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The South Pacific: Culture and Contact

HST 250/350 20 credit points

SUBJECT GUIDE
CENTRAL COAST CAMPUS OURIMBAH
SEMESTER I, 1997

Subject convenor: Associate Prof Peter Hempenstall
Head of Department
Department of History
The University of Newcastle
New South Wales 2308
Australia
Phone: 049-215216
Fax: 049-216940
e-mail: hipjh@cc.newcastle.edu.au

I. MAIN THEMES

Absorbed in our comfortable high-tech urban Australian world, we seldom think of the vast array of Island cultures that form a virtual backyard to our continental home. Or if we do, the superficial images of romance and exoticism so beloved of the travel brochures and film makers tend to predominate. Yet the Pacific Islands have been the sphere of influence for Australian commerce, government and churches since the invasion and colonisation of 1788. Latterly they have become an Australian holiday playground without any substantial apprehension on the part of most Australians about how these societies operate, how they view us, and how we continue to influence their lives as 'Big Brother/Sister' in the region.

This subject will attempt to explore the complex and fast-changing Pacific world. The first semester will involve a study of key features of the Oceanic societies of the Pacific and of the Europeans who encountered them in the 18th and l9th centuries. An examination of key features of Pacific cultures will be followed by a study of situations in which Oceanic and European peoples encountered each other. Most of the encounters studied will be of a non-official kind - of Islanders with traders, missionaries, beachcombers and planters; but early settlement and the advent of European law and the nation-state will be important themes towards the end of the semester. The struggle for land, the goals of imperialists and the nature of European settlements in the Islands (compared to, say, Australia and New Zealand) will become prominent issues. The subject will lead into a second semester in which Islander responses to these developments will be studied and the current problems of Pacific Island societies in relation to the rest of the world examined.

The scenes of the various encounters will be drawn from different parts of the Pacific Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Samoa and Tonga, Tahiti, Hawaii, New Caledonia and Vanuatu, and New Zealand. During the course we will also be reflecting on the nature of history and of historical representation of cross-cultural situations and doing documentary exercises to augment our historical skills. The Pacific has become one of the major areas of debate between historians and anthropologists and cultural studies scholars about how to tell the story of peoples of other cultures and other times.

II. COURSE OBLIGATIONS AND ASSESSMENT

(a) Attendance
There will be two two-hour sessions per week. The session 5-7 p.m. will consist of a background lecture or lectures in which students are invited to interact with questions and comments. This session will unfold the sequence of the peopling of the Pacific and the contexts for more detailed study of historical encounters. They give the background which will be necessary for a complete understanding of complex themes; regular attendance at lectures is expected. The two hour seminar each week will provide opportunity for students to take up in more detail topics raised in the previous week, and will be regarded as the most important focus for our studies throughout the year. Satisfactory attendance at seminars is a requirement of the subject and 10Y~ of marks are allocated for preparation and contributions to seminar discussion. Students who fail to attend seminars regularly will be liable to be excluded from the subject.

(b) Assessment system
The Department has established a series of benchmark skills which each student can anticipate being trained in at both second and third year level. The assessment system is built around these skills.

Upper level students are encouraged to show more reflective depth in their treatment of History as a mode of knowledge. Students will be expected to demonstrate evidence of the following abilities (with suitable adjustment of expectations between 200 level and 300 level students):

1. Critically read secondary literature, especially historiographical debates
2. Show increased awareness of the theoretical issues behind History as a discourse.
3. Show increased awareness of the contexts in which historical problems must be analysed.
4. Improve writing skills
6. Develop oral skills in discussion and argument.
7. Develop their use of the historical imagination.

For these reasons, this subject introduces the critical literature survey as one of the assessment exercises. This is designed to train advanced students in making comparative judgments between the sources that constitute our knowledge of the past. The aim of the exercise is NOT simply to describe what the piece says (though a brief outline of the argument is part of the job), but to judge what kind of a source you are reading: what position does it take? Is it part of a debate? Is it an objective account or partisan? Where is it coming from (that is, is there an ideological position behind it)?

The seminar papers will enable you to do some deep historical research on a selected theme, while the test will check to what extent you have internalized the range of themes throughout the subject.

Assessment marks

For HST250 the marks will be allocated thus:    
Critical survey [2000 words]   20 marks
Seminar paper [3500 words]   40
Test   30
Seminar contribution   10
  TOTAL 100 marks

 

For HST350 the marks will be allocated thus:    
Critical survey [2500 words]   20 marks
Seminar paper [4000 words]   40
Test   30
Seminar contribution   10
  TOTAL 100 marks

Fifty percent of marks anywhere in the subject will earn a Pass.

(c) Critical literature surveys
Each student will be required to do a critical survey of the literature for one of the weekly seminar themes.

(d) Seminar papers
Seminar topics will be divided up among the class by the subject convenor at the beginning of the semester. A draft is to be prepared and used to introduce discussion of the topic in the seminar; a revised version is to be submitted a week later, taking into account the discussion.

There will be no major essay beyond these papers.

Format for seminar papers and literature surveys
Papers should be word-processed where possible. If written they must be neat and legible. Seminar papers must follow the recommended department conventions as to footnotes and bibliography. The argument should be expressed in clear, error free English and may be handed back for re-writing if it is not.

Literature surveys must be ready on the day that theme is being considered in class. Footnotes will not be necessary for these, though a full bibliography of the literature surveyed will be.

Each assignment is to be handed to the subject convenor or posted to the Callaghan address; papers must not be left under lecturers' doors. All possible care will be taken by staff to safeguard properly submitted papers but if essays go missing the student will be expected to provide a clean copy.

Penalty policy
Extensions will only be granted in special circumstances, properly documented, and must be obtained before the due date. Assignments submitted late without an approved extension will be penalized by three marks for each week or part of a week late.

(e) Examination
There will be a test worth 30% of the total marks in the first week after the end of semester, Monday evening 16 June, 5-7 p.m.

(f) Plagiarism
The Department's general rules on plagiarism will apply. Please read the rules carefully from your 100 level subject guides or ask for a copy of the new undergraduate handbook. Plagiarism may give rise to action by the University's disciplinary committee.

III. READING

Pacific history is increasingly well served with general histories which deal with most of the themes covered in this subject. The best for the topics of this semester is still K R Howe, Where the Waves Fall, which should be consulted for each topic. Three recent books are also valuable, Deryck Scarr, The History of the Pacific, Ian Campbell, A History of the Pacific Islands and Max Quanchi and Ron Adams, Culture Contact in the Pacific. The early chapters of a brand new book in the field Tides of change, edited by K R Howe, Brij Lal and Bob Kiste will be useful for the second half of the semester. Max Quanchi, Pacific People and Change, Cambridge UP, 1991, though written for senior secondary students, is a useful introduction to the Pacific in the 20th century.

For reflective and relevant theoretical approaches consult Greg Dening, Islands and Beaches, which will be useful for some themes during the course, and Aletta Biersack (ed), Clio in Oceania, which has essays exploring new ways to write about Pacific history.

As well as the readings for each week's lectures and seminars, all of which are on Short Loans in the Library, I have arranged to have a selection of general books on Pacific Island historical themes transported to Ourimbah Library for the duration of this course. This list, which follows, should be used for extra research and background information. Most of it will be placed on Short Loans; some books are already in the Ourimbah general collection. Callaghan books will be returned to Callaghan campus at the end of first semester 1997.

J.C. Beaglehole, The exploration of the Pacific
P. Bellwood, Man's conquest of the Pacific
P. Bellwood, The Polynesians (already CCC collection)
J. Connell, New Caledonia or Kanaky? A political history of a French colony (already CCC collection)
J.W. Davidson & D. Scarr, Pacific Islands Portraits
J. Dunmore, Who's who in Pacific navigation (already CCC collection)
J. Garrett, To live among the stars
N. Gunson, Messengers of Grace
N. Gunson (ed), The changing Pacific. Essays in honour of H.E. Maude
T.G. Harding and Ben Wallace (eds), Cultures of the Pacific: selected readings
P. Hempenstall & N. Rutherford, Protest and dissent in the colonial Pacific (already CCC collection)
A. Howard and R. Borofsky (eds), Developments in Polynesian ethnology (already CCC collection)
S. Latukefu (ed), Papua New Guinea. A century of colonial impact
D. Lewis, We the navigators (already CCC collection)
E. Mantovani (ed) An introduction to Melanesian religions
H.E. Maude. Of Islands and Men
D. Merwick, Dangerous liaisons: essays in honour of Greg Dening
C. Moore, J. Leckie, D. Munro (eds), Labour in the South Pacific
S. Neill, A history of Christian Missions
C.W. Newbury, Tahiti nui. Change and survival in French Polynesia 1767-1945
N. Rutherford (ed), Friendly Islands. A history of Tonga
P. Ryan (ed), Encyclopedia of Papua New Guinea
D. Scarr, Fragments of empire (already CCC collection)
M. Spencer et al, New Caledonia. Essays in nationalism and dependency (already CCC collection)
G. Trompf, Melanesian religion
A.P. Vayda, Peoples and cultures of the Pacific
J. Young, Adventurous spirits

The main journal references are

The Journal of Pacific History (JPH)
The
Journal of the Polynesian Society (JPS)
Pacific
Studies
New
Zealand Journal of History (NZJH)
Journal
de la Societe des Oceanistes (JSO)
The
Contemporary Pacific

Bibliographies are always important information finding aids. In print are two good bibliographies:

Pacific History Bibliography and Comment. From 1988 on this was renamed The Journal of Pacific History Bibliography. Produced by JPH, it contains lists of just-out theses, books and articles, as well as political chronicles of various islands and book reviews. It is catalogued separately from JPH.

Clive Moore (compiler), Pacific History Journal Bibliography. Produced in 1992 this lists 4,435 articles from 16 journals, covering the Pacific.

You should also seek instruction from Library staff on the use of the CD-Rom system for finding references for essay work.

WEEKLY PROGRAMME

(All references listed are on short loan at CCC for the duration of semester I. Sometimes only an article from a book or journal is in SL, sometimes the entire book. Check the annotations in the reading guide)

WEEK 1: (beginning 3 March 1997)

Lectures: Introduction:
  Geography, historiography and the peopling of the Pacific
  Preparation: S. Wurm, 'The languages of the Pacific'
  M. Spriggs, 'The Lapita cultural complex'
Film: 'The last horizon', Alan Thorne, Man on the Rim series

WEEK 2: ( 10 March)

Lectures: The nature of Polynesian society:
  Organization, chiefs, religion
  Preparation: A.P. Vayda, Peoples and cultures of the Pacific
  T.G. Harding & B. Wallace, Cultures of the Pacific
Seminar: Document study: What happened at Mercury Bay in early November 1769.
  Look for: What are the common elements in the documents?
  What are the differences, esp Cook and Banks
  What are the methodological issues in assessing these reports
  - not just content, but the different KINDS of accounts

 

Reading: Documents: 1. Oral account of Horeta Te Taniwha
    2. Extract from Cook's Journal
    3. Extract from Banks' Journal
     
  Judith Binney' Maori oral narrative and Pakeha written texts; two
    forms of telling history', New Zealand Journal of
    History, 1987, Vol 21, pp.16-28.
  Ann Salmond Two Worlds, pp. 87-9, 191-207

WEEK 3: (17 March)

Lectures: The nature of Melanesian society:
  Big Men, magic and religion
  Preparation: G. Trompf, Melanesian religion
Seminar: Library tour and essay writing

WEEK 4: (24 March)

Lectures: Europe penetrates the Pacific:
  Explorers versus noble savages
  Preparation: J. Dunmore, Who's who in Pacific navigation
  J.C. Beaglehole, The exploration of the Pacific
Seminar: The magico-religious world view: what is 'mana'? What is 'tapu'?
  Look for: Polynesian cosmology the basis of understanding
  Compare definitions Shirres, Hanson, Schwimmer, Dening
  Are tapu and mana things, forces, states of being?

 

Reading: B Shore 'Mana and tapu' in A Howard and R Borofsky, Developments in Polynesian Ethnology, pp 137-174
  Eric Schwimmer The World of the Maori, pp. 17-65.
  Michael Shirres 'Tapu', JPS, 1982, Vol 91, pp.29-51.
  P Allan Hanson 'Female pollution in Polynesia?' JPS, 1982, Vol 91, pp 335-382
  J Irwin An Introduction to Maori religion, pp.21-32, 42.
  J Smith 'Tapu removal in Maori religion', JPS, Vol 84, No 2 (memoir supplement pp 59-96)
  G Dening, Islands and Beaches, pp.50-94.
  Irving Goldman Ancient Polynesian Society, pp.10-14.
  Joan Metge The Maoris of New Zealand, chapter 5.
  E S C Handy Polynesian Religion.

WEEK 5: (31 March) EASTER BREAK - NO CLASSES

WEEK 6: (7 April)

Lectures: Missionaries in the Pacific:
  Who were they and how did they make Christians?
  Preparation: J. Garrett, To live among the stars
  N. Gunson, Messengers of grace
Seminar: Who killed Captain Cook at Kealakekua Bay?
  Look for: Outline the cultural history argument of Sahlins
  Outline Obeyesekere's objections
  What are Sahlins' responses in outline?
  Which interpretation do you favour and why?

 

Reading: (l ) The Journals of Captain James Cook on his voyages of Discovery,  
  J C Beaglehole (ed), Vol 111, Part I, pp.495-569 (990/103, also photocopy on Short Loans.)  
  (2) Beaglehole, ibid, 'Kealakekua Bay', Vol. lV pp.637-672 (990/105, 3 day loan; also photocopy on Short Loans).  
  Gavan Daws 'Kealakekua Bay Revisited: A Note on the Death of Captain Cook’, JPH, Vol. 3, pp 21-23.
  G Obeyesekere The apotheosis of Captain Cook, European mythmaking in the Pacific, (Princeton UP, 1992), pp 49-119.
  M Sahlins Historical Metaphors and Mythical Realities, pp.3-55.
  M Sahlins How 'natives' think: about Captain Cook. for example, University of Chicago Press, 1995
  M Quanchi Culture Contact in the Pacific.
  Greg Dening 'Sharks that walk on the land: the death of Captain Cook’, Meanjin, 41/4, December 1982, pp 427-37
  Social Analysis No.34, Dec 1993, pp.34-85 (review symposium).

WEEK 7: (14 April)

Lectures: Missionary kingdoms in Polynesia
  The trouble with Melanesia and Christian missionaries
  Preparation: J. Garrett, To live among the stars
  M. Crocombe et al, Polynesian Missions in Melanesia
Seminar: 'The fatal impact': patronising myth? (Disease and demography in the Pacific)
  Look for: What is the 'fatal impact thesis"?
  What do historians and others say are the causes of population decline?
  Look at one island example in detail

 

Reading: A Moorehead The Fatal Impact (general reading)
  N McArthur Island Populations of the South Pacific, Intro and one chapter.
  N McArthur 'And behold the plague was begun among the people', in N Gunson (ed), The Changing Pacific, pp.273-84.
  G Dening 'Institutions of violence in the Marquesas' in N Gunson (ed) , ibid, pp. 134-41.
  K R Howe 'The fate of the savage in Pacific historiography', New Zealand Journal of History, 11/2, 1977, pp.137-54
  D Sutton 'Maori demographic change 1769-1840', Journal of the Polynesian Society, 95/3, 1986, pp.291-340.
  J Davidson 'The Polynesian foundation', The Oxford history of New Zealand, ed. G Rice, pp.3-27.
  Ian Pool Te Iwi Maori. A New Zealand population past present and projected, pp.29-58
  K Howe The Loyalty Islands, Chs 12-14
  A Bushnell 'The horror reconsidered: an evaluation of the historical evidence for population decline in Hawaii 1778-1803', Pacific Studies, Vol 16, No.3, Sept 1993, pp. 1 15-62.
  For comparisons:  
  N. Butlin Our original aggression (on depopulation in Australia)
  A W Crosby Ecological imperialism: the biological expansion of Europe 900-1900

WEEK 8: (21 April)

Lectures: Capitalist penetration of the Pacific
  Labour trade historiography
  Preparation: C. Moore, J. Leckie, D. Munro (eds), Labour in the South Pacific, introduction
Seminar: In what sense, if any, were the Maori 'converted to Christianity'?
  Look for: Identify the different arguments for conversion by Wright, Owens, Binney
  How would you define 'conversion'?
  Consider the relative importance of ideas in the conversion process compared to other factors

 

Reading: Harrison Wright New Zealand 1769-1840
  J Owens 'Religious disputation at Whangaroa, 1823-27' JPS, Vol 79, (1970), pp.288-304.
  J Owens 'Christianity and the Maoris to 1840', New Zealand Journal of History, Vol 2, No 1, April 1968, pp.18-40
  J Owens Prophets in the Wilderness, pp.116-147.
  Judith Binney 'Christianity and the Maoris to 1840: a comment', NZJH, Vol III, No 3.
  Judith Binney Review article on Prophets in the Wilderness, by J Owens, NZJH, Vol 10, No 1. pp.75-9.
  Judith Binney The Legacy of Guilt; a life of Thomas Kendall, pp. 1-69.
  K R Howe 'The Maori response to Christianity in the Thames-Waikato area, 1833-1840', NZJH, Vol 7, No 1.
  G S Parsonson 'The literate revolution in Polynesia', Journal of Pacific History, Vol 2, (1967), pp.39-58.
  Janet Murray 'A missionary in action' in The Feel of Truth, ed. Peter Munz, pp. 197-220 (Book in SL)
  A K Davidson & P Linehan Transplanted Christianity: documents illustrating aspects of NZ Church history, ch 1.
  G Dening Islands and Beaches, pp.165-198.
  For comparisons:  
  J Boutilier "'We fear not the ultimate triumph": factors effecting the conversion phase of 19th century missionary enterprises', in Char Miller (ed), Missions and missionaries in the Pacific, pp.13-64.

WEEK 9: (28 April)

Lectures: Making empires: (l) What is colonialism? (2) Patterns of annexation
  Preparation: D.K. Fieldhouse, Economics and Empire
Seminar: Being Melanesian in Queensland: the plantation experience 1860-1906
  near slavery or great adventure?
  Look for: Were Islanders powerless chattels in Qld?
  What conditions were they subject to and to what extent did the Qld government regulate them?
  How did Melanesians cope with the culture shock?

 

Reading: Peter Corris Passage. Port and Plantation
  Peter Corris 'Pacific Island labour migrants in Queensland', JPH, vol 6, 1970, pp.43-64.
  Peter Corris "'White Australia" in action: the repatriation of Pacific islanders from Queensland', Historical Studies, vol 15, no 58, April 1972, pp 237-50.
  P M Mercer

& C Moore

'Melanesians in North Queensland: the retention of indigenous religious and magical practices', vol 11, no 1-2, JPH, 1976, pp.66-88.
  C Moore The Forgotten People: a history of the Australian South Sea Island Community.
  C Moore Kanaka: A History of Melanesian Mackay.
  C Moore 'The counterculture of survival: Melanesians in the Mackay district 1865-1906', in B. Lal et al, Plantation workers: resistance and accommodation [Book in SL]
  C Moore 'Used and abused: The Melanesian labour trade' in V Burgmann & J Lee, A most valuable acquisition, Penguin, 1988, pp.154-169.
  K Saunders 'Troublesome servants: the strategies of resistance by the Melanesian indentured labourers on plantations in colonial Queensland', JPH, vol 14, no 3-4, 1979, pp. 168-183.
  K Saunders 'Racial responses towards Melanesians in Queensland', in R Evans et al, Race Relations in Colonial Queensland, Part 2, pp 47-222. (Book on SL)
  K Saunders Workers in Bondage. The origins and bases of unfree labour in Queensland 1820-1916
  R Schlomowitz 'Marx and the Queensland Labour Trade', Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes (JSO), vol 96, no 1 (1993), pp 11-17.
  D Munro 'Revisionism and its enemies: debating the Queensland labour trade', (private copy on SL)
  S W Reed The making of modern New Guinea, pp.216-34 (for comparisons with New Guinea between the wars)

WEEK 10: (5 May)

Lectures: Making empires: (3) The philosophies and operations of colonial rulers (4) How do historians write about colonial rule?
  Preparation: M Quanchi & R Adams, Culture contact in the Pacific, ch 9
  Brij Lal (ed), Pacific History. Journeys and transformations
Seminar: Who was responsible for the collapse of Samoan government in the 1880s and 1890s?
  Look for: What is the standard European interpretation - which historians represent it?
  Which interpretations depart from this?
  What are the crucial factors in explaining the deteriorating situation in Samoa?
  Was partition inevitable in 1899?

 

Reading: J W Davidson Samoa mo Samoa, chs 2 & 3.
  R P Gilson Samoa 1830-1900. The politics of a multi-cultural
    community, ch 16 & conclusion.
  C Hartley Grattan 'The partitioning of the islands', in The Southwest Pacific to 1900, pp 477-512.
  P J Hempenstalll Pacific Islanders under German rule, intro & ch 1.
  F M Keesing 'A century of political experiences' in Modern
    Samoa, ch II.
  D K Fieldhouse Economics and empire, pp.437-47.
  M Meleisea The making of modern Samoa, pp.21-45.
  J W Davidson & D Scarr Pacific Islands Portraits, ch 12: 'Lauaki Naulauulu
    Mamoe' (Book on SL)
  P J Hempenstall & N Rutherford Protest and dissent in the colonial Pacific, ch 1
  P M Kennedy The Samoan Tangle

WEEK 11: (12 May)

Lectures: How did colonial settler societies work? (l) Fiji
  (2) Queensland and the Melanesians
  Preparation: J Young, Adventurous Spirits. Australian migrant society in pre-cession Fiji
  C Moore, 'Used and abused: The Melanesian labour trade' in V Burgmann & J Lee, A most valuable acquisition, Penguin, 1988, pp.154-169.
Seminar: Document - 'Native policy': the view from the colonial verandah
  What are the five 'big W' questions you, as an historian, would ask of this document'?
  What was Solf's primary agenda for the Samoan political system?
  How would you describe Solf's attitudes to the Samoans from this document'?
  What does this document tell you about the settler community?
  What does it tell you about the missions?
  What does it tell you about Solf himself?
  What does it leave out about Solf's attitude to Samoans, the settlers, the big company, the missions?
  Find one source about German history to help explain the context for this document

 

Reading: Document: Report by Dr Solf, Governor of Samoa to the Imperial Colonial Office Berlin 1907
  PJ Hempenstall Intod. & Chapter 1: 'Early disquiet', in Pacific Islanders under German rule, pp.25-72 (Chapter and book in SL)
  JA Moses 'The Solf regime in western Samoa', NZJH, vol 6, no 1, 1972, pp.42-56
  M Meleisea The making of modern Samoa, chs 3 & 4 /cont'd
  S Firth 'Governors and settlers', NZJH, vol 11, no 2, 1977, pp. 155-79.
  F M Keesing Modern Samoa

WEEK 12: (19 May)

Lectures: How did colonial settler societies work? (3) Papua (4) New Guinea
  Preparation: S Latukefu, Papua New Guinea: a century of colonial impact, chs 7,22
Seminar: European women in the Pacific colonies: domesticated or autonomous, free
  or unfree, powerless or influential?
  Look for: Outline the debate between Young, Knapman and Ralston.
  Consider the various ' spaces' which women occupied in colonial life.
  Did missionary women occupy a different 'space' from other women in the colonies?
  To what extent did women share the colonial project?

 

Reading: J. Boutilier 'European women in the Solomon Islands 1900-42' in D. O'Brien & S. Tiffany (eds.), Rethinking women's roles, ch.9, pp.173-200.
  A. Inglis Not a white woman safe, chs.1&2
  C. Knapman White women in Fiji 1835-1930, chs.1,8,9.
  H. Nelson Taim bilong masta, chs.ll ('Wife and missus') & 19 ('You had to be firm'). (Book in CCC library; sound cassette and chapters in SL)
  E. Wolfers Race relations and colonial rule in Papua New Guinea, ch.4.
  M. Jolly & M. Macintyre Family and gender in the Pacific
  John Young 'Evanescent ascendancy: the planter community in Fiji', in J.W. Davidson & D. Scarr (eds.), Pacific Islands Portraits, pp.147-176. (Book in SL)
  Journal of Pacific History, vol 23/2, 1988: articles by C. Knapman ('The white child in colonial Fiji') & John Young ('Race and sex in Fiji revisited') .
  C Bulbeck Australian women in Papua New Guinea.
  C Bulbeck Staying in line or getting out of place: expatriate women in PNG 1920-1960.
  Readings on missionary women  
  P. Grimshaw "'Christian woman, pious wife, faithful mother, devoted missionary": conflicts in roles of American missionary women in l9th century Hawaii', Feminist Studies, vol 9, no 3, Fall 1983, pp.489-521.
  D. Langmore 'A neglected force: white women missionaries in Papua 1874-1914', Journal of Pacific History, vol 17, no 3-4, 1982, pp.138-157.
  D. Langmore Missionary lives
  M. Jolly 'To save the girls for brighter and better lives', JPH, vol 26, no 1, 1991, pp.27-48.
  F Bowie, D Kirkwood, S Ardener Women and missions Past and Present
  P Grimshaw 'Gender, race and American frontiers: the Hawaiian case', Australasian Journal of American Studies, vol 7, No 1, 1988, pp.32-39.
  P Grimshaw 'The cult of true womanhood', Hawaiian Journal of History, 19, 1985, pp.71-100.

WEEK 13 (26 May)

Lectures: How Pacific Islanders handled colonialism: 1 and 2
  Preparation: Any general recent history of the Pacific (Campbell, Scarr, Howe, Quanchi & Adams)
Seminar: Document: Explain the Rabaul Strike in 1929 and white reactions to it.
   
  Ask the 'big W' questions of the documents
  What do the documents and the literature tell us about white settler society in colonial New Guinea?
  About class formation among New Guineans?
  About their understanding of the way white society functioned?

 

Reading: Documents (l) Evidence by Kateo at Kambilau village on Wallis Island in East Sepik Province, 1972 and 1974.
(2) Report from The Rabaul Times, 4 January 1929.
(3) Extract from Territory of New Guinea, Annual Report, 1928-29. (To be supplied).
  Bill Gammage 'The Rabaul Strike', JPH, vol 10, no 3-4, 1975, pp . 3-29.
  Ian Willis 'Rabaul's 1929 Strike', New Guinea, vol 5, no 3, 1970, pp.6-24.
  J K McCarthy 'The Rabaul Strike', Quadrant, vol 10, 1959, pp.55- 65.
  E P Wolfers 'Preserving European standards in Papua', Chapter IV in Wolfers, Race Relations and Colonial Rule in Papua New Guinea, pp 45-61.
  E P Wolfers 'For the first generation...: reflections on the impact of colonial rule in PNG', in S. Latukefu (ed), Papua New Guinea: a century of colonial impact, pp.417-444.
  A Inglis Not a White Woman Safe
  S W Reed The making of modern New Guinea, pp.210-34.
  John Waiko A short history of Papua New Guinea, pp.99-103. (CCC general collection)

WEEK 14 (2 June)

Lectures: How Pacific Islanders handled colonialism: 3 and 4
  Preparation: Any general recent history of the Pacific (Campbell, Scarr, Howe, Quanchi & Adams)
  Any novel by Albert Wendt
Seminar: Film: Sharkcallers of Kontu
  Look for: What is the message of the film?
How does it reflect the themes of this course Is this history?
How does it differ from a history text?
What do you know about the filmmaker and how does he influence the message?

WEEK 15 (9 June) QUEENS BIRTHDAY HOLIDAY - NO CLASSES

WEEK 16 (16 June)

TEST

KIT READINGS

This kit contains the documents set for study in weeks 2 (Cook in Mercury Bay), 11 (Solf's colonial policy) and 13 (The Rabaul Strike).

It also contains one reading as a STARTER reading for the seminars each week. These are NOT intended to be the sole reading and students will be expected to show evidence week by week of multiple reading for the theme being discussed.

WEEK 17 (23 June)

1. S. Wurm, 'Languages of the Pacific', Scientific Australian, April 1980, pp.26-33.
2. J. Binney, 'Maori oral narrative and Pakeha written texts; two forms of telling history', New Zealand Journal of History, 1987, Vol 21, pp.16-28.
3. LIBRARY TOUR
  D. Whiteman, 'Melanesian religions: an overview', from E. Mantovani, An introduction to Melanesian Religions, Point series No 6.
4. B. Shore, ‘Mana and tapu’ in a Howard and R Borofsky, Developments in Polynesian Ethnology, pp. 137-174.
5 . EASTER WEEK
  I.C. Campbell, 'Savages noble and ignoble', Pacific Studies, 4/1, 1980, pp.45-59.
  I.C. Campbell, 'Polynesian perceptions of Europeans in the 18th and l9th centuries', Pacific Studies, 5/2, 1982, pp.64-80.
6. G. Dening, 'Sharks that walk on the land: the death of Captain Cook', Meanjin, 41/4, December 1982, pp.427-37.
7. N. McArthur, 'And behold the plague was begun among the people', in N Gunson (ed), The Changing Pacific, pp.273-84.
8. J.M.R. Owens, 'Christianity and the Maoris to 1840', New Zealand Journal of History, Vol 2, No 1, April 1968, pp.18-40.
9. C. Moore, 'Used and abused: The Melanesian labour trade' in V Burgmann & J Lee, A most valuable acquisition, Penguin, 1988, pp.154-169.
10. D.K. Fieldhouse, Economics and empire, pp.437-47.
11. J.A. Moses, 'The Solf regime in western Samoa', NZJH, vol 6, no 1, 1972, pp 42-56
12. D. Langmore, 'A neglected force: white women missionaries in Papua 1874-1914', Journal of Pacific History, vol 17, no 3-4, 1982, pp.138-157.
13. Bill Gammage, 'The Rabaul Strike', JPH, vol 10, no 3-4, 1975, pp.3-29.

[Subject: History; Pacific/Comparative]



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