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The South Pacific in Recent Times

HIST 251/351, 10 credit points
SUBJECT GUIDE, SEMESTER II, 1997

Subject convenor: Associate Professor Peter Hempenstall
Head of Department
Department of History
The University of Newcastle
New South Wales 2308
Australia
Phone: 049-215216
Fax: 049-216940
e-mail: hipjh@cc.newcastle.edu.au

MAIN THEMES OF SUBJECT

This unit will begin with a short introduction to Pacific Island cultural forms and a summary of the colonial period of rule before world war II in both Melanesia and Polynesia. After examining the impact of the war on Melanesia, especially Australia's own colony and nearest neighbour, Papua New Guinea, we will deal week by week with the most important post war themes in the development of the Pacific Islands. First will be the process known as 'decolonization' whereby Islands were handed independence under varying circumstances of friendship and/or hostility; the independence movements in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and secessionist tensions in Bougainville will follow. Then we will explore current issues of aid, foreign relations, cultural identity and changes in gender roles, before finishing with considered reflections on the growth of ethnic nationalisms in the Pacific and their embodiment in the Fiji coups of 1987.

Guiding our mutual explorations will be the question: what are the distinguishing characteristics of Pacific societies today that we, as Australian citizens no less than as human beings, should be sensitive to in our relations to the Pacific world.

II. OBJECTIVES

To explore the historical experiences of Pacific Island communities in contact with an array of western influences during the age of territorial colonialism and the post-colonial age of the twentieth century.

To demonstrate that the common rhetoric of liberal white Australians is often not adequate to meet the realities of the present-day South Pacific, that our definitions of nationalism, democracy, equity, freedom and self-determination can be unhelpful and unsympathetic in this region of the world.

To develop students' familiarization with various modes of historical representation in documents, interpretative written texts and films.

To encourage more reflective depth in upper level students' approaches to History as a mode of knowledge. Students will be expected to demonstrate evidence of the following abilities (with suitable adjustment of expectations between 200 level and 300 level students):

1. Critically read secondary literature, especially historiographical debates
2. Show increased awareness of the theoretical issues behind History as a discourse.
3. Show increased awareness of the contexts in which historical problems must be analysed.
4. Improve writing skills
6. Develop oral skills in discussion and argument.
7. Develop their use of the historical imagination.

III. TEACHING METHOD

There will be one one-hour lecture per week and one seminar of 1 hour. Lectures will be held on Thursday mornings at 10 a.m. in lecture theatre V01 (Mathematics Building, ground floor). Seminars will be on Thursdays also, in the History Department, seminar room 17. Sessions have been arranged for 12 noon, 2 p.m. and 3 p.m.. Book your slot with the departmental secretary or Prof Hempenstall.

The lectures will provide a timeline and a sense of context for more detailed study. They give the background which is necessary for a complete understanding of complex themes and explore historiographical issues.

The seminars will provide opportunity for students to take up in more detail topics raised in the previous week, and will be regarded as the most important focus for our studies throughout the year. Students will be expected to discuss specific 'case studies' and debates.

Films will be used where appropriate for both historical information and imagery and as a form of historical representation which requires discussion.

IV. ASSESSMENT

(a) Attendance
Regular attendance at lectures is expected. Satisfactory attendance at seminars is a requirement of the subject; students who fail to attend regularly will be liable to be excluded.

(b) Seminar papers
Seminar topics will be divided up among the class by the subject convenor at the beginning of the semester.

Each student will be expected to choose a topic from weeks four to thirteen of the list of seminars. A presentation will be expected on the day, preferably accompanied by a one-page handout of the propositions to be discussed. There will be multiple paper givers for each topic and students are expected to meet beforehand to arrange a complementary coverage of the themes in their presentations. The properly referenced seminar paper will not be due until a week later, allowing the presenters the opportunity to adjust their papers in light of the discussion.

For 200 level students the paper should comprise roughly 2000 words.

For 300 level students the paper should comprise roughly 2500 words.

Format for all papers
Seminar papers should be word-processed where possible. If written they must be neat and legible and follow the recommended department conventions as to footnotes and bibliography. The argument should be expressed in clear, error-free English and may be handed back for re-writing if it is not.

Each assignment is to be placed in the Pacific History essay box at the head of the department or handed to the subject convenor; papers must not be left under the lecturer's door. All possible care will be taken by staff to safeguard properly submitted papers but if essays go missing the student will be expected to provide a clean copy.

(c) Penalty policy
Extensions will only be granted in special circumstances, properly documented, and must be obtained before the due date. Assignments submitted late without an approved extension will be penalized by three marks for each week or part of a week late.

(d) Test
There will be a test in week 14, covering the themes of the subject. It will take the form of a series of essay questions to be written on over a two-hour period.

(d) Assessment marks
For HST251 the marks will be allocated thus:

Seminar Paper (2000)   40
Seminar contribution   15
TEST   45
  TOTAL 100 marks

For HST351 the marks will be allocated thus:

Seminar Paper (2500)   40
Seminar contribution   15
TEST   45
  TOTAL 100 marks

To pass the subject a student needs to achieve 50% of the total marks anywhere in the course.

(f) The Department's general rules on extensions, plagiarism etc will apply. Please read carefully. Plagiarism may be a case for action by the University's disciplinary committee.

III. READING

The amount of reading you have to do is roughly consistent week by week. It is not excessive and the lecturer will identify key readings each week for seminar discussion. But advanced level History students are expected to improve their research skills by finding materials and reading as much as possible. If you do not want to read widely and deeply DO NOT DO THIS SUBJECT. From previous experience you will know that you will have more time in the first half of the semester than in the second half; you should plan accordingly. Wherever possible obtain readings well ahead of the week in which we are discussing them. Texts are always in heavy demand during the last days before discussion. Being unable to obtain readings is not an acceptable excuse for being unprepared for seminars, as there is a range to choose from and a library with many shelves of books and articles which reward browsing, even though they may not be on the subject guide reading list. The 15% assessment for seminar participation is designed to recognize the work that goes into preparation and contribution to discussion and it will be monitored throughout the semester.

The general books by Deryck Scarr, The History of the Pacific Islands. Kingdoms of the reefs and Ian Campbell, A History of the Pacific are excellent. A new book called Tides of History: the Pacific Islands in the Twentieth Century, ed K Howe, R Kiste and B Lal, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, is worth buying for its essays deal with most of the twentieth century themes we will be touching on during the semester. The region has been much written about during the ferment of decolonisation and post-colonial adjustment. A readable general introduction to various crises would be David Robie, Tu Galala. For an intelligent, committed viewpoint on New Caledonia read Helen Fraser, Your flag is blocking my sun. The best general coverage of the history of France in the Pacific is Stephen Henningham's France and the South Pacific: a contemporary history. He has also produced an excellent reflective book on the Pacific today: The Pacific Island states. Security and sovereignty in the post-cold war world.

The journal literature on the Pacific is also excellent. In particular The Journal of Pacific History (from ANU, Canberra) includes a regular section on 'Current developments in the Pacific', a series of brief but profound insights into each main island group or state in turn. The Contemporary Pacific (from Honolulu) is devoted to an understanding of recent developments in the light of history, and also includes a regular section of political reviews of the region. Keep your eyes on these especially for the latter parts of the semester.

You should also see as many films about the Pacific as you can. The film of Alan Duff's Once were warriors is certainly worth seeing, for it deals with the current cultural and social tensions in the contact between modern western (New Zealand) society and Pacific Islanders. Other films will be shown during the semester and the A/V section of the library has more still which are relevant.

Students should also experiment with Pacific literature. Start with Vincent Eri's The Crocodile, the first novel written by a Papua New Guinean, and work your way forward to the works of Albert Wendt, a Samoan, and Epeli Hau'ofa, a Tongan, for the varied flavour of Pacific Island imaginative experience, which can often be more useful than History books in conveying the quality of Pacific history.

Readings for specific themes are listed under each seminar topic.

Other works which will be useful across a number of themes include:

Ian Campbell, Island kingdom. Tonga. ancient and modern
Clive Moore, J Leckie & D Munro (eds) Labour in the South Pacific
M C Howard, The political economy of the South Pacific to 1945 Stephen Henningham, France and the South Pacific. A contemporary history
Margaret Jolly & M Macintyre, Family and Gender in the Pacific
Ron Crocombe, The South Pacific. An introduction
J W Davidson & D Scarr (eds) Pacific Island Portraits
Ron Crocombe et al (editors), Culture and democracy in the South Pacific
Stephanie Lawson, Tradition versus democracy in the South Pacific: Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa.

The main journal references are

The Journal of Pacific History (JPH)
The
Journal of the Polynesian Society (JPS)
Pacific
Studies
New
Zealand Journal of History (NZJH)
Journal
de la Societe des Oceanistes (JSO)
The
Contemporary Pacific

Bibliographies are always important information finding aids. In print are two good bibliographies:

Pacific History bibliography and Comment. From 1988 on this was renamed The Journal of Pacific History Bibliography. Produced by JPH, it contains lists of just-out theses, books and articles, as well as political chronicles of various islands and book reviews. It is catalogued separately from JPH.

Clive Moore (compiler), Pacific History Journal Bibliography. Produced in 1992 this lists 4,435 articles from 16 journals, covering the Pacific.

Do not be afraid to ask Library staff for help in using the Internet and CD-Rom system for finding references for essay work.

WEEKLY PROGRAMME

(All references listed are on short loan unless otherwise stipulated. Sometimes only an article from a book or journal is in SL, sometimes the entire book. A small number of books is on 3-Day loan. Check the annotations in the reading guide)

WEEK 1: (beginning 21 July 1997)

Lecture: Introduction: Aspects of Pacific Island culture
Seminar: Housekeeping seminar: choice of seminar topics; rules of the subject; student enquiries.

WEEK 2: (28 July on)

Lecture: The colonial era: annexation and empire in Polynesia and Melanesia
Seminar: Film: Sharkcallers of Kontu
  Trace the different histories being presented here.
  What are the themes/messages of the film?
  How present/absent is the filmmaker?
  Is this film history in the way a history book claims to be?

WEEK 3: (4 August on)

Lecture: How Pacific Islanders shaped colonial rule
Seminar: Pacific Islander origins: who are the Melanesians? the Polynesians? the Austronesians? How and when did they get there?
Reading: *S Wurm 'Languages of the Pacific', Scientific Australian, April 1980, pp.26-33
  P Bellwood Man's Conquest of the Pacific, Parts on Oceania in chs 1, 2, 4, 9, 11. (3 day loan)
  P Bellwood 'Austronesian dispersal and the origin of languages' Scientific American, 265:1 (1991), pp.88-93
  *D T Tryon 'The peopling of the Pacific: a linguistic appraisal',JPH, 1984, Vol 19, pp.202-223.
  R G Green 'Near and remote Oceania - disestablishing "Melanesia" in culture history', in Andrew Pawley ed, Man and a half, pp.491-502.
  *Matthew Spriggs 'The Lapita cultural complex', JPH, 1984, Vol 19, pp.202-223 .
  L M Groube 'Tonga, Lapita Pottery and Polynesian Origins', JPS, 80, 3 (Sept 1971), pp.298-316'
  *R Suggs 'The Kon-Tiki Myth', in T G Harding and B J Wallace, Cultures of the Pacific, pp.29-39.
  Ben Finney 'Myth, experiment and the reinvention of Polynesian voyaging', American Anthropologist, 93, 2, (1991), pp. 383-404.
  *David Lewis 'The Pacific navigators' debt to the ancient seafarers of Asia', in N. Gunson (ed), The changing Pacific, pp.46-66.

WEEK 4: (12 August on)

Lecture: Case Study: Colonial rule in Western Samoa
Seminar: Explain the Rabaul Strike in 1929 and white reactions to it.
  What are the five 'big W' questions to ask of the documents?
  What do the sources tell us about white settler society in colonial New Guinea?
  About class formation among New Guineans?
  About their understanding of the way white society functioned?
Reading: Documents (l) *Evidence by Kateo at Kambilau village on Wallis Island in East Sepik Province, 1972 and 1974.
(2) *Report from The Rabaul Times, 4 January 1929.
(3) *Extract from Territory of New Guinea, Annual Report, 1928-29.
  *Bill Gammage 'The Rabaul Strike', JPH, vol 10, no 3-4, 1975, pp.3-29.
  *Ian Willis 'Rabaul's 1929 Strike', New Guinea, vol 5, no 3, 1970, pp.6-24.
  *J K McCarthy 'The Rabaul Strike', Quadrant, vol 10, 1959, pp.55-65.
  E P Wolfers 'Preserving European standards in Papua', Chapter IV in Wolfers, Race Relations and Colonial Rule in Papua New Guinea, pp 45-61.
  E P Wolfers ‘For the first generation. . .: reflections on the impact of colonial rule in PNG’, in S Lautkefu (ed), Papua New Guinea: a century of colonial impact, pp 417-444
  A Inglis Not a White Woman Safe
  S W Reed The making of modern New Guinea, pp.210-65.
  John Waiko A Short history of Papua New Guinea, pp.99-103. ('The Rabaul Strike of 1929')

WEEK 5: (18 August on)

Lecture: The war in Papua New Guinea
Seminar: The mau movement in Western Samoa: what do these documents tell you about the struggle that was going on between Samoans and New Zealand? Was the movement a single event or a long lasting process? Was it nonviolent? What were the Samoan grievances and why would New Zealand not listen?
Reading: Documents (l) *Account of public meeting in Apia Market Hall 12 Nov 1926
    (2) *Report of Inspector A.L. Braisby on public meeting 12 Nov 1926
    (Documents from Royal Commission concerning the administration of Western Samoa 1927)
     
  F.M. Keesing Modern Samoa, pp.47-140
  *Mary Boyd ‘Coping with Samoan resistance after the 1918 influenza epidemic’, JPH 15/3-4, 1980, pp. 155-74
  *P. Hempenstall & N Rutherford Protest and dissent in the colonial Pacific, pp.18-43
  M Meleisea The making of modern Samoa, chs 5-7 [Book in SL]
  M Field Mau. Samoa's struggle against New Zealand oppression (Book in SL)

WEEK 6: (25 August on)

Lecture: Post war: the process of letting colonies go
Seminar: Film: 'Angels of war'
  Discuss the following questions
  l) Isolate Australians' images of Papua New Guineans during the war.
  2) What did the different nationalities remember of the war?
  3) What contextual information is needed to make sense of the story?
  4) What is the overall message about the impact of the war on Papua New Guineans?
Reading: K Howe et al Tides of History (3 day loan)
  H Nelson et al Papua New Guinea: a political history
  H Nelson Taim bilong masta (3 day loan)
  M Quanchi Pacific people and change: the Pacific in the 20th century (3 day loan)
  G Silk War in New Guinea: official war photographs of the battle for Australia
  N Robinson Villagers at war: some PNG experiences of world war II
  J Waiko A short history of Papua New Guinea
  *H Nelson 'Hold the good name of the soldier', JPH, 15/4, 1980, pp 202-16
  *H Nelson 'Turning the talk of war into history', JPH, 25/2, 1990, pp 260-67
  *I Willis 'Rabaul's 1929 Strike', New Guinea, 5/3, 1970, pp 6-24

WEEK 7: ( 1 September on)

Lecture: Independence Movements 1: Australia and Papua New Guinea
Seminar: 'It is rare for a scholarly book to capture attention in the way that Deryck Freeman's Margaret Mead and Samoa did. The New York Times front page article touched off a seismic event that was world news and remained national news in the US for months. The news was that Margaret Mead's most famous work, read by many millions around the world, had been wrong about Samoa. '

Is this all that the Mead-Freeman controversy was about in the mid 1980s? Critically evaluate the range of opinions, identifying what exactly Mead and Freeman were saying about the Samoans.

Reading: D. Freeman Margaret Mead and Samoa
  Hiram Caton (ed) The Samoa Reader
  Lowell D Holmes Quest for the real Samoa: the Mead/Freeman controversy
  J M Mageo 'Malosi: a psychological exploration of Mead's and Freeman's work and of Samoan aggression', Pacific Studies, 11/2, 1988, pp.25-66
  *Mac Marshall 'The wizard of Oz meets the wicked witch of the east: Freeman, Mead and ethnographic authority', American ethnologist, 20/3, 604-17
  J Cote Adolescent storm and stress: an evaluation of the Mead-Freeman controversy
  *Canberra Anthropology Vol 6/1 1983 is a special issue devoted to the debate [Issue in Short loans]
  American Anthropologist Vol 85/4 1983 is a special issue devoted to the debate [Issue on Short Loans]
  *Pacific Studies Vol 7/2 1984 is a special issue devoted to the debate [Issue on Short Loans]

WEEK 8: (8 September on)

Lecture: Independence movements 2: Vanuatu, New Caledonia
Seminar: What are the historical roots of the secessionist movement and current war on Bougainville?
Reading: N Cooper The Bougainville Land Crisis of 1969
  D Oliver Black Islanders. A personal perspective of Bougainville, 1937 and 1991
  P Larmour 'Legitimacy, Sovereignty and Regime change in the South Pacific: Comparisons Between the Fiji Coups and the Bougainville Rebellion’, Discussion Paper Series No 7, Political and Social Change, ANU
  R May & M Spriggs The Bougainville Crisis
  A Smith National Identity, Penguin, 1991 (not on SL)
  I Downs The Australian Trusteeship: PNG 1945-75 The Contemporary Pacific, Special number on Bougainville, 4/2 (Fall 1992). Whole issue on SL
  *R J May (ed) Micronationalist movements in Papua New Guinea, ch 4 ‘Napidnakoi Navitu’ (James Griffin).
  R Howitt(ed) Mining and indigenous people in Australasia
  *J Connell 'Logic is a capitalist cover-up: compensation and crisis in Bougainville PNG', in S. Henningham & R May Resources. development and politics m the Pacific Islands, pp 30-54.
  *R Crocombe 'Bougainville! Copper, CRA and secessionism', New Guinea, vol 3, no 3, 1968, pp.39-49
  Y.A. Liria Bougainville Campaign Diary. *Pacific Research: 'Asia - Pacific backgrounder: the failure of the Bougainville Peace Talks', vol 7, no 4, 1994, pp.19-30
  Video program 'Bougainville in crisis', ABC TV compilation of news 1988-1990. A/V Library, Huxley 995.9205/1

WEEK 9: ( 15 September on)

Lecture: Living with Big Brother: Pacific Islanders in the modern Pacific
Seminar: Vanuatu Independence: who was responsible for the Vanuatu rebellions that preceded independence for Vanuatu: the French, the British, the Phoenix Foundation or the Melanesian community?
Reading: ' Asterisk' [Robert Fletcher] Isles of illusion, pp 88-175
  D Scarr Fragments of empire
  *J Jupp & M Sawer 'Colonial and post-independence politics: Vanuatu', in R J May and H Nelson (eds), Melanesia: beyond diversity, pp.549-70
  *Erich Kolig 'Kastom, cargo and the constructions of utopia on Santo, Vanuatu: the Nagriemel movement', Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes, 85/1987, pp 181-99.
  B Sope Land and Politics in the New Hebrides
  J Beasant The Santo Rebellion
  H van Trease The politics of land in Vanuatu
  M Howard 'Vanuatu: the myth of Melanesian socialism', Labour. Capital and Society, 16/1983, pp 176-203.
  *J M Philibert The politics of tradition: towards a generic culture in Vanuatu', Mankind, 16/1986, p 2
  R Premdas & J Steeves Politics and Government in Vanuatu: from colonial unity to postcolonial disunity, Townsville 1989
  J Steeves 'Vanuatu: the 1991 elections and their aftermath', JPH, 27/2, 1992, pp 217-28.
  *R Tonkinson 'National identity and the problem of Kastom in Vanuatu', Mankind, 14/4, 1992, [Special Issue on ‘Reinventing Traditional Culture’ - see also other articles in this issue]
  S Henningham 'Pluralism and party politics in a south Pacific state: Vanuatu's Vanua'aku Pati and its rivals', Conflict, 9, pp 171-195
  R Shears The coconut war

WEEK 10: (22 September on)

Lecture: Creating nations out of islands: custom movements
Seminar: 'A century of change has been harder on females than males; Ralston on Tonga shows this' (Moore Labour in the South Pacific).
Explain the forces that have changed Pacific women’s lives in domestic settings since contact with the West
Reading: SAMOA  
  *P Schoeffel 'The origins and development of women's associations in Western Samoa 1830-1977', J. Pacific Studies, vol III, 1977, pp. 1-21 (private copy P. Hempenstall).
  P Schoeffel 'Gender, status and power in Western Samoa', Canberra Anthropology, vol 1, 1978, pp.69-81
  P Schoeffel 'The ladies' row of thatch: women and rural development in Western Samoa', Pacific Perspective, vol 8, no 2, 1979, pp. 1-
  *C Ralston 'Women workers in Samoa and Tonga in the early 20th century', in Clive Moore et al (eds) Labour in the South Pacific, pp.67-77 (Book in SL)
  Bradd Shore 'Sexuality and gender in Samoa: conceptions and missed conceptions', in S.B. Ortner & H. Whitehead (eds) Sexual Meanings. The construction of gender and sexuality, pp.192-215 (Book in SL)
  M Mead Coming of age in Samoa, (general reading).
  Strathern 'The punishing of Margaret Mead', Canberra Anthropology, vol 6, 1983, pp.70-79: Special issue on Freeman's Margaret Mead and Samoa
  Albert Wendt Leaves of the Banyan Tree (novelistic depiction of male/female relations)(3 day loan)
  TONGA  
  I Campbell Island Kingdom. Tonga. ancient and modern
  *H Kavapala 'The impact of colonialism on women's lives in Tonga' (private copy P. Hempenstall).
  P Herda et al Tongan culture and history, chs 8-10
  CW Gailey 'Putting down sisters and wives: Tongan women and colonisation', in M. Etienne & E. Leacock (eds) Women and Colonisation, pp.294-322 [Book in SL]
  *CW Gailey 'State, class and conversion in commodity production: gender and changing value in the Tongan Islands', JPS, 96/1,1987, pp 67-79
  E Bott 'Power and rank in the kingdom of Tonga', JPS, vol 90, 1981, pp.7-81
  Garth Rogers 'The Father's sister is black: a consideration of female rank and power in Tonga', JPS, vol 86, 1977, pp.157-82
  Kerry James 'Gender relations in Tonga', JPS, vol 92, 1983, pp.233-43
  C. Ralston above reading for Samoa
Related reading    
  M Jolly & M Macintyre Family and Gender in the Pacific - essay by Ralston
  N Thomas 'Complementarity and history: misrecognizing gender in the Pacific', Oceania, vol 57, no 4, 1987, pp.261-70
  C Ralston 'Maori women and the politics of tradition', The Contemporary Pacific, vol 5, no 1, 1993, pp.23-44.
  C Ralston 'The study of women in the Pacific', The Contemporary Pacific, vol 4, no 1, 1992, pp.161-76.
  M Rosaldo & L Lamphere Woman, culture and society (3 Day loan).

MID SEMESTER BREAK [2 WEEKS]:

(29 September - 12 October)

WEEK 11: (13 October on)

Lecture: Creating island identities: cargo cults
Seminar: Film: ' Man without pigs'

'TABARA village, John Waiko's birthplace is a community where no one works for money, no one pays for things with money, and there are no wheels. His family, who have always lived there, expect John to compete and advance within the village, according to village rules, but he is a PhD in history from an Australian university who has spent years away from the intricacies of village life. He is not as alert to the detail of ritual and the forces that flow in the village, as some of his age mate rivals. John's strength is that he can intervene in the outside world to secure benefits for the Tabara community, His family wish him to be a man of status within the village: his rivals want to have the right to make John carry their message to the outside world .

This film explores the antagonism aroused when conflict between traditional custom and western values occurs in a Pacific village'.

Discuss the following three questions:
l) What are the themes of this film?
2) What does the film say about John Waiko and his relations with his village?
3) Reflect upon the way the filmmakers construct this film and how this affects the 'history' of the event we are witnessing.

WEEK 12: (20 October on)

Lecture: Democracy versus ethnonationalism in the Pacific Islands
Seminar: Cargo cults and visionary movements are variously seen as primitive cults, new religions, political resistance movements or something more modern. What do you think they are all about?
Reading. W. Flannery (ed.) Religious Movements in Melanesia Today (l) Point Series, No.2, chs.1&2
  W.N. Gunson 'Visionary experience and social protest in Polynesia: a note on "Ofa Mele Longosai"', Journal of Pacific History, 8, 1973
  *P.J. Hempenstall Protest or Experiment? Theories of Cargo Cults, 10 pp.
  *E. Mantovani An Introduction to Melanesian Religions, Point Series, No.6, ch.10 (B. Schwarz, 'Cargo Movements').
  J. Strelan Search for salvation, ch.3.
  P. Worsley The trumpet shall sound, conclusion (book is good reading for examples).
  Paula Brown 'Social change and social movements', in A. Vayda, Peoples and Cultures of the Pacific, pp.465-485.
  P. Lawrence 'Daughter of Time', in T. Harding & Ben Wallace, Cultures of the Pacific, pp.465-485.
  F. Steinbauer Melanesian Cargo Cults.
  *G. Trompf Melanesian Religion, ch 8: 'The interpretation of cargo cults'

WEEK 13: (27 October on)

Lecture: Case Study: modern Tonga
Seminar: Race, class, custom or colonial history: which of these factors provide the best explanation for the coups of 1987?
Reading: D Scarr Fiji, Politics of Illusion
  E Dean & S Ritova Rabuka: no other way
  T Vakatora From the Mangrove Swamps (3 day loan)
  D Scarr, R Robertson & A Tamanisau Fiji, Shattered Coups
  B Lal Power and Prejudice: the making of the Fiji Crisis
  *B Lal Broken waves, chapter 6 [book in SL]
  S Prasad (eds) Coup and crisis
  W Sutherland Beyond the politics of race: an alternative history of Fiji to 1992
  Victor Lal Fiji; coups in paradise; race, politics and military intervention (3 day loan)
  S Lawson The failure of democratic politics in Fiji
  S Lawson 'Regime Change as Regime Maintenance; the military versus Democracy in Fiji', Discussion Paper Series no 6, Department of Political and Social Change, ANU. The Contemporary Pacific, vol 2, no 1, Spring 1990 (whole issue on SL)
  D. Robie (ed) Tu Galala. Social change in the Pacific (3 Day loan).
  R Norton Race and politics in Fiji, (2nd edition)
  J Garrett 'The coups in Fiji', Catalyst, vol 18, no 1, 1988, pp. 1-16.

WEEK 14: (3 November on)

Thursday 6 November: TEST

[Subject: History; Pacific/Comparative]



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