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Gender and Historical Anthropology:
History of the South Pacific

History 675B

University of Hawai’i at Manoa
Department of History
Graduate Seminar 1998, Spring Semester

Time:Wednesday 3.00 - 5.30, Location: SAK A204
Margaret Jolly (Burns Distinguished Visitor Chair in History)
Office: Sakamaki A-403
Tel: 808-956-7688, email
jolly@hawaii.edu
Consultation Hours: Wednesday 12-2, Thursday 12-2, and by appointment

Introduction

Gender is a contested concept, especially in the fluid terrain of the historical anthropology of the Pacific. Although gender was, from the late 1960s, a term primarily deployed by feminist scholars its currency is now very wide in academic and everyday conversation. Despite the common slippage from ‘gender’ to ‘women’, in this course we will consider both women and men and the changing relations between them and explore how gender works as a code as well as being a way of designating persons.

We will start by exploring the related concepts of gender, sex and sexuality in cross-cultural contexts, and especially across the Pacific. We will look at the particular problems posed by ‘pollution’ and by tattooing in thinking about indigenous gender relations, their interpretation by foreigners, and their historical transformation. We will ponder the ways in which gender inflects the telling, the writing and the reading of history and of ethnography. Then we will consider a series of topics with a roughly chronological flow, tracing changing gender relations in several contexts of colonial history and cross-cultural encounter: exploratory voyages, missionary projects and Christian conversions, the trade in labour, the experience of depopulation, colonial and postcolonial states, global war and militarization, development projects and the representations of the Pacific in travel writing, fictions and film.

We will be constantly traversing the Pacific from east to west, from Hawai’i to Papua New Guinea. We will also be crossing the conventional academic boundaries of history and anthropology. We will be focusing our attention on some primary historical sources but reading these alongside later interpretations and contemporary theoretical texts. The course will be demanding but I hope exciting for us. In all our conversations I want to sustain a sense of the critical problems in conjoining indigenous and foreign in Pacific historical anthropology, in a way which is sensitive to the politics of knowledge, and to the way pasts and presents flow into each other, a ‘double helix’, in Greg Dening’s image.

Books for Purchase

The following texts are suggested for students to purchase. They provide background reading to the course and will be used at several points as the basis of seminar topics and essays. I have with one exception selected books which are available in cheaper, paperback editions.

Gell, Alfred 1993. Wrapping in Images: Tattooing in Polynesia. Oxford:Clarendon Press. Paperback edition, 1996.

Forster, Johann Reinhold Forster 1996. [1778] Observations on a Voyage Around the World. Edited by Nicholas Thomas, Harriet Guest and Michael Dettlebach. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Manderson, Lenore and Margaret Jolly (eds) 1997. Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Strathern, Marilyn 1988. The Gender of the Gift. Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press. Paperback edition.

Thomas, Nicholas 1995. Oceanic Art. London: Thames and Hudson.

Course Requirements and Assessment

I want to discuss and finalise this in our first session, but what I propose is as follows. All students will be required to attend the weekly seminar and to read and discuss core reading for all seminars. I suggest that you keep a reading book in hard copy or electronic form summarising core reading for all seminar topics. This will be crucial in your reading assessment worth 10% of the total. This will be a weekly summary of core reading for weeks 2-14, for ten topics you are not doing as an essay. It should be about 250-300 words each week and is due at the relevant seminar. Attendance and participation at seminars will be assessed as 10% of the final total.In addition I propose two major essays. A first essay of 3,000 words based on one of the seminar themes, 2-5 and due by April 1st will be worth 30% of the assessment. Students will be asked to lead the seminar discussions with short presentations (5-10 minutes) on their chosen topics from weeks 2-5 which should review only core reading. They will then be asked to lead the discussion again on a topic of their choice between 6-14, again on core reading only (about 20 minutes). This will be the basis of another essay of 4,000 words based on one of the themes from 6-14, and developed from the discussion at the seminar. It is worth 40% of assessment and is due two weeks after your seminar presentation or if you prefer by April 29th at the latest. Essays should be based on core and recommended reading set, but students should feel free to explore the library for other sources and to pose a question appropriate to their own interests, in consultation with me.

Late essays will not be accepted unless there is a compelling medical or personal reason, attested by a medical certificate or other appropriate documentation.

Availability of Books and Papers

We will try to supply all copies of the core reading which are not from the books for purchase on sale at the University Bookstore. All core and recommended reading will be available either in reserve at the Sinclair Library or in the case of books or papers from the Pacific collection from the circulation desk on the fifth floor, Hamilton library. These latter titles will need to be consulted there, and you will need to come prepared with book title, call number, your ID card and to quote the seminar title and number and my name. We will, at the start of the seminar, provide a list of all books listed with locations and call numbers.

If you have any problems in finding set readings please contact either myself or Kerri Inglis, the teaching assistant, who is in Room B413, Tel 956-6925.

1. Week One, January 14th

Orientations: Meetings and Greetings.

We will begin with introductions and organising our meetings and work for the semester. I want this session mainly to be dedicated to getting to know each other. I am new to teaching in Hawai’i, and indeed to graduate teaching in the North American context. I’ll give you a sense of what I teach and research, especially in my present job convening the Gender Relations Project at the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU and in supervising graduate scholars there. But primarily I would like to find out more about you, your overall study programme and how this course fits into that and future plans. So come prepared to do this. I also want to go through this course guide with you, sorting out any questions, ambiguities or problems about the curriculum, availability of books and assessment.

2. Week Two, January 21st

What is Gender? Pacific and EuroAmerican Meanings

Hopefully in the following week we can start with a discussion of some questions such as the following. Is sex difference a universal? What about transexuality and transvestism? What is the relation between the concepts of gender, sex and sexuality? Is it helpful to distinguish sex as biologically given and gender as culturally and historically constructed? How do heterosexual and homosexual practices relate to sexual identities? Do Pacific notions of gender and sexuality differ from EuroAmerican ones in important ways? How have Pacific and EuroAmerican notions of gender and sexuality influenced each other?

Core Reading

Besnier, Niko 1994. Polynesian gender liminality in time and space. In Gilbert Herdt (ed.) Third Sex,Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorprhism in Culture and History. New York: Zone Books, 285-328.

Clark, Jeffrey 1997. State of Desire:Transformations in Huli Sexuality. In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly (eds) Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 191-211.

Gatens, Moira 1983. A critique of the sex/gender distinction. In Sneja Gunew (ed.) A Reader in Feminist Knowledge. London and New York: Routledge, 139-157.

Jackson, Peter 1997. Kathoey><Gay><Man: the Historical Emergence of Gay Male Identity in Thailand. In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly (eds) Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 166-190.

Jolly, Margaret and Lenore Manderson 1997. Introduction. Sites of Desire/Economies of Pleasure in Asia and the Pacific. In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly (eds) Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1-26.

Martin, Emily 1991. The egg and the sperm: how science has constructed a romance based on the stereotypical male-female roles. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16(3):485-501.

Recommended Reading

Jolly, Margaret 1992. Partible persons and multiple authors. [A review of Marilyn Strathern’s The Gender of the Gift.]. Pacific Studies Book Review Forum, 15(1):137-149. See also reviews by Paula Brown and Roger Keesing and Marilyn Strathern’s response, 123-137, 149-159.

Strathern, Marilyn 1988. The Gender of the Gift. Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Nicholson, Linda 1994. Interpreting gender. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 20(11):79-105.

Trask, Haunani-Kay 1986. Eros and Power: The Promise of Feminist Theory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

3. Week Three January 28th

The Sexed Body - Pollution - A Problem in Cross-Cultural Interpretation

In the historical anthropology of the Pacific, there is a protracted debate about the way to interpret the practices which are variously called kapu, tapu, abu. Such restrictions, based on gender and rank segregations were/are found in many Polynesian islands, but also in the Solomons and elsewhere in Melanesia. Are such ideas and practices best translated in terms of purity and pollution or of sacred danger? Evaluate Hanson and Ralston’s critiques of the notion of ‘pollution’.What are the differences between Linnekin and Valeri on kapu in Hawaii? Are there important differences as well as similarities in these practices across the Pacific, in the way in which gender and rank are related for instance? Do these practices suggest a profound difference in the way in which male and female bodies were/are perceived? How were such practices interpreted by foreigners, especially missionaries?What were the dynamics in the abolition or transformation of such practices? Assess Sahlin’s (1985) argument for Hawaii and Keesing’s arguments for the Kwaio in the Solomons, focusing on the effects of more recent Christian conversion in the latter.

Hanson, F. Allan 1982. Female Pollution in Polynesia? Journal of the Polynesian Society. 91:335-381.

Keesing, Roger 1985. Kwaio Women Speak: The Micropolitics of Autobiography in a Solomon Island Society. American Anthropologist 87:27-39.

Linnekin, Jocelyn 1990. Sacred Queens and Women of Consequence. Rank, Gender and Colonialism in the Hawaiian Islands. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, esp. p. 13-73.

Ralston, Caroline 1988. ‘Polyandry’, ‘Pollution’, ‘Prostitution’: The Problems of Eurocentrism and Andocentrism in Polynesian Studies. In Barbara Caine, Elizabeth Grosz and Marie de Lepervanche (eds) Crossing Boundaries: Feminisms and the Critique of Knowledges. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 71-81.

Sahlins, Marshall 1985. Islands of History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Ch 5.

Recommended Reading.

Ralston, Caroline 1989. Changes in the Lives of Ordinary Women in Early Post-Contact Hawaii In Margaret Jolly and Martha Macintyre (eds) Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 45-64.

Ralston, Caroline and Nicholas Thomas (eds) 1987. Sanctity and Power: Gender in Polynesian History The Journal of Pacific History, Special Issue, 22. See especially Introduction, 115-22.

Thomas, Nicholas 1989. Blood and Purity: A Comment on the Interpretation of Polynesian Culture. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 98: 207-211.

Valeri, Valerio 1985. Kingship and Sacrifice: Ritual and Society in Ancient Hawaii. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

Valeri, Valerio 1990. Blood and Purity: A Countercomment on Insufficient Scholarship and More Interesting Matters. Journal of the Polynesian Society. 99: 319-24.

4. Week Four February 4th

The Sexed Body - Tattooing - A Problem in Cross-Cultural Interpretation

The word tattooing in English of course has its origin in a Pacific word and practice, common but not universal in the region. What do you think of Gell’s attempt to explain the differences between tattooing practices across the Pacific, on the basis of gender and rank? Evaluate his more general approach to tattooing and the meanings of the practice forEuroAmericans. Are there gender dynamics in its contemporary revival?

Core Reading

Gell, Alfred 1996 [1993]. Wrapping in Images: Tattooing in Polynesia. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Guest, Harriet 1992. Curiously Marked: Tattooing, Masculinity, and Nationality in Eighteenth Century British Perceptions of the South Pacific. In John Barrell (ed.) Painting and the Politics of Culture: New Essays on British Art, 1700-1850. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 101-134.

Thomas, Nicholas 1995. Oceanic Art. London: Thames and Hudson, esp p. 99-114.

Recommended Reading

Guest, Harriet 1989. The Great Distinction: Figures of the Exotic in the Work of William Hodges. Oxford Art Journal 12:36-58.

P.F. Kwiatkowski 1996. The Hawaiian Tattoo. Kahola: Halona Inc. Illustrations by Tom O’o Mehau.

Keppler, Adrienne 1988. Hawaiian Tattoo: A Conjunction of Genealogy and Aesthetics. In A. Rubin (ed.) Marks of Civilization: Artistic Transformation of the Human Body. Los Angeles: Museum of Natural History.

Simmons, D. 1986. Ta Moko: The Art of Maori Tattoo. Auckland: Reed Methuen.

Thomas, Nicholas 1997. Marked Men. Art Asia Pacific 13:66-73.

5. Week Five February 11th

Memories - Engendering pasts in presents

History is more than just the academic discipline which bears that name, it is the process of telling pasts in presents, the way in which memories circulate in words, in places and things. There is often a contrast drawn between Pacific and EuroAmerican ways of making history - between histories which are embodied, in stories, spoken and sung, in landscape, artifacts and bodies, as against history which is ‘written down’ in texts. Dening, amongst others, implies that this distinction is overdrawn since not only do Pacific islanders write histories but EuroAmericans tell stories, perform the past in places, monuments, artifacts even bodies. But, given this broader notion of histories how might we engender memories?

What is the significance of the gender of the observer or narrator in memory-work? Are women and men equally empowered to tell such stories? Is women’s history different from men’s history? Consider the claim by Jolly that some feminist histories of white women in the colonies are recuperative. How do present predicaments about gender affect how we engender stories of the past? What is the relation between writing gender in ethnography and history?

Core Reading

Beirsack, Aletta 1991. Introduction In Aletta Biersack (ed.) Clio in Oceania: Towards an Historical Anthropology. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1-36.

Dening, Greg 1991. A Poetics for Histories: Transformations that Present the Past. In Aletta Biersack (ed.) Clio in Oceania: Towards an Historical Anthropology. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 347-380.

Jolly, Margaret 1993. Colonizing Women: the maternal body and empire. In Sneja Gunew and Anna Yeatman (eds) Feminism and the Politics of Difference. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 103-127.

Thomas, Nicholas. 1997 Partial Texts: Representation, Colonialism and Agency in Pacific History. In Oceania: Visions, Artifacts, Histories. Duke University Press: Durham and London, 23-49.

Recommended Reading

Borofsky, Robert 1990. Making History:Pukapukan and Anthropological Constructions of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Esp. Chs 1 and 5.

Moore, Henrietta L. 1988 Feminism and Anthropology. Oxford:Basil Blackwell, 1-41.

Moore, Henrietta L. 1994 A Passion for Difference: Essays in Anthropology and Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 49-70.

Scott, Joan 1986. Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis. American Historical Review 91(5):1053-1075.

White, Geoffrey 1992. Identity through History: Living Stories in a Solomon Island Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

6. Week Six February 18th

Explorations - Constructing Race and Gender in the Pacific

In some of the earliest European explorations of the Pacific, distinctions were made between different peoples on the basis of race or nation. Although the terms Melanesia and Polynesia were not coined until 1832 by Dumont d’Urville there were early distinctions drawn between the peoples of the eastern and western islands. Gender was crucial to this process, since not only were perceptions of the position of women used to rank peoples, but also gender worked as a code to distinguish people by island and by rank. What were the racial distinctions plotted by Johann Reinhold Forster in his Observations? Were they similar to those of Cook? How did his representations between women in the west and the east differ? How far do these seem based on indigenous realities, how far on European visions? How were gender relations amongst Maori perceived? How does this compare with Tahiti and/ or the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu). How do the representation of gender in the texts and the visual images compare, for the same islands?

Core Reading

Forster, Johann Reinhold Forster 1996. [1778] Observations on a Voyage Around the World. Edited by Nicholas Thomas, Harriet Guest and Michael Dettlebach. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. Esp. 142-267.

Guest, Harriet 1996. Looking at Women: Forster’s Observations in the South Pacific. In Johann Reinhold Forster 1996. [1778] Observations on a Voyage Around the World. Edited by Nicholas Thomas, Harriet Guest and Michael Dettlebach. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, p. xli-liv.

Jolly, Margaret 1992. "Ill-natured Comparisons": Racism and Relativism in Euopean Representations of ni-Vanuatu from Cook’s Second Voyage. History and Anthropology 5:331-363.

Thomas, Nicholas 1996. Johann Reinhold Forster and His Observations. And "On the Varieties of the Human Species": Forster’s Comparative Ethnology. In Johann Reinhold Forster 1996. [1778] Observations on a Voyage Around the World. Edited by Nicholas Thomas, Harriet Guest and Michael Dettelbach. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, p. xv-xl.

Recommended Reading

Cook, James. 1961. The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery. The Voyage of the Resolution and Adventure, 1775. Edited by J. C. Beaglehole. London: Hakluyt Society XXXV, Pages to be advised.

Smith, Bernard 1985 [1960]. European Vision and the South Pacific. Revised second edition. New York: Esp. Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 11.

Thomas, Nicholas 1989 The Force of Ethnology: Origins and Significance of the Melanesia/Polynesia Division. Current Anthropology 30:27-34. Or the later version Thomas 1997, see below.

Thomas, Nicholas 1997. Melanesians and Polynesians: Ethnic Typifications inside and outside Anthropology. In In Oceania: Visions, Artifacts, Histories. Duke University Press: Durham and London, 133-155.

7. Week Seven, February 25th

Gendered Labour

Indigenous societies in the Pacific all constructed differences between men’s work and women’s work, although the patterns of the sexual division of labour differed dramatically between the western and the eastern Pacific. The introduction of plantation labour and the patterns of labour recruiting or ‘blackbirding’ created a new gendered division of labour in many Pacific societies. In many plantation sites, in Queensland, Fiji and New Caledonia men vastly outnumbered women. Yet in other sites the ratios of men and women were roughly equal. How far did this derive from the nature of the societies from which labourers came or the racial relations prevailing in the country of the plantation? What did demographic imbalances between men and women entail? In what way did the position of women labourers differ from that of men? How did this bear on relations with planters, overseers and bosses? In the intense controversy as to whether such labourers were volunteers or slaves are men and women represented differently?

Jolly, Margaret 1987. The Forgotten Women: a history of migrant labour and gender relations in Vanuatu. Oceania 58(2):119-139.

Kelly, John 1997. Gaze and Grasp: Plantations, Desires, Indentured Indians and Colonial Law in Fiji. In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly (eds) Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 72-98.

Lal, Brij 1985. Kunti’s Cry: Indentured Women on Fiji Plantations. Indian Economic and Social History Review 22:55-71.

Lal, Brij 1985. Veil of Dishonour: Sexual Jealousy and Suicide on Fiji Plantations. The Journal of Pacific History 20:135-155.

Recommended Reading

Kelly, John 1991. A Politics of Virtue: Hinduism, sexuality and countercolonial discourse in Fiji. Chicago:Chicago University Press.

Moore, Clive 1985. Kanaka: A History of Melanesian Mackay. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies and University of Papua New Guinea Press.

Saunders, Kay 1980. Melanesian Women in Queensland, 1863-1907: some methodological problems involving the relationship between racism and sexism. Pacific Studies 4(1): 26-44.

Saunders, Kay 1982. Workers in Bondage: the origins and bases of unfree labour in Queenland, 1824-1916. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.

8. Week Eight, March 4th

Engendering Missionary Presence

Christian conversion was pervasive throughout the Pacific and most Pacific Islanders are today practising Christians. Both foreign and Islander missionaries were critical agents in the transformation of indigenous patterns of gender relations, although their programs of reform often failed or had partial effects. Moreover indigenous appropriations often effected changes in different directions. Such changes have been most discussed in terms of women’s lives. Can we construct a process of ‘domestication’ of Pacific women as a result of missionary efforts? How far did the missionaries emphasise women’s status as wives rather than sisters? Can we describe missionary-influenced patterns of change as either improvement or deterioration in women’s lives? What of the effects on men of missionary efforts, especially in relation to pacification and conversion and the attenuation of the power of indigenous chiefs, warriors and priests? What was the relation between women and men in the new churches? Did this differ fundamentally between different denominations.

Dureau, Christine 1998. From Sisters to Wives: In Kalpana Ram and Margaret Jolly (eds) Maternities and Modernities: Colonial and Postcolonial Experiences in Asia and the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 239-274.

Gailey, Christine Ward 1980. Putting down sisters and wives: Tongan women and colonization. In Mona Etienne and Eleanor Leacock (eds) Women and Colonization. New York: Praeger, 294-322.

Grimshaw, Patricia 1989. New England missionary wives, Hawaiian women and ‘The Cult of True Womanhood’ In Margaret Jolly and Martha Macintyre (eds) Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 19-44.

Jolly, Margaret 1991. ‘To Save the Girls for Brighter and Better Lives’: Presbyterian Missions and Women in the South of Vanuatu, 1848-1870. The Journal of Pacific History 26(1):27-48.

Jolly, Margaret 1989. Sacred Spaces: Churches, Men’s Houses and Households in South Pentecost, Vanuatu. In Margaret Jolly and Martha Macintyre (eds) Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 213-235.

Langmore Diane 1989. The object lesson of a civilised, Christian home. In Margaret Jolly and Martha Macintyre (eds) Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 84-94.

Thomas, Nicholas 1992. Colonial conversions: difference, hierarchy and history in early twentieth century evenagelical propaganda. Comparative Studies in Society and History 34(2):366-389.

Recommended Reading

Diaz, Vincente 1993. Pious Sites: Chamorro Culture at the Crossroads of Spanish Catholicism and American Liberalism. In Amy Kaplan and Donald Pease (ed.) Cultures of United States Imperialism. Ralegh: 312-339.

Grimshaw, Patricia 1989. Paths Of Duty: American Missionary Wives in Nineteenth-Century Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Hall, Catherine 1991. Missionary Stories: Gender and Ethnicity in England in the 1830s and 1840s. In Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula A. Triechler (eds) Cultural Studies. New York, 240-276.

Jolly, Margaret and Martha Macintyre (eds) Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. Esp Introduction and Chs 8, 10.

Langmore, Diane 1989. Missionary Lives. Papua, 1874-1914. Pacific Islands Monograph Series, No 6. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press/Center for Pacific Islands Studies.

Thorne, Susan 1997. ‘The Conversion of Englishmen and the Conversion of the World Inseparable’: Missionary Imperialism and the Language of Class in Early Industrial Britain. In Frederick Cooper and Ann Laura Stoler (eds) Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 238-262.

9. Week Nine, March 11th

Depopulation: Colonial States and the Gender of the Dying Race

In the wake of the first explorers, traders and missionaries, Pacific people suffered catastrophically from the impact of introduced diseases. The extent and the nature of depopulation has been much debated and will continue to be so in places like Hawai’i, New Zealand and Australia as well as the independent states of the Pacific. At the time of the greatest depopulation controversy raged as to the relative contribution of exogenous and indigenous causes. Although many European settlers awaited and indeed welcomed the end of the ‘dying race’, missionaries and colonial states were engaged in projects to arrest depopulation. Such efforts were probably most developed in Fiji, where indigenous mothers were singled out for blame and where they were drawn into projects of public health and sanitation and ‘reforms’ of mothering. What did this imply for fathers? Were responses to depopulation in other islands similar? Were men and women represented differently in the debates about ‘the dying race’. And how did these debates in the Pacific echo concerns in Europe?

Bushnell, Andrew F. 1993. ‘The Horror’ reconsidered: an evaluation of the historical; evidence for population decline in Hawai’i, 1778-1803. Pacific Studies 16(3): 115-162.

Jolly, Margaret 1998. Other mothers: maternal insouciance and the depopulation debate in Vanuatu and Fiji. In Kalpana Ram and Margaret Jolly (eds) Maternities and Modernities: Colonial and Postcolonial Experiences in Asia and the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 177-212.

Jolly, Margaret 1996. Desire, difference and disease. Sexual and venereal exchanges on Cook’s voyages in the Pacific. In Ross Gibson (ed.) Exchanges. Sydney: Museum of Sydney, 187-217.

Reed, Adam 1997. Contested Images and Common Strategies: Early Colonial Sexual Politics in the Massim. In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly (eds) 1997. Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 48-71.

Stannard, David E. 1989 Before the Horror: The Population of Hawai’i on the Eve of Western Contact. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Recommended Reading

Davin, Anna 1997. [1978] Imperialism and Motherhood. In Frederick Cooper and Ann Laura Stoler (eds) Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 87-151.

Decrease Report. 1896. Report of the Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Decrease of the Native Population. Suva: Government Printer.

Mc Arthur, Norma 1967. Island Populations of the Pacific. Canberra: The Australian National University Press.

Rallu, Jean-Louis 1991. Population of the French Overseas Territories in the Pacific past, present and future. The Journal of Pacific History 26(2):169-186.

Thomas, Nicholas 1990. Sanitation and seeing: the creation of state power in early colonial Fiji. Comparative Studies in Society and History 32:149-170.

10. Week Ten, March 18th

Gendered Agendas in Travel Writing

Travel writers have been crucial in constructing images of the Pacific. Often such travel writers combined documentary journalism with writing novels and romances, as was the case with Beatrice Grimshaw. How are these genres of writing related in her corpus? Consider the salience of sexuality and her gender in Grimshaw’s travel writing. Compare her representations of Polynesian and Melanesian women with that of the Cook voyages. How far might the divergent portraits relate to the imperatives of tourism versus white settlement? How do her portraits of the eastern and western Pacific compare with those in her novels?

Core Reading

Grimshaw, Beatrice. 1907. In the Strange South Seas. London: Hutchinson and Company.

Grimshaw, Beatrice 1907. From Fiji to the Cannibal Islands. London: Hutchinson and Company.

Jolly, Margaret 1997. From Point Venus to Bali Ha’i: Eroticism and Exoticism in Representations of the Pacific. In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly (eds) 1997. Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 99-122.

Jolly, Margaret 1993. Colonizing Women: the Maternal Body and Empire. In Sneja Gunew and Anna Yeatman (eds) Feminism and the Politics of Difference. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 103-127.

Recommended Reading

Gardner, S. 1977. For love and money: Early writings of Beatrice Grimshaw, Colonial Papua’s woman of letters. New Literature Review 1:10-36.

Gardner, S. 1989-88. A "’vert to Australianism" : Beatrice Grimshaw and the Bicentenary. Hecate 13(2):31-68.

Grimshaw, Beatrice 1922. My South Sea Sweetheart. London: Hurst and Blackett.

Grimshaw, Beatrice 1922. Conn of the Coral Seas. London: Hurst and Blackett.

Laracy, Eleanor and Laracy, Hugh 1977. Beatrice Grimshaw: Pride and prejudice in Papua. Journal of Pacific History 12(3):154-175.

Pratt, Mary Louis 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. London and New York: Routledge.

11. Week Eleven April 1st

Men, Women and the Militarization of the Pacific

Foreign strategic and military interest in the Pacific reached a zenith in World War Two. The war initiated the nuclear era in the Pacific, and the the politics of independence of states was caught up with anti-nuclear issues. How might we read the indigenous and foreign histories of World War Two in gendered ways? Did World War Two have differential impacts on men and women in the Pacific? Consider both the oral histories and the photographs in White and Lindstrom’s collections in this regard. Do some questions emerge from the photographs which are not discussed in the texts? How did the Pacific war reshape notions of masculinity in the different islands of the Pacific? How did notions of brotherhood between indigenous men and American troops inflect the politics of decolonization and independence in the western Pacific, in Vanuatu and the Solomons particularly? How did the militarization of the Pacific in World War Two and beyond relate to earlier EuroAmerican ideas of the Pacific as a site of both sexual and military conquest? How is the Pacific war represented in the movie South Pacific? Evaluate Teaiwa’s argument about the connection between the two bikinis.

Jolly, Margaret 1997. From Point Venus to Bali Ha’i: Eroticism and Exoticism in Representations of the Pacific. In Lenore Manderson and Margaret Jolly (eds) 1997. Sites of Desire, Economies of Pleasure. Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 99-122.

Teaiwa, Teresia 1994. Bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans. The Contemporary Pacific. 6(1):87-109.

White, Geoffrey and Lamont Lindstrom (eds) 1989. The Pacific Theatre: Island Representations of World War II. Pacific Island Monograph Series, No 8. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, Center for Pacific Island Studies. Especially Chapters 1, 2, 3, 11, 13 and 17.

Recommended Reading

Ferguson, Kathy E. and Phyllis Turnbull 1997. Military Presence/Missionary Past: The Historical Construction of Masculine Order and Feminine Hawai’i. In Joyce N. Chinen, Kathleen O. Kane and Ida M. Yoshinaga (eds) Women in Hawai’i: Sites, Identities and Voices. Social Process Special issue, Vol 38.

Keesing, Roger M. 1978. Politico-Religious Movements and Anticolonialism on Malaita: Maasina Rule in Historical Perspective. Oceania 48:241-261; 49:46-73.

Lamont Lindstrom and Geoffrey M. White 1990. Island Encounters: Black and White Memories of the Pacific War. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington and London

Ravuvu, Asesela 1974. Fijians at War. Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies.

Worsley, Peter 1968. The Trumpet Shall Sound: A Study of ‘Cargo’ Cults’ in Melanesia. Second augmented edition. New York: Schocken Books.

12.Week Twelve April 8th

Gender in Contemporary Writing and Art from the Pacific

Gender relations are much represented and debated in the contemporary Pacific in artistic genres- in novels, short stories, poetry, plays, paintings and sculptures. Compare how women are represented by male authors and artists and how men are represented by female authors and artists in works from Hawai'i, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomons or Vanuatu. How are relations between men and women portrayed? Are there differences between different countries? Do you detect different male and female voices or views? How is gender connected to constructs of tradition (kastom) and modernity in these different works.

Core Reading

Billy, Afu 1983. ‘Against My Will’. In Afu Billy, Hazel Lulei and Jully Sipolo (eds) Mi Mere: Poetry and Prose by Solomons Islands Women Writers. Honiara: University of the South Pacific, Solomon Islands Centre.

Grace, Patricia 1982, A Way of Talking. In Witi Ihimaera and D. S. Long (ed.) Into the World of Light: An Anthology of Maori Writing. Auckland, 198-202.

Hereniko, Vilsoni and Teresia Teaiwa 1993. Last Virgin in Paradise: A Serious Comedy. Scene III. Manoa: A Pacific Journal of International Writing. 5: 193-203.

Hulme, Keri 1986. While My Guitar Gently Sings. In Keri Hulme Te Kaihau=the Windeater. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 107-117.

Mera Molisa, Grace 1983. ‘Black Stone’, ‘Victim of Foreign Abuse’ ‘Traditional Leaders’, ‘Custom’‘Vatu Invocation’ and ‘Other People’. In Black Stone: Poems by Grace Mera Molisa, 8-11, 12-13, 24-5, 38-39, 66-8. Suva: Mana Publications.

Mera Molisa, Grace 1987. ‘Colonised People’, ‘Integration of Women’ and ‘Vanuatu’. In Colonised People: Poems by Grace Mera Molisa. Port Vila: Black Stone Publications, 9-13,14-15, 23.

Mera Molisa, Grace 1989. ‘Delightful Acquiescence, ‘Village Women’, ‘Women’, ‘Men’. In Black Stone II: Poems by Grace Mera Molisa. Port Vila: Black Stone Publications, 24, 29,32-3.

Sipolo, Jully 1981. ‘A Man’s World’ and ‘Civilized Girl’. In Civilized Girl: Poems by Jully Sipolo. Suva: 10, 21.

Sipolo, Jully 1986. ‘Wife Bashing’ and ‘Urban Life’. In Praying Parents: A Second Collection of Poems by Jully Sipolo. Honiara: 12-13, 31-2.

Waim Kagl, Toby 1987. Extract from Kallan. In Ganga Powell (ed.) Through Melanesian Eyes: An Anthology of Papua New Guinea Writing. Melbourne: 35-44.

Wendt, Albert 1987. ‘A Talent’. In The Birth and Death of the Miracle Man: A Collection of Short Stories. Harmondsworth.

Recommended Reading

Jolly, Margaret 1991. The Politics of Difference: Feminism, Colonialism and Decolonisation in Vanuatu. In Gillian Bottomley, Marie de Lepervanche and Jeannie Martin (eds) Intersexions: Gender/Class/ Culture/Ethnicity. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 52-74.

13. Week Thirteen April 15th

Engendering Tradition and Nation

In contemporary debates about culture, tradition and kastom in the Pacific, there has been much discussion about the past relations of women and men and how these bear on the present. Consider similarities and differences between New Zealand, PNG, Vanuatu, Fiji and Hawai’i? How far are nationalisms being forged on the basis of notions of tradition and how far on notions of progress and modernity? What is the relation between the two? Are men and women seen as being differently situated in terms of the overused dichotomy of tradition and modernity? How might the gendered language of tradition be compared between independent states of the Pacific and those where indigenous peoples are a minority in settler colonies dominated by foreigners? How are these claims to tradition, and to national independence, being affected by the increasing velocity of the forces of globalization, including the ‘liberalization’ of trade and the promotion of liberal ideals of democracy, individualism and human rights?

Jolly, Margaret. 1997. Woman-Nation-State in Vanuatu: Women as Signs and Subjects in the Discourses of Kastom, Modernity and Christianity. In Ton Otto and Nicholas Thomas (eds) Narratives of Nation in the South Pacific, Harwood Academic Publishers: Amsterdam, 133-162.

Jolly, Margaret 1996. Woman Ikat Raet Long Human Raet O No? Women’s Rights, Human Rights and Domestic Violence in Vanuatu. Feminist Review 52:169-188.

Kauanui, J. Kehaulani 1998. Off-Island Hawaiians ‘Making’ Ourselves at ‘Home’. In Kalpana Ram and J. Kehaulani Kauanui (eds) Migrating Feminisms: the Asia-Pacific Region. Womens Studies International Forum. Forthcoming,but available with kind permission of the author.

Sepoe, Orovu. 1994. How democratic is our democracy? Women and politics in Papua New Guinea. In ‘Atu Emberson-Bain 1994. Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth?Perspectives of Pacific Island Women. Suva: Marama Publications, 251-261.

Trask, Haunani-Kay 1993. From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignity in Hawai’i. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press. Pp. 31-51, 87-125, 263-277.

Trask, Haunani-Kay 1996. Feminism and Indigenous Hawaiian Nationalism. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 21(4):906-916.

Recommended Reading

Foster, Robert (ed.) 1995. Nation Making: Emergent Identities in Postcolonial Melanesia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Jolly, Margaret and Nicholas Thomas 1992. The Politics of Tradition in the South Pacific. Oceania Special Issue 62(4). Esp. papers by Foster, Jolly and Linnekin.

Lawson, Stephanie 1997. The Tyranny of Tradition: Critical Reflections on Nationalist Narratives in the South Pacific. In Ton Otto and Nicholas Thomas (eds) Narratives of Nation in the South Pacific. Harwood Academic Publishers: Amsterdam, 15-31.

Lawson, Stephanie 1990. The Myth of Cultural Homogeneity and its Implications for Chiefly Power and Politics in Fiji. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 32:795-821.

Ralston, Caroline 1992. The Study of Women in the Pacific. The Contemporary Pacific. 4:162-175.

Tusitala Marsh, Selina 1998. Feminism: migrant overstayer or model citizen? In Kalpana Ram and J. Kehaulani Kauanui (eds) Migrating Feminisms: the Asia-Pacific Region. Womens Studies International Forum. Forthcoming, but available with kind permission of the author.

14. Week Fourteen April 22nd

Paradise Lost?: Engendering Art, Photography and Cinema - EuroAmerican and Island Views

In recent years there has been much critique of earlier colonial art, photography and film and the ways in which these are still celebrated in the present. Gaugin’s corpus in particular has been subject to critical re-evaluation. Consider his artistic representations of Tahitian women, and the different interpretations of Eisenman, Perloff, and Solomon-Godeau.You might like to discuss similar questions in relation to another colonial artist, photographer or film-maker. You might consider not just the images but the practices surrounding such art, photography or cinema. Evaluate some recent attempts to subvert, transform or erase colonial images by Pacific artists, photographers and filmmakers.

Core Reading

Eisenman, Stephen F. 1997. Gauguin’s Skirt. London: Thames and Hudson.

Perloff, Nancy 1995. Gauguin’s French Baggage: Decadence and Colonialism in Tahiti. In Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush (eds) Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 226-269.

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail 1989. Going Native. Art in America July, 118-128, 161.

Thomas, Nicholas 1996. The dream of Joseph: debates about identity in Pacific art. From exhibit to exhibitionism: recent Polynesian presentations of ‘otherness’.The Contemporary Pacific 8:291-317, 319-348.

Webb, Virginia-Lee 1995. Manipulated Images: European Photographs of Pacific Peoples. In Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush (eds) Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 175-201.

Recommended Reading

Gauguin, Paul 1957. Noa noa. Translated by O.F. Theis and Introduction by Alfred Werner. New York: vi-xiii, 12-93.

Jolly, Margaret 1998. White Shadows in the Darkness: Representations of Polynesian Women in Early Cinema. In Max Quanchi (ed.) Imaging and Representation: Photography and Film in the Pacific. Special issue of Pacific Studies, forthcoming.

Lutz, Catherine A. and Jane L. Collins 1993. Reading National Geographic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Esp Chs 4 and 5.

Rony Fatimah Tobing 1996. The Third Eye: Race, Cinema and Ethnographic Spectacle. Duke University Press: Durham and London. Esp Ch. 5.

Thomas, Nicholas 1995. Oceanic Art. London: Thames and Hudson, Esp Ch. 9.

15. Week Fifteen April 29th

Gender and Development

There is often a tension between arguments which see women as marginalized by development processes and which therefore have an inclusive rhetoric and those which suggest that women’s situation vis-a-vis men is being progressively worsened by development. We will try to assess these claims in relation to Tahiti and the Highlands of Papua New Guinea, through the texts of Lockwood and Sexton in particular. Are there similarities in the processes of capitalist development? What are the important differences? What are the ways in which the Pacific women writing in Bain’s collection ponder whether sustainable development might be malignant growth? Consider how they offer gendered critiques of foreign models of population and environment in relation to development, especially logging, mining and tourism. How do their critiques compare with those of Hau’ofa?

Core Reading

Bain, ‘Atu Emberson-Bain 1994. Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island Women. Suva: Marama Publications. See esp Chapters 1, 5, 7, 15, 23, 26.

Hau’ofa, Epeli 1993. Our sea of islands. In Eric Waddell, Vijay Naidu and Epeli Hau’ofa (eds) A New Oceania: Rediscovering our sea of islands. Suva: University of the South Pacific and Beake House, 2-16.

Lockwood, Victoria 1993. Tahitian Transformation: Gender and Capitalist Development in a Rural Society. Boulder and London: Lynne Reiner.

Sexton, Lorraine 1993. Pigs, Pearlshells and Women’s Work: Collective Response to Change in Highland Papua New Guinea. In Victoria Lockwood et al (eds) Contemporary Pacific Societies: Studies in Development and Change. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., 117-134.

Recommended Reading

Knauft, Bruce 1997. Gender identity, political economy and modernity in Melanesia and Amazonia. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3(2):233-259.

Sexton, Lorraine Dusak 1982. Wok Meri: A Women’s Saving and Exchange System in Highland Papua New Guinea. Oceania 52:167-198.

16 Week Sixteen, May 6th

Review of Course and Celebration.

mj/ga/mj revised 4/2/98

Omitted Topic

Navigators and ‘Going Native’: - Foreign Men and Indigenous Women

The first foreigners to the Pacific came on boats - explorers, sailors, whalers and traders. Most of them were men. The dynamics of the relations between ‘men on boats’ has been explored both by Gananath Obeyeskere, in relation to the Cook voyages and by Greg Dening in relation to Bligh and the Bounty. We might explore the theatre of the ship not just in terms of the structure of hierarchy and violence, but also in terms of the class codes of masculinity and the familial metaphors which formed around the captain as ‘father’. But how did these relations on board connect with relations on the beach? What about mutiny and desertion, sexual liaisons with indigenous women and the typifications of male sailors, traders and beachcombers ‘going native’. What did this imply? Were there significant differences between island sites and epochs in how foreign men related to local women? Why do you think sexual liaisons between foreign men and Pacific women have been described as ‘prostitution’ or concubinage? Were there important differences between nationalities and colonies in what happened to children born of these unions? How far might Stoler’s anlaysis of colonial southeast Asia illuminate such relations in the Pacific?

Core Reading

"Asterisk" [Robert J. Fletcher] Edited by Bohun Lynch Isles of Illusion: Letters from the South Seas. London: Constable and Company.

Dening, Greg 1992. Mr Bligh’s Bad Language: Passion, Power and Theatre on the Bounty. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. Esp Chs

Obeyesekere, Gananath 1992. The Apotheosis of Captain Cook. European Mythmaking in the Pacific. Princeton and Honolulu: Princeton University Press and Bishop Museum Press, Chs 3, 6, 7.

Young, Michael W. 1994 Gone Native in Isles of Illusion: In search of Asterisk in Epi. In Carrier, James W. (Ed.) History and Tradition in Melanesian Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 193-223.

Recommended Reading

Grimshaw, Patricia and Helen Morton 1995. Paradoxes of the Colonial Male Gaze: European Men and Maori Women. In Emma Greenwood, Klaus Neumann and Andrew Sartori (eds) Work in Flux. Parkville, Victoria: University of Melbourne History Department, 144-158.

Stoler, Ann Laura 1991. Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power:Gender, Race and Morality in Colonial Asia. In Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge:Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era. Edited by Michaela di Leonardo. Berkeley:University of California Press, 51-101.

Stoler, Ann Laura 1997. Sexual Affronts and Racial Frontiers: European Identities and the Cultural Politics of Exclusion in Colonial Southeast Asia. In Frederick Cooper and Ann Laura Stoler (eds) Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 198-237.

[Subject: History; Gender; Anthropology; Pacific/Comparative]



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