society, Vol 21, 3-4, pp.3-19
Quanchi M, 1997, ed, Imaging, representation and photography of the Pacific Islands, (special issue of PS, 20,4), Laie, BYU
Quanchi M, 1997, “The invisibility of Gospel ploughmen; the imaging of South Sea pastors in Papua”, Pacific Studies, 20, 4, 77-101
Quanchi M and Shekleton M, 2001, “Disorderly categories in picture postcards from colonial Papua and New Guinea”, History of Photography, 25, 4, 1-19
Reed L, 1998, “Part of our own story; representations of indigenous Australians and Papua New Guineans within Australia remembers 1945-1995 – the continuing desire for a homogenous national identity”, Oceania, 69, 3, pp.156-73
Reid R, 1997, “The Simpson of the Kokoda Track; Major Albert Moore, Salvation Army”, Wartime, 1, 26-9
Roberts J, 1997, Voices from a lost world; Australian women and children in Papua New Guinea before the Japanese invasion, Sydney, Millenium
Rosenwarne S, 1988, "Ruling the region" in Lee J & Burgmann V (eds.) A most valuable acquisition ; A people's history of Australia since 1788, Ringwood, Penguin
Samson J, 1998, Imperial benevolence; Making British authority in the Pacific Islands, Honolulu, UH Press
Scarr D, 1964, "John Bates Thurston, Commodore JG Goodenough and rampant Anglo-Saxons in Fiji", Historical Studies, 11, 43,
Schug DM, 1997, “The politics of Papuan labour in the Torres Strait marine industry”, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 83, 1, 59-70
Social Alternatives, (special issue on Australia and the South Pacific), Vol 8/2, 1989
Steven M, 1983, Trade tactics and territory; Britain in the Pacific 1783-1823, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press
Stevens D, ed, 1998, Maritime power in the Twentieth century; the Australian experience, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
Shearston T, 1986, White lies, St Lucia, UQP, (a novel)
Shineberg D, 1967, They came for sandalwood, Melbourne, MUP
Shnukal A, 2001, “The interwar Pacific Islander community of Port Lihou, Torres Starit”, Journal of the RHSQ, 17,10, 433-60
Thompson R, 1980, Australian imperialism in the Pacific Melbourne, MUP
Thompson R, 1981, "Natives and settlers on the New Hebrides frontier 1870-1900", Pacific Studies, Vol 5,1, pp.1-18
Thompson R, 1992, “Edge of empire; Australian colonization in Nauru”, in Rubinstein D, (ed) Pacific history; Papers of the 8th PHA Conference, Guam, PHA
Thompson R, 1995, “Messy entanglements in British and Australian decolonization in the Pacific 1960-63” in Talu A and Quanchi M (eds) Messy entanglements, Brisbane, PHA
Thompson, R, 1998, Australia and the Pacific Islands in the 20th Century, Melbourne, Australian Scholarly Publishers
Tomaras EJ 1993, “Australia and Japan in the Pacific Islands; partners or rivals?”, unpublished paper, PIPSA Conference, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Uhlmann M, 1992, "Australia, Vanuatu and the British connection" IPA Review,
Vol 45, 4, pp.48-50
Ward RG, 1978, “Australia in the Pacific Islands” in Jeans DN (ed), Australia; a geography, Sydney University Press
Ward RG, 1989, "Earth's empty quarter? The Pacific Islands in a Pacific Century", Geographical Journal, Vol 155, 2, 235-46
Watson JB, 1991, "Australians living plantation lives, South West Pacific 1900-1975" Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol 77, 1
Wesley-Smith T, 1994, "Australia and New Zealand" in Howe K, Kiste RC and Lal BV, eds, Tides of History; the Pacific Islands in the Twentieth century, Sydney, Allen and Unwin, pp.195-226
Wetherell D, 1998, “The Anglicans in New Guinea and the Torres Strait Islands”, PS, 21, 4, pp.1-32
Wetherell D, 1998, “First contact mission narratives from eastern Papua New Guinea”, JPH, 33,1, pp.111-16
Williams M and Macdonald B, 1985,The phosphateers, Melbourne, MUP
Yagl-Ambu, Vol 11, 3, 1984, Special issue on the 1984 Jackson Report (on Australia’s Overseas Aid Program)
Young JMR, 1968, Australia's Pacific Frontier, Sydney, Cassells
Young JMR, 1984, Adventurous spirits; Australian immigrant society in pre-cession Fiji, Brisbane, UQP
7 1500 WORD ESSAY AND CLASS PRESENTATION
Choose one chapter from Roger Thompson’s Australia and the Pacific Islands in the 20th century and write a 1500 word essay on the theme of that chapter. What assertions does Roger Thompson make in regard to Australian-Pacific Island relations in the period covered by the chapter? What evidence is offered to support these claims? What is left out? What is emphasised? (30%, due 14 April 2002.)
The themes are;
Chp 1 Australia’s interests …. 1900-1914
Chp 2 The Australian Territory of New Guinea 1914-39
Chp 3 Australia, Papua and the wider Pacific 1914-39
Chp 4 Australia, War and the post-war Pacific 1939-49
Chp 5 Australia and the Pacific … 1950-60
Chp 6 Independence for PNG 1961-75
Chp 7 Australia and wider decolonisation …. 1961-1980
Chp 8 Australia and the Pacific since 1980
Students will also present a progress report and summary of their initial opinions (worth 10%) in Weeks 4 and 6. (This will done individually, or in pairs depending on the size of the class)
The class presentation should cover (10 minutes)
i identify the period, location and other wider historical contexts
ii identify the specific sub-theme, topic or subject
iii List assertions (on OHP)
iv Main conclusions (read the concluding paragraph of your essay, on OHP, say 150 words)
The essay should cover the following; (1500 words)
i. The topic and its position in the wider chronology of the history of the Pacific and the history of Australia-Pacific relationships
ii The author's main assertions
iii The evidence the author provides to support the assertions
iv Supporting or contrary historical interpretations on the topic
v The author's contribution to historiographic debates on Australian- Pacific relationships
vi Appropriate footnoting, references and bibliography
(Note; The essay should follow QUT conventions of footnoting, references and bibliography, faced by the standard Assignment Cover Sheet)
9 SCHEDULE AND DAILY PROGRAM
SUMMARY All sessions 0900-1400 unless noted
Thu 28 Feb Overview, Introductory activities, Assessment guidelines (9.00-12.00)
Sat 10 Mar "Kanaka-ASSI histories" overview ; Discuss Fry article.
Sat 17 Mar "Kanaka-ASSI histories" continued ; Discuss Henningham article
Sat 24 Mar Special topics 1 and 2; Student presentations (part A)
Sat 31 Mar Easter Sunday
Sat 07 Apr University vacation
Sat 14 Apr Special topics 3 and 4; Student presentations (part B)
Sat 28 Apr Examination
10 FULL PROGRAM AND STUDENT TASKS
Thu 28 Feb Introductory activities; 0900-1200hrs
09.00 - 09.30 Program, assessment, text books, access, tasks
09.30 - 10.30 Film; "Colonists for a day"
10.45 - 11.30 Discussion on World-Australian-Pacific connections
11.30 - 12.00 Essay and presentation guidelines
Independent tasks between before 10th March
1. Complete questions on Fry and bring to class on 10 March
2 Select chapter from Thompson’s book for essay
3 Select three to five other readings on the topic and general background from bibliography on this period, - copy, read and make notes.
Sat 10 March 0900-1400hrs
09.00 - 09.50 The histories of Kanaka-ASSI peoples in Australia
10.00 - 10.50 Three historical periods; 1863-1900, 1900-1906, 1974-1994
11.00 - 11.50 Film as fact/fiction/history? "Black cargoes"
12.30 - 2.00 Class Discussion on Fry questions
Independent tasks before 17th March
1. Read " Key events in Australian South Sea Islander History", from Moore, Quanchi and Bennett, “Australian South Sea Islanders”, pp.11-14, (in Readings)
2. Read "Pacific Islanders" from Jupp, J, ed, The Australian people; an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their origins, pp.722-27 (in Readings)
3. Answer Henningham questions and bring to class on 17 March.
4. Read questions on "Sugar Slaves" documentary in preparation for class discussion.
5. Continue to read on essay period.
Sat 17 March 0900-1400hrs
09.00 - 09.50 Film as fact/fiction/history; part 2 "Sugar slaves"
10.00 - 10.50 The historiography of indenture and agency (discussion based on "Sugar Slaves" questions)
11.00 - 11.50 Class Discussion on Henningham questions
12.30 - 2.00 Student reports on essay topics; Part A (Thompson Chps 1-4)
Independent tasks before Week 5
i. Continue reading on essay topic
ii Complete final Draft of essay
iii Prepare draft of your report to class (if doing Chps 1-4)
iv. Start reading (say two to three articles/chapters on special lecture topics)
Sat 24 March 0900-1400hrs
09.00 - 09.50 Special topics No 1; Australia and Nauru
10.00 - 10.50 Special topics No 2; Australia and New Hebrides/Vanuatu
11.00 - 11.50 Student presentations
12.30 - 2.00 Student presentations
Independent tasks before 14th April
i. Complete final Draft of essay
ii Prepare draft of your report to class (if doing Chps 4-8)
iii Read at least one additional reference each for Special topics 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Sat 31 Mar Easter Sunday
Sat 07 Apr University vacation
Sat 14 April 0900-1400hrs
09.00 - 09.50 Special topics No 3; Australia and PNG
10.00 - 10.50 Special topics No 4; Australia and a Nuclear Free South Pacific Zone
11.00 - 11.50 Student presentations
12.30 -2.00 Student presentations
Independent tasks before Examination )
i Read at least one additional reference each on special topics 1, 2 3 and 4
ii Revise notes on "Kanaka-ASSI" topics (for compulsory question)
Sat 28 April 0900-1215hrs
09.00 - 09.15 Reading Time
09.15 - 12.15 Examination
HHB245 Australia and the Pacific Islands
Questions based on
Fry G, 1997, "Framing the Islands; knowledge and power in changing Australian images of the South Pacific", The Contemporary Pacific, Vol 9, 2, 305-44
1 Who created the "falling off the map" scenario ?
2 What are the three frames that Australians use to determine policies towards and for the Pacific?
3 Proponents of "doomsdayism" say it is liberating - how does it liberate Pacific islanders?
4 Opponents of "doomsdayism" say it is subordinating - how does it belittle Pacific Islanders ?
5 On what "unacknowledged epistemological premises" does Said base his discussion of cultural imperialism?
6 Can there be, is there, a "true Pacific" (in Edward Said’s context of a "true Orient"?)
7 What are Fry's four premises - and for each premise what key question does he ask concerning Australian policy?
8 What four solutions to the Doomsday future were offered by Callick?
9 What were the three key "constitutive" Doomsday images of the region in Callick's scenario?
10 List two errors identified by Fry in conceptualisations of the Pacific Islands as a "region".
11 Why is it wrong to argue that "paradise" is an "actual recent past state"?
12 Fry argues that "doomsdayism" is a continuation of the imaging of the cold-war era - give an example.
13 Why is it important that we acknowledge that the "framers" exclude their own history/experience from the frame.
14 List two errors of "knowledge" identified by Fry that undermine the "doomsdayism" assertions.
Questions based on;
Henningham S, 1995, "The limits of power; Australia and New Zealand and the region", in The Pacific Island States; security and sovereignty in the post-cold war World, London, Macmillan, pp.114-36
1 On pp.114-15 Henninghan ranges across a number of views - list three of the different opinions he cites on Australia's role in the region 1970-1994.
2 Henningham claims that links between Australia and the region are "extensive and close" - list three links.
3 Henningham challenges the "great power" view - does his overview on the 19th and 20th C (on pp.116-18) demonstrate that Australia is , or is not, a "great power" in the region ?
4 Henningham claims that compared to Australia, New Zealand has a reduced sense of vulnerability - what evidence did he offer of "vulnerability" influencing Australia policy and actions in the region?
5 What are the international limits on Australia's policies and actions in the region?
6 What are the regional limits on Australia's policies and actions in the region?
7 What are the domestic limits on Australia's policies and actions in the region?
8 Are the Pacific Islands "inescapably relevant" to Australian strategic and security interests?
9 Henningham claims Australia does not want to play a "dominant role" in the region - what evidence does he cite to support this claim ?
10 What is the CER?
11 How did the cold war affect Australian policy towards the region?
12 Henningham refers to the Fiji coup to demonstrate the limits on Australia's power and influence - how did it demonstrate the exercise of limits and restraints?
13 Henningham refers to the Bougainville crisis in PNG to demonstrate the limits on Australia's power and influence - how did it demonstrate the exercise of limits and restraints?
14 Henningham refers to the Pearson incident in Vanuatu to demonstrate the limits on Australia's power and influence - how did it demonstrate the exercise of limits and restraints?
15 Henningham refers to environmental damage claims from phosphate mining in Nauru to demonstrate the limits on Australia's power and influence - how did it demonstrate the exercise of limits and restraints?
HHB245 Australia and the Pacific Islands
Sugar Slaves; the secret history of Australia's slave trade, Film Australia, 1995
1 The view that Islanders were "enticed or kidnapped by force" runs throughout the documentary - are other interpretations acknowledged?
2 What aspects of ni-Vanuatu culture are highlighted when the Leo family visit Pentacost Island, Vanuatu?
3 The film suggests that ni-Vanuatu, such as Grace Molissa, believe that "the ships stole our people". This supports the Australian Islanders kidnapping version. How do you explain this ni-Vanuatu interpretation?
4 "Few white Australians understand that the Queensland sugar industry was based effectively on slave labour"; what evidence is presented to support the assertion that indenture was a "slave trade" ?
5 What does the film highlight about the passing of the 1868 and 1872 Acts?
6 Monica Leo's relative in Vanuatu asks, "why did the white people take him away?" Why are white people blamed for his leaving the village ?
7 A claim is made in Vanuatu that there was a "total annihilation of my people" and that this was a "story told all over the Islands of Vanuatu". What evidence is offered to support this assertion?
8 It is claimed by the narrator that after the deportation era, Islanders were "segregated from the European settlers" - segregated how, by whom?
9 Clive Moore is the main revisionist asserting that Islanders were agents in their own indenture. How are his views and his testimony used in the film?
10 It is asserted that at the turn of the century, Islanders become unnecessary and the target of Anglo-Celtic animosity - why?
11 How is the involvement of Trade Unions depicted?
12 What strategies of "cultural maintenance" did Islanders apply in the post deportation era?
13 The 1994 package in response to the "Call for recognition" is mentioned - no reason for the sudden turn around in fortunes is offered - why not?
14 Why is the Rockhampton cemetery scene included in the film?
15 What does Des Egglomese want ?
PART 1 SOUTH SEA ISLANDERS IN AUSTRALIA 1863-1997
1863-1903 The Islanders voluntary enlistment for indenture in Queensland was determined by kastom and cultural factors specific to their place of origins
1901-1910 The lobbying and organization by "Kanakas", with partial success, to protect their rights as workers, and citizens was an amazing achievement in the Australian economic, social and political context of the 1900s.
1970s-1990s The successful lobbying and campaigning by Australian South Sea Islanders to gain recognition as a disadvantaged immigrant community was as much the result of changes within Australia as efforts by the imagined community.
PART 2 ISLANDERS ABROAD - THE PACIFIC LABOUR RESERVE
1862-3 1407 Rapanui to Peru
1862-3 743 Cook Islanders to Peru
1863 312 Gilbertese to Peru
1863 445 Tuvaluans to Peru
1863-1903 63000 contracts signed in Qld
1864-1885 2444 PIs in Hawaii
1867-1922 c13000 Vanuatuans in New Caledonia
1867-1894 c2500 Micronesians in Samoa
1868-1895 2398 Gilbertese in Fiji
1870-1911 8228 Solomon Is in Fiji
1877-1886 210 Gilbertese in Samoa
1878-1913 c10000 New Guineans in Samoa
9400 Gilberts 1860-1900
26460 Fiji 1893-1913
5746 Samoa 1885-1913
37871 New Hebrides 1908-41
54110 Solomon Islanders 1913-1940
212546 Papua 1909-50
309499 New Guinea 1920-1950
Pacific Islanders in New Zealand
1971-86 45000 Niueans, Cook Islanders, Tokelauans, Tongans, Samoans and Fijians
1996 (est) 202236 (increase of 55% between 1984-1996)
Paciufic Islanders in USA, Australia (200000?), Canada ?????
It is estimated that in the 19th C, 2 million Islanders worked away from home as indentured labourers, pilots, ships crew on whalers, sealers and trading ships, temporarily on pearling, beche-de-mer and sandalwood stations, and pearlers in the Torres Straits. This “overseas workforce” with permanent emigration (to form a disapora) has been maintained in the 20thC diaspora.
HHB245 Australia and the Pacific Islands
Analysing an author's assertions - a model.
What assertions does Rowan Callick make in regard to the future of Pacific Island States and how does he support these claims (in "A doomsday scenario ?" in Rodney Cole, ed, 1993, Pacific 2010; Challenging the future, Canberra, NCDS. pp.1-11) ?
1 Opening statement
i identify the article, author, date, place
ii identify the broad theme, topic or subject
2 List assertions
3 Identify evidence used to support assertion
4 Strengths and weaknesses
i of claims/assertions/arguments
ii of content, re the broad theme/subject/topic
Sample opening paragraph.
In his provocative short essay, "A doomsday scenario", published in 1993 as part of the Canberra based Development Studies Centre's "Pacific 2010" project, Rowan Callick argues that the future for Pacific Island states is gloomy. To prevent this nightmare becoming a reality, he calls on Island states to adopt an appropriate development model in order to create sustainable economies and good governance.
Sample of paragraph on assertions.
Callick identifies economic restructuring as the key to avoiding a doomsday. He asserts that past options are closing and that Island governments must act now to set new paths for the future. He asserts that Island governments can no longer provide for their citizens, that there is a need for population control, increased environmental consciousness, new economic management and a shift from traditional distribution (reciprocity) to capital accumulation and re-investment in order to support the private sector.
Assertion 1 Previous options of control are closing
Evidence less opportunity for migration Mines are closing
arable land under strain of population growth
Assertion 2 Governments cannot provide = a doomsday
Evidence Population growth exceeds capabilities
Education costs, malnutrition, AIDs rising
Number in workforce declines
less arable land for young
no jobs in cities, no state welfare system
limited savings to support private sector
… and others
Assertion 3 Shift from traditional distribution to capital accumulation & re-investment
Evidence Leaders need to set example
Use land and labour (as capital is not available)
Assertion 4 Need for population control
Evidence Use economic growth (instead of children) as security/superanuation
Expand middle/class (who respond better to FPP)
Assertion 5 need for environmental consciousness
Evidence reduce slash and burn agriculture
use biodegradable packaging
audit of problems
Assertion 6 need for new economic management
Evidence donors to impose aid conditionality
replace aid with eco restructuring
increase competiveness, privatisation
spend more on health, education and infrastructure
expand free trade and rely on regionalism
HHB245 AUSTRALIA AND THE PACIFIC ISLANDS
Fry G, 1997c, "Framing the islands; knowledge and power in changing Australian images of the South Pacific", The Contemporary Pacific, Vol 9, 2, 305-344
Henningham S, 1995, “The limits on power; Australia and New Zealand and the region” in his The Pacific Island States; security and sovereignty in the post-cold war world, London, Macmillan, 114-136
Thompson R, 1980, "Conclusion", in his Australian imperialism in the Pacific; the expansionist era 1820-1920, Melbourne, MUP, 222-29
Moore CR, 1997, "Australia in the world; nation, community and identity" (Documents), in Evans R, Moore C, Saunders K and B Jamison, eds, 1997, 1901 Our Future's past; documenting Australia's federation, Sydney, Macmillan, 211-29
Quanchi M, 1998, "Australia's South Sea Islanders; a call for recognition", Journal of the Pacific Society, Vol 21, 3-4, 3-19
Jupp J (ed), The Australian people, Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1988, (722-27)
Callick R, 1993, "Pacific 2010; A doomsday scenario" in Cole R, ed, Pacific 2010; Challenging the future" , Canberra, NCDC, ANU, 1-11
Bilney G, 1994, Australia's relations with the South Pacific'; challenge and change, MPA6 of 1994, Ministerial Press Release, Canberra
Thompson R, 1994, The Pacific Basin since 1945, Essex, Longmans, (Chp 8, "Conflicts and coups in the Islands since 1980, 259-88)
Quanchi M, 1997, References on Australia’s relationship with the Pacific (other than PNG), Carseldine, School of Humanities and Human Services, pp.13
HHB245 Australia and the Pacific Student presentations and essay topics
Chp 1 Australia’s interests 1900-1914 1
Chp 2 New Guinea 1914-1939 1
Chp 3 Papua and the Pacific 1914-39 1
Chp 4 War and post-war 1939-49 1
Chp 5 Australia-Pacific 1950-60 1
Chp 6 PNG 1961-75 1
Chp 7 Decolonisation 1961-80 1
Chp 8 Australia-Pacific since 1980 1
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