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Societies and Cultures of Melanesia

Anthropology (ANRG) 137

University of California, San Diego
Winter Term 1998

Dr David Akin
telf@umich.edu

COURSE GRADING:

(1) Quizzes 20% of course grade
(2) Mid-term exam 25% of course grade
(3) Research paper 25% of course grade
(4) Final examination 30% of course grade (March 20, 8:00-11:00AM)
(5) Your having met the February 5 deadline for approval of your paper abstract (see below), and participation in classroom discussions, will be used to calculate borderline grades at the end of the semester.  

Quizzes: Several unannounced quizzes will be given during the course, focusing on readings. Your lowest quiz grade will be thrown out before determining your cumulative quiz grade. Quizzes are intended to encourage you to do the readings before lectures.

Exams: Exams will cover lectures, readings, and films. They will combine short answer, multiple choice and essay questions.

Research Paper: Everyone must submit a 10-12 page, double-spaced typewritten paper (12 pt. type with one-inch margins). Graduate student’s papers must be 20-22 pages. You must have a satisfactory one-paragraph paper proposal to me by the beginning of class on February 5 (the earlier the better). Any topic related to the course may be acceptable but your proposal must be approved by me. I highly recommend that you submit your abstract early in case revision is needed. Papers are due by the beginning of class on March 10. Early submission is encouraged.

COURSE READINGS:

Books (all are available at the UCSD bookstore and on reserve in the undergraduate library):

Michael O'Hanlon 1993 Paradise: Portraying the New Guinea Highlands. London: British Museum Press.

Edward Schieffelin 1976 The Sorrow of the Lonely and the Burning of the Dancers. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Frederick Errington and Deborah Gewertz 1995 Articulating Change in the Last Unknown. Boulder: Westview Press.

Annette Weiner 1988 The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Course Pack: All course pack papers are also on reserve in the undergraduate library. The number of pages in parentheses after reading assignments refers to the approximate number of pages of text (i.e., not including photographs or bibliography).

LECTURE AND READING SCHEDULE

WEEK 1

January 6

Lecture: Introduction to the Course
Handouts: Study maps of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Solomons Islands

January 8:

Lecture: A Regional Overview
Readings for this lecture:
Articulating Change "Introduction: Neither Shared Eden nor Inflexible Tradition" (18pp).
C. Wallace 1995 "The 'Pacific Paradox': Islands of Despair" (2pp).

WEEK 2

January 13: (This class will meet in room 276 of the Geisel Library)

Lecture: Kathy Creely introduction to the UCSD libraries collections for Melanesian Studies
Film: First Contact
Readings for this Class:
Paradise "Introduction" and ch.1 "The Wahgi: Change and Continuity..." (pp.7-54).
A. Wollaston 1920 "Remarks on 'The Opening of New Territories in Papua'" (2pp).
B. Connolly and R. Anderson 1987 "Skymen and the Living Dead" (15pp).

January 15

Map Quiz: Papua New Guinea
Lecture: Early Impacts of European Arrival in Melanesia:
Initial Melanesian reactions to Europeans
Steel tools
Depopulation (and its causes, real and fictitious)
The labor trade
Readings for this lecture:
W.Rivers 1922 "The Psychological Factor in the Depopulation of Melanesia" (10pp).
H. Nelson 1982 "Masta – Me Like Work" (7pp).
S. Lounga 1982 "Attacking Labor Recruiting Ships" (5pp).
Ta'ika 1983 "The Story Ta'ika's Father Brought Back from Queensland" (2pp).
R. Salisbury 1962 "The Sexual Division of Labour" (4pp) and "Indirect Contact with Europeans"
(11pp) from From Stone to Steel.

WEEK 3

January 20:

Map Quiz: Solomon Islands and Vanuatu:
Lecture: The Colonial Experience and the Impact of World War II
Readings for this lecture:
W. Ivens 1907 "Management of Natives" (3pp).
Pacific Islands Monthly 1934 "Attacks on White Women" and 1935 "Unrest" (1p).
H. Nelson 1982 "You Had to be Firm" (8pp).
G. White and L. Lindstrom 1989 "Cultural Encounters in the Pacific War" (5pp).
J. Fifi'i 1988 "World War II and the Origins of Maasina Rule" (11pp).
United States Government 1943 You and the Native (5pp).
Articulating Change ch.1: "Resistance Through Emulation" (28pp).

January 22:

Lecture: Indigenous Melanesian Religions
Readings for this lecture:
R. Brunton 1980 "Miscontrued Order in Melanesian Religion" (15pp).
J. Guiart and D. Jorgensen 1987 "Oceanic Religions" (13pp).
M. Kwa'ioloa 1997 "The Power of Ghosts and God" (15pp).

WEEK 4

January 27:

Lecture: Melanesian Christianities
Readings for this Lecture:
J. Barker 1992 "Christianity in Western Melanesian Ethnography" (23pp).
B. Saetana 1982 "Christians Desecrate Ancestors" (1pp).
E. Schieffelin 1981 "Evangelical Rhetoric and the Transformation..." (7pp).
Articulating Change ch.4 "First Contact with God" (26pp).

January 29:

Lecture: Melanesian Leadership part I: Big Men
Film: The Kawelka, Ongka's Big Moka
Readings for this Lecture:
L. Lindstrom 1981 "Big Man: A Short Terminological History" (4pp).
M. Sahlins 1968 "Poor Man, Rich Man, Big Man, Chief" (20pp).
R. Keesing 1985 "Killers, Big Men, and Priests on Malaita" (20pp).
Ma'aanamae 1982, and J. Fifi'i 1988 "The Social Power of Kwaio Big Men" (1p).

WEEK 5

February 3: [Remember, next class is the deadline for submitting paper proposals]

Lecture: Leadership part II: Big Men, Great Men and Big Women
Film: The Trobriand Islanders
Readings for this Lecture:
L. Lindstrom 1984 "Doctor, Lawyer, Wise Man, Priest" (16pp).
The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea pp.1-64 (focus especially on pp 13-15, 25-64).
February 5: [Final paper proposals are due before class begins today]
Lecture: Leadership, part III: conclusion
Readings for this Lecture:
S. Schreiner (ed.) 1977 The Kwaio Pagan Women of Malaita (8pp).
The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea pp.65-138 (focus especially on pp 81-138).

WEEK 6

February 10: MIDTERM EXAM

Film: To Find the Baruya Story (We will see a twenty-minute segment only, on salt money, and the impacts of steel tools. The film will not be covered on the midterm exam).

February 12:

Lecture: Political and Religious Movements: Part I: "Cargo Cults"
Readings:
K.Burridge 1993 "Melanesian Cargo Cults" (14pp).
A. J. Strathern 1971 "Cargo and Inflation in Mount Hagen" (10pp).
Ongka (A. J. Strathern translator and editor) 1979 ch.11 "Wind Work" (5pp).
J. Fifi'i 1988 "Norman Deck and the 1931 Earthquake" (2pp).
L. Lindstrom 1996 "Cargo Inventories, Shopping Lists, and Desire" (4pp).

WEEK 7

February 17:

Lecture: Political and Religious Movements part II: Taking on Colonialism

February 19:

Lecture: Custom, Kastom, And Chiefs: Identity Politics in Melanesia
Readings for this entire Week:
R. Keesing 1982 "Kastom in Melanesia: An Overview" (5pp).
G. White 1992 "The Discourse of Chiefs" (29pp).
D. Jorgensen 1990 "The Telefolip and the Architecture of Ethnic Identity..." (9pp).
J-M. Philibert 1990 "The Politics of Tradition." (16pp).
R. Keesing 1989 "Creating the Past" (21pp).
People of Kwainaa'isi 1981 "Kastom Laws of Kwainaa'isi" (3pp).
Arugeni 1981 "Meemeko" (2pp).
M. Kwa'ioloa 1997 "Tradition Shows its Strength" (12pp).

WEEK 8

February 24

Lecture: Kwaio spirits: A case study of political-religious change

February 26

Lecture: Reciprocity and Exchange, part I
Reading for this entire Week:
E. Schieffelin Sorrow of the Lonely and the Burning of the Dancers.

WEEK 9

March 3

Lecture: Reciprocity and Exchange, part II: Currencies, Shells and Money
Readings for Lecture:
B. Saetana 1982 "The Origin of Shell Money in Kwaio" (2pp).
Articulating Change ch. 2: "Dueling Currencies in East New Britain" (26pp).
The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea (pp139-67).

March 5

Lecture: Impacts of Commoditization and State Monies
Readings for lecture:
Ongka (trans. A. Strathern) 1979 Moka speech from ch.13 of Ongka (4pp).
R. Foster 1995 "Print Advertisements and Nation Making" (18pp).
R. Foster 1992 "Commoditization and the Emergence of Kastam..." (9pp).
Optional reading: Articulating Change ch.5 "A Triumph of Capitalism in East New Britain?"

WEEK 10

March 10 Your term papers are due at the beginning of class today

Film: Joe Leahy's Neighbors.
Background readings for the film:
Articulating Change
"Conclusion: Bloody-Mindedness..." (11pp)
B. Finney 1993 "From the Stone Age to the Age of Corporate Takeovers" (15pp).

March 12 (final class)

Lecture: Ecocide: Growing Threats to Melanesian Ecosystems
Readings for this Lecture:
D. Hyndeman 1988 "Melanesian Resistance to Ecocide and Ethnocide" (13pp).
S. Kirsch 1996 "Acting Globally: Eco-Politics in Papua New Guinea" (7pp).
E. Schieffelin 1995 "Some Factors Behind Village Openness to Logging Interests" (5pp).

TO BE ARRANGED: INFORMAL FINAL EXAM REVIEW (ATTENDANCE OPTIONAL)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

Contents of Course Pack for Societies and Cultures of Melanesia (ANRG 137)

Arugeni 1981 Meemeko. Transcript translated from Kwaio and edited by D.Akin.

Barker, John 1992 Christianity in Western Melanesian Ethnography. In, James Carrier (ed.), History and Tradition in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press..

Brunton, Ron 1980 Misconstrued Order in Melanesian Religion Man 15(1):112-28.

Burridge, Kenelm 1993 Melanesian Cargo Cults. In, Victoria Lockwood, Thomas Harding and Ben Wallace (eds.), Contemporary Pacific Societies: Studies in Development and Change. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Connolly, Bob and Robin Anderson 1987 Skymen and the Living Dead. Ch.3 of First Contact: New Guinea's Highlanders Encounter the Outside World. NY: Viking Penguin.

Fifi'i, Jonathan 1988 World War II and the Origins of Maasina Rule: One Kwaio View. In, Geoffrey White et al. (eds.), The Big Death: Solomon Islanders Remember World War II. Suva: Univ. of the South Pacific.

Fifi'i, Jonathan 1988 Norman Deck and the 1931 Earthquake. Translated and edited by D. Akin.

Finney, Ben 1993 From the Stone Age to the Age of Corporate Takeovers. In, Victoria Lockwood, Thomas Harding and Ben Wallace (eds.), Contemporary Pacific Societies: Studies in Development and Change. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Foster, Robert 1992 Commoditization and the Emergence of Kastam as a Cultural Category: A New Ireland Case in Comparative Perspective. Oceania 62:284-94.

Foster, Robert 1995 Print Advertisements and Nation Making in Metropolitan Papua New Guinea. In, R.

Foster (ed.), Nation Making: Emergent Identities in Postcolonial Melanesia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Guiart, Jean and Dan Jorgensen 1987 Oceanic Religions. In, Mircea Eliade (ed.), Encyclopedia of Religion. NY: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Hyndeman, David 1988 Melanesian Resistance to Ecocide and Ethnocide: Transnational Mining Projects and the Fourth World on the Island of New Guinea. In, John Bodley (ed.), Tribal Peoples and Development Issues: A Global Overview. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing.

Ivens, Walter 1907 Hints to Missionaries to Melanesia. London: Melanesian Mission.

Jorgensen, Dan 1990 The Telefolip and the Architecture of Ethnic Identity in the Sepik Headwaters. In, Barry Craig and David Hyndman (eds.), Children of Afek: Tradition and Change Among the Mountain-Ok of Central New Guinea. Sydney: Univ. of Sydney.

People of Kwainaa'isi, Kwaio 1981 Kastom Laws of Kwainaa'isi. Translated and edited by D. Akin.

Keesing, Roger 1982 Kastom in Melanesia: An Overview. Mankind 13(4):297-301.

Keesing, Roger 1985 Killers, Big Men, and Priests on Malaita: Reflections on a Melanesian Troika System. In, Frank McGlynn and Arthur Tuden (eds.), Anthropological Approaches to Political Behavior. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press. First published in Ethnology 34(4) 1985.

Keesing, Roger 1989 Creating the Past: Custom and Identity in the Contemporary Pacific. The Contemporary Pacific 1(1&2):19-42.

Kirsch, Stuart 1996 Acting Globally: Eco-Politics in Papua New Guinea. Journal of the International Institute 3(3):1,14,15. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Also available on "Active Voices: The Online Journal of Cultural Survival", Sept, 1997 (http://www.cs.org).

Kwa'ioloa, Michael and Ben Burt 1997 Living Tradition: A Changing Life in Solomon Islands. London: British Museum Press (chapters 4&10).

Lindstrom, Lamont 1981 Big Man: A Short Terminological History. American Anthropologist 83:900-905.

Lindstrom, Lamont 1984 Doctor, Lawyer, Wise Man, Priest: Big-Men and Knowledge in Melanesia. Man 19:291-309.

Lindstrom, Lamont 1996 Cargo Inventories, Shopping Lists, and Desire. In, William Haviland and Robert Gordon (eds.), Talking About People: Readings in Contemporary Cultural Anthropology.

Lounga, Saelasi 1982 Attacking Labor Recruiting Ships on the East Kwaio Coast, 1880-1886. Transcript translated from Kwaio and edited by D. Akin.

Ma'aanamae 1982, and Jonathan Fifi'i 1988 The Social Power of Kwaio Big Men. Transcripts translated from Kwaio and edited by D. Akin.

Nelson, Hank 1982 Taim Bilong Masta: The Australian Involvement with Papua New Guinea. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Commission (chs. 8&19).

Ongka 1979 Ongka: A Self-Account by a New Guinea Big-Man. Andrew Strathern translator and editor. NY: St. Martin's Press (ch. 11 and extract from ch. 13).

Pacific Islands Monthly 1934 "Attacks on White Women: Alarming Incidents in Papua and the Solomons." January 22; (and) 1935 "Unrest in Solomons Islands" and "Unrest on Malaita." Nov.20.

People of Kwainaa'isi 1981 Kastom Laws of Kwainaa'isi. Translated and edited by D. Akin.

Philibert, Jean-Marc 1990 The Politics of Tradition: Toward a Generic Culture in Vanuatu. In, Frank Manning and J-M Philibert (eds.), Customs in Conflict: The Anthropology of a Changing World. Lewiston, NY: Broadview Press. First published in Mankind 16:1-12, 1986.

Rivers, W.H.R. 1988 (1922) The Psychological Factor in the Depopulation of Melanesia. In, John Bodley (ed.), Tribal Peoples and Development Issues: A Global Overview. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing. First in, W.H.R. Rivers (ed.), 1922 Essays on the Depopulation of Melanesia. Cambridge.

Saetana, Bita 1981 The Origin of Shell Money in Kwaio. Kwaio translated and edited by D. Akin.

Saetana, Bita 1982 Christians Desecrate Ancestors. Kwaio translated and edited by D. Akin.

Sahlins, Marshall 1968 Poor Man, Rich Man, Big Man, Chief: Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia. In, Andrew Vayda (ed.), Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. New York: Natural History Press. First published in Comparative Studies in Society and History 5(3) 1963.

Salisbury, Richard 1962 (excerpts from) From Stone to Steel: Economic Consequences of a Technological Change in New Guinea. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Schieffelin, Edward 1981 Evangelical Rhetoric and the Transformation of Traditional Culture in Papua New Guinea. Comparative Studies in Society and History 23(1):150-56.

Schieffelin, Edward 1995 Some Factors Behind Village Openness to Logging Interests. PNG Rainforest Campaign News, September 10. hhtp://gaia1.ies.wisc.edu/research/pngfors/

Schreiner, Shelley (ed.) 1977 The Kwaio Pagan Women of Malaita: The Life Stories of Gwaalau and Lamana. Honiara: Honlit Printer.

Strathern, Andrew 1971 Cargo and Inflation in Mount Hagen. Oceania 41(4):255-65.

Ta'ika 1983 The Story Ta'ika's Father Brought Back from Queensland. Kwaio translated by D. Akin.

United States Government 1943 You and the Native: Notes for the Guidance of Members of the Forces in their Relations with New Guinea Natives. Allied Geographical Section, Southwest Pacific Area.

Wallace, Charles 1995 The 'Pacific Paradox': Islands of Despair. Los Angeles Times, March 16:A30-31.

White, Geoffrey 1992 The Discourse of Chiefs: Notes on a Melanesian Society. Contemporary Pacific 4(1):73-108.

White, Geoffrey and Lamont Lindstrom 1989 Cultural Encounters in the Pacific War. Humanities 10(6):26-31.

Wollaston, A 1988 (1920) "Remarks on 'The Opening of New Territories in Papua'" In, John Bodley (ed.), Tribal Peoples and Development Issues A Global Overview. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing.

[Subject: Melanesia; Anthropology]



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