Pacific Studies Initiative Syllabi & Bibliographies



Syllabi & Bibliographies

Internet Resources

Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands

Botany/Zoology 450
Spring 1997
University of Hawai‘i at Manoa


E. A. Kay
Professor of Zoology
University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Edmondson 351
Honolulu, HI 96822
Phone: 808-956-8620;

C. H. Lamoureux
Professor of Botany
Lyon Arboretum
3860 Manoa Rd
Honolulu, HI 96822.
Phone: 808-988-3177;

Lectures: T, Th 10:30 - 11:20. ST JOHN 011

BOT 450 SECT 001 - X0075, SECT 002 - X0077, SECT 003 - X0079, and SECT 004 -X0081 and ZOOL 450 SECT 001 - X0074, SECT 001 - X0074, SECT 002 - X0076, SECT 003 - X0078, and SECT 004 - X0080 are not Writing Intensive sections.
BOT 450 SECT 005 - X0050, SECT 006 - X0063, SECT 7 - X0071, AND SECT 008 - X0072 and ZOOL 450 SECT 005 - X0083, SECT 006 - X0084, SECT 007 - X0090, and SECT 008 - X0092 are Writing Intensive sections.

Discussion sections, all in ST JOHN 013:

1 Th 2:00 - 2:50 = BOT 450, SECT 001- X0075, and SECT 005 - X0050, and ZOOL 450, SECT 001- X0074 and SECT 005 - X0083
2 Th 3:00 - 3:50 = BOT 450, SECT 002- X0077, and SECT 006 - X0063, and ZOOL 450, SECT 002- X0076 and SECT 006 - X0084
3 F 1:30 - 2:20 = BOT 450, SECT 003- X0079, and SECT 007 - X0071, and ZOOL 450, SECT 003- X0078 and SECT 007 - X0090
4 F 2:30 - 3:20 = BOT 450, SECT 004- X0081, and SECT 008 - X0072, and ZOOL 450, SECT 004- X0080 and SECT 008 - X0092

Required readings are indicated by ** in the syllabus. All are included in the required textbook: A Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands: Selected Readings II, edited by E.A. Kay. Abbreviated as NHHI II.

Jan 14 Introduction. Lamoureux. Organization and outline of course. Reading materials, field trips, exams, written reports. Definition of natural history.


Berry, P. 1993. In the Wake of Dreams: Reflections of Hawai`i. Whalesong Inc. Bellvue, WA. 132 pp.

Carlquist, S. 1980. Hawaii: A Natural History. Second Edition. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. Lawai, Kauai. 468 pp.

Culliney, J.L. 1988. Islands in a Far Sea. Sierra Club Books. San Francisco. 410 pp.

Daws. G. 1988. Hawaii, the Islands of Life. The Nature Conservancy. Signature Publishing. Honolulu. 156 pp.

Eldredge, L.E. and S.E. Miller. 1995. How many species are there in Hawaii? B. P. Bishop Mus.; Occ. Pap. 41: 3-18.

Kay, E.A., (Ed.). 1994. A Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands: Selected Readings II. University of Hawai`i Press. 520 pp. (Abbreviated NHHI II in other references in this syllabus).

Kay, E.A., (Ed.). 1972. A Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands: Selected Readings. Univ. of Hawaii Press. 659 pp. (Abbreviated NHHI in other references in this syllabus).

Stone, C. P. and D. B Stone, (Eds.). 1989. Conservation Biology in Hawai`i. Univ. Hawai`i Coop. Natl. Park Resources Stud. Unit. Univ. Hawai`i Press. 252 pp.

Zimmermann, E. C. 1948. Insects of Hawaii. Vol. 1: Introduction. Univ. Hawai`i Press. 206 pp.

Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Hawaii. 1983. Atlas of Hawaii (2nd edition). Univ. Hawai`i Press. 238 pp.

Natural History Magazine, Dec. 1982, Vol. 91, No. 12. Hawaii: Showcase of Evolution.

Bioscience Magazine, April 1988, Vol. 38, No. 4.

National Geographic Magazine, Sept. 1995. Hawai`i's Vanishing Species.

Trends in Ecology and Evolution, July 1987, Vol. 2, No. 7. Special Issue: Hawaiian Evolutionary Biology. (Abbreviated TREE in other references in this syllabus).

Jan 16 History of scientific knowledge in Hawaii. Kay. The development of scientific knowledge about the Hawaiian islands since the time of Captain Cook. Trends and emphases of biological investigations.


** KAY, E. A. 1972. Hawaiian natural history: 1778-1900 NHHI II: 400- 424.

Carson, H. L. 1987. The process by which species originate. Bioscience 37: 715-720.

Medway, D.G. 1981. The contribution of Cook's third voyage to the ornithology of the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 35(2): 105-173.

St.John, H. 1976. Biography of David Nelson and an account of his botanizing in Hawaii. Pacific Science 30: 1-6.

St.John, H. 1976. New species of Hawaiian plants collected by David Nelson in 1779. Hawaiian Plant Studies 52. Pacific Science 30: 7-44.

St.John, H. and M. Titcomb. 1983. The vegetation of the Sandwich Islands as seen by Charles Gaudichaud in 1819. B. P. Bishop Mus.; Occ. Pap. 25(9): 1-16.

Wyss, M., R. Y. Koyanagi, and D.C. Cox. 1992. The Lyman Hawaiian Earthquake Diary, 1833-1917. U.S. Geol. Survey Bulletin 2027.

Jan. 16-17 Discussion of required course projects

Jan 21 The Pacific Basin. Sinton. Geology & Geophysics Department. Plate tectonics. Geological nature and origin of the Pacific


Menard, H. W. 1986. Islands. Sci. Amer. Library. Chapters 2 and 3. pp. 27-69.

Menard, H. W. and E. L. Hamilton. 1963. Paleogeography of the tropical Pacific. Pp. 193-297 in: J. L. Gressitt, (Ed.), Pacific Basin Biogeography: a Symposium. B. P. Bishop Museum Press. NHHI: 5-26.

Menard, H. W. 1964. Marine Geology of the Pacific. McGraw-Hill. Chapters 1, 2, 6 and 11.

Miller, R. 1983. Continents in Collision. Planet Earth Series, Time-Life Books, Inc. 176 pp.

Scientific American. Continents Adrift and Continents Aground. Readings...(especially Burke and Wilson. Hot spots on the on the earth's surface (Aug. 1976); Toksoz, M.N. The subduction of the lithosphere (Nov. 1975); and Heezen and MacGregor. The evolution of the Pacific (Nov. 1973).

Jan 23 The Hawaiian islands. Sinton. Geology & Geophysics Department. Geological history. High islands and low islands. Theories of origin. Dating. Erosion. Lava forms.


** D.A. Clague and G. B. Dalrymple. 1989. Tectonics, geochronology, and origins of the Hawaii-Emperor Volcanic Chain. NHHI II: 5-40.

** Walker. G. P T.. 1990 Geology and volcanology of the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 44(4): 315-347. NHHI II: 53-85.

** Normark, W.R., D.A. Clague and J. G. Moore. 1982. The next island. Natural History 91(2): 68-71. NHHI II: 86-90.

Decker, R. and B. Decker. 1980. Volcano Watching. Hawaii Natural History Association. 80 pp.

Eaton, J. P. and K. J. Murata. 1960. How volcanoes grow. Science 132: 925-938. NHHI: 39-65.

Macdonald, G. A., A. T. Abbott and F. L. Peterson. 1983. Volcanoes in the Sea. Second Edition. Univ. Hawai`i Press.

Macdonald, G. A. and D. H. Hubbard. 1966. Volcanoes of the National Parks in Hawaii. Hawaii Natural History Association. 3rd Edition. 52 pp.

Macdonald, G. A. and W. Kyselka. 1967. Anatomy of an Island. Bishop Museum Press. 36 pp.

Jan 23-24 (Discussion Video: "Inside Hawaiian volcanoes" VT 3490) QUIZ 1

Jan 25 Field Trip. This trip will be geologically oriented, and led by a geologist, Dr. Michael Garcia.

Areas to be visited include Tantalus. Diamond Head. Hanauma Bay. and Windward Oahu. Transportation will be by bus which will leave promptly at 1:00 p.m. from the semi-circular drive off University Avenue just makai of Sinclair Library. Return at 5 p.m.

Jan 25 Climatology. Schroeder. Meteorology Department. Weather and climates of the Hawaiian Islands.


** Blumenstock, D. and S. Price. 1994. Climates of the States: Hawaii. NHHI II: 94-114

Price, S. 1983. Climate. In: Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Hawaii. Atlas of Hawaii (2nd Edition). pp. 59-68. Univ. Hawai`i Press.

+Sanderson, Marie, (Ed.). 1993. Prevailing Trade Winds: Weather and Climate in Hawai`i. Univ. of Hawai`i Press. 126 pp. For this lecture read Chapter 2: T. Schroeder, Climate Controls, pp. 12-36.

Jan 30 Soils. Uehara. Agronomy and Soil Science Department.


** Uehara, G. 1983. Soils. In: Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Hawai`i. Atlas of Hawaii (2nd Edition). pp. 45-47. Univ. Hawai`i Press. NHHI II: 115-117.

McCall, W. W. 1975. Soil Classification in Hawaii. U.H. Coop. Extension Service, Circular 476. 32 p.

Sherman, G. D. 1972. Tropical soils of the Hawaiian Islands. NHHI: 205-252.

Jan 30-31 (Discussion Video: "Succession on Lava" VT 6130) QUIZ 2

Feb 4 The high Hawaiian Islands: processes in inshore aquatic areas. Maragos. E-W Center. Patterns of development of coral reefs in Hawaii. An example of ecological succession.


** Grigg, R. W. 1983. Community structure, succession and development of coral reefs in Hawaii. Marine Ecology - Progress Series II: 1-14. NHHI II: 196-209.

Grigg, R. W. and J. E. Maragos. 1974. Recolonization of hermatypic corals on submerged lava flows in Hawaii. Ecology 55: 387-395.

Maragos, J. E. 1983. The status of reef coral populations in Honokohau Small Boat Harbor, 1971-1981. U.S. Army Engineer District, Honolulu. A decade of ecological studies following construction of the Honokohau Small Boat Harbor, Kona, Hawaii.

Maragos, J. E. and P. L. Jokiel. 1986. Reef corals at Johnston Atoll: one of the world's most isolated reefs. Coral Reefs 4: 141:150.

Pearson, R. G. 1981. Recovery and recolonization of coral reefs. Marine Ecology - Progress Series (4): 105-122.

Feb. 6 The biotic environment and biota of the Hawaiian Islands: Terrestrial. Lamoureux. Past changes in climate and vegetation as revealed by studies of pollen, fossils, and glaciers. Dispersal mechanisms.


** Gavenda, R.G. 1992. Hawaiian quaternary paleoenvironments: a review of geological, pedological, and botanical evidence. Pacific Science 46(3): 295-307. NHHI II: 118-130.

** Carlquist, S. 1982. The first arrivals. Natural History 91(12): 20-30. NHHI II: 155-160.

Athens, J.S., J.V. Ward, and S. Wickler. 1992. Late Holocene lowland vegetation, O`ahu, Hawai`i. New Zealand Jour. Archaeology 14:9-34.

Athens, J.S. and J.V. Ward. 1993. Environmental change and prehistoric Polynesian settlement in Hawai`i. Asian Perspectives 32(2): 205-223.

Bennett, T. M. 1985. Palynology of Selected Horizons from the Ewa Coastal Plain, Oahu, Hawaii. M.S. Thesis in Botanical Sciences. Univ. of Hawai`i.

Bridgeman, H. A. 1983. Could climatic change have had an influence on the Polynesian migrations? Palaeogeography, Palaeo-climatology, Palaeoecology 41: 193-206.

Carlquist, S. 1974. Island Biology. Columbia Univ. Press. 660 pp. Chapter 1. Principles of dispersal and evolution. Chapter 2. Long-distance dispersal: evidence and implications.

Carson, H.L. and D.A. Clague. 1995. Geology and Biogeography of the Hawaiian Islands. Pp. 11-29 in: Wagner, W.L. and V.A. Funk, (Eds.). Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press. 467 pp.

Guppy, H. B. 1906. Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific between 1896 and 1899. Vol. II: Plant dispersal. Macmillan and Co., Ltd. London. 627 pp.

Jackson, M. L., et al. 1971. Geomorphological relationships of tropospherically derived quartz in the soils of the Hawaiian Islands. Soil Sci. Amer. Proc. 35(4): 515-525.

Lesko, G. L. and R. B. Walker. 1969. Effects of sea water on seed germination in two Pacific atoll beach species. Ecology 50: 730-734.

Lorence, D.H. and K.R. Wood. 1994. Kanaloa, a new genus of Fabaceae (Mimosoideae) from Hawai`i. Novon 4(2): 137-145.

Lyon, H. L. 1930. The Flora of Moanalua 100,000 years ago. B. P. Bishop Museum, Spec. Pub. 16: 6-7.

Nelson, G. and D. E. Rosen. 1981. Vicariance Biogeography. Columbia Univ. Press. 593 pp.

Ridley, H. N. 1930. The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World. L. Reeve & Co.

Sanderson, Marie, (Ed.). 1993. Prevailing Trade Winds: Weather and Climate in Hawai`i. Univ. of Hawai`i Press. 126 pp. For this lecture read Chapter 6: D. Nullet, Past Climatic Changes, pp. 96-101.

Selling, O. H. 1948. Studies in Hawaiian Pollen statistics. Part III: On the late Quaternary history of the Hawaiian vegetation. B. P. Bishop Museum Spec. Pub. 39.

Wentworth, C. K. and W. E. Powers. 1941. Multiple glaciation of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 52: 1193-1218.

Zimmerman, E. C. 1948. Insects of Hawaii. Vol. I: 53-62. Univ. Hawai`i Press.

Feb 6-7 Discussion section QUIZ 3

Feb 11 The high Hawaiian Islands: terrestrial areas. Lamoureux. Biogeoclimatic zones. Succession on new volcanic surfaces


** Sohmer, S. H. and R. Gustafson. 1987. Vegetation zones, pp. 38-57 in Plants and Flowers of Hawai`i. Univ. of Hawai`i Press. NHHI II 145-154.

** Mueller-Dombois, D. 1975. Some aspects of island ecosystem analysis. In: F.B. Golley and E. Medina, (Eds). Tropical Ecological Systems: Trends in Aquatic and Terrestrial Research. Vol. 11: 353-366. New York: Springer-Verlag. NHHI II: 131-144.

Atkinson, I. A. E. 1970. Successional trends in the coastal and lowland forest on Mauna Loa and Kilauea Volcanoes, Hawaii. Pacific Science 24: 387-400.

Doty, M. S. 1967. Contrast between the pioneer populating process on land and shore. Bull. Southern California Academy of Sciences 66: 175-194. NHHI: 253-272.

Doty, M. S. and D. Mueller-Dombois. 1966. Atlas for bioecology studies in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Univ. Hawai`i. Hawai`i Botanical Science Paper No. 2. Read pp. 273-285; 315-390.

Egler, F. E. 1939. Vegetation zones of Oahu, Hawaii. Empire Forestry Journ. 18: 44-57.

Gagné, W. and L. Cuddihy. 1990. Vegetation, pp. 45-114 in: Wagner, W.L., D. R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer, (Eds.). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i. Univ. of Hawaii Press. 1854 pp.

Jackson, T. A. 1971. A study of the ecology of pioneer lichens, mosses and algae on recent Hawaiian lava flows. Pacific Science 25: 22-32.

Knapp, R. 1975. Vegetation of the Hawaiian Islands (translated by A. Y. Yoshinaga and H. I. Iltis). Hawaiian Botanical Society Newsletter 14: 95-121.

Krajina, V. J. 1963. Biogeoclimatic zones on the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Botanical Society Newsletter 2(7): 93-98. NHHI: 273-277.

Mueller-Dombois, D. 1967. Ecological relations in the alpine and subalpine vegetation on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Jour. Indian Botanical Society 46: 403-411.

Mueller-Dombois, D. 1987. Forest dynamics in Hawaii. TREE: 216-220. Mueller-Dombois, D., K. W. Bridges and H. L. Carson (Eds.). 1981. Island Ecosystems. Biological Organization in Selected Hawaiian Communities. U.S. International Biological Program Synthesis Series 15. 583 pp. Hutchinson Ross.

Mueller-Dombois, D. and V. J. Krajina. 1968. Comparison of east-flank vegetations on Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Proc. Symp. Recent Advances in Tropical Ecology 2: 508-520.

Ripperton, J. C. and E. Y. Hosaka. 1942. Vegetation zones of Hawaii. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 89: 1-60.

Sanderson, Marie, (Ed.). 1993. Prevailing Trade Winds: Weather and Climate in Hawai`i. Univ. of Hawai`i Press. 126 pp. For this lecture read Chapter 4: T. Giambelluca and M. Sanderson, The Water Balance and Climatic Classification, pp. 56-72.

Smathers, G. A. and D. Mueller-Dombois. 1974. Invasion and recovery of vegetation after a volcanic eruption in Hawaii. U.S. National Park Service Scientific Monograph, Ser. V: XIV + 129 pp.

Feb 13 The Oceanographic Climate. Stroup. Oceanography Department. Currents, temperatures, waves, etc.


If you have no background in oceanography, you may find it useful to review the most recent edition of a text for an introductory oceanography course. Two recommended texts are: Thurman, Introductory Oceanography, Macmillan, and Duxbury and Duxbury, An Introduction to the World Oceans, W.C. Brown.

H. V. Sverdrup, M. W. Johnson and R. H. Fleming. 1942. The Oceans. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1087 pp. To see how Hawai`i fits into the big picture. The fold-out charts at the back of the book show ocean-wide patterns of currents, temperature, and salinity. An advanced discussion is found in Ch. XV: The Water Masses and Currents of the Oceans.

G. Schott. 1935. Geographie des Indischen und Stillen Ozeans. C. Boysen, Hamburg. 413 pp. The same, only more complete sets of ocean climate charts at the back--if you can dig figure captions in German, this is the best.

K. Wyrtki, V. Graete and W. Patzert. 1969. Current Observations in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Report No. HIG-69-15. Lots of technical stuff, but see the "Results", pp. 16-25, in which it is shown that the flow through the islands does not look like the flow one would expect from the big picture in the first two references.

W. C. Patzert. 1969. Eddies in Hawaiian Waters. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Report No. HIG-69-8, 51 pp., 71 Figs. A good (but technical) description of one of the most marked and interesting features of currents in the vicinity of the islands.

G. R. Seckel. 1962. Atlas of the Oceanographic Climate of the Hawaiian Islands Region. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery Bulletin 193, volume 61, pp. 371-427. Detailed discussion, good figures on local (offshore) temperature, salinity, surface layer depth.

T. Laevastu, D. E. Avery and D. C. Cox. 1964. Coastal Current and Sewage Disposal in the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Report No. HIG-64-1, 101 pp. A collection of lots of information on very nearshore circulation. A good illustration of the variability and complexity of the currents.

Feb 13-14 Discussion about role of oceans in Hawaiian natural history QUIZ 4

Feb 18 The high Hawaiian Islands: inshore aquatic areas. Kay. The different shore and shallow water environments of the Hawaiian Islands. Factors responsible for the differences.


** Kay, E. A. 1987. Marine Ecosystems in the Hawaiian Islands. In: Devaney, D.M. and L.G. Eldredge, (Eds.)., Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. B. P. Bishop Museum. NHHI II: 187-195.

** Kohn, A. J. 1959. The ecology of Conus in Hawaii. Ecological Monographs 29: 47-90. NHHI II: 210-253.

Doty, M. S. 1967. Pioneer intertidal population and related general vertical distribution of marine algae in Hawaii. Blumea 15: 95-105. NHHI: 314-324.

Gosline, W. A. & V. E. Brock. 1960. Handbook of Hawaiian

Fishes. Univ. Hawai`i Press. Introduction.

Gosline, W. A. 1965. Vertical zonation of inshore fishes in the upper water layers of the Hawaiian Islands. Ecology 46: 823-831. NHHI: 305-313.

Kay, E. A. 1979. Introduction. Hawaiian marine shells. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. Section 4: Mollusca. B. P. Bishop Museum.

Kohn, A. J. and P. Helfrich. 1957. Primary productivity of a Hawaiian coral reef. Limnology and Oceanography 2: 241-251. NHHI: 325-335.

Maciolek, J. A. 1983. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps. Bull. Mar. Sci. 33:606-618.

Pollock, J. B. 1928. Fringing and Fossil Coral Reefs of Oahu. B. P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 55.

Feb 20 The environment and biota of the Hawaiian Islands: Aquatic. Kay. Aquatic ecosystems. Derivation of Hawaiian marine biota. Dispersal mechanisms. Fossil history.


** Grigg, R. W. 1988. Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain. Science 240: 1737-1743. NHHI II: 164-170.

** Ladd, H. S., J. I. Tracey, Jr. and M. G. Gross. 1967. Drilling on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. Science 156: 1088-1095. NHHI II: 41-52.

** Scheltema, R. S. 1986. Long-distance dispersal by planktonic larvae of shoal-water benthic invertebrates among central Pacific islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 39: 241-256. NHHI II: 171-186.

Briggs, J. C. 1966. Oceanic islands, endemism, and marine paleotemperatures. Systematic Zoology 15: 153-163. NHHI: 506-516.

Coles, S. L., P. L. Jokiel and C. R. Lewis. 1976. Thermal tolerance in tropical versus subtropical Pacific reef corals. Pacific Science 30(2): 159-166.

Gosline, W. A. 1955. The inshore fish fauna of Johnston Island, a Central Pacific Atoll. Pacific Science 9: 442-480. NHHI: 456-494, read 477-494.

Grigg, R. W. 1981. Acropora in Hawaii. Part 2. Zoogeography. Pacific Science 35(1): 15-24.

Lobell, P. S. and A. R. Robinson. 1983. Reef fishes at sea: ocean currents and advection of larvae. In: M. L. Reaka, (Ed.), The Ecology of Deep and Shallow Reefs. Symposia Series for Undersea Research. NOAA's Undersea Research Program, vol. I, No. 1: 29-38.

Resig, J. M. 1969. Paleontological Investigations of Deep Borings on the Ewa Plain, Oahu. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Report No. HIG 69-2.

Scheltema, R. S. and I. P. Williams. 1983. Long-distance dispersal of planktonic larvae and the biogeography and evolution of some Polynesian and western Pacific molluscs. Bulletin of Marine Science 33(3): 545-565.

Stehli, F. G. and J. W. Wells. 1971. Diversity and age patterns in hermatypic corals. Systematic Zoology 20: 115-126.

Waller, T. R. 1972. The Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) of Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. Veliger 14: 221-264.

Feb 20-21 (Discussion Video: "Island of Aldabra" VT 6348) QUIZ 5

Feb 22 FIELD TRIP: Diamond Head Beach Park. Leave UH at 9:00 a.m., or meet at Diamond Head Beach Park at 9:15.

Feb 25 Atolls: Biogenic islands in oceanic deserts. Kay. "The coral reef problem". Theories of atoll origin. History of the controversy Topography, composition and distribution. Energy and material inputs , standing crops, productivity, and diversity.


Fosberg, F. R. 1961. Qualitative description of the coral atoll ecosystem. Atoll Research Bulletin 81: 1-11.

Grigg, R. W. and Epp, D. 1989. Critical depth for the survival of coral islands: effects on the Hawaiian archipelago. Science 243: 638-641.

Johannes, R. E. et al. 1972. The metabolism of some coral reef communities: a team study of nutrient and energy flux at Eniwetok. BioScience 22: 541-543.

Newell, N. D. The Coral Reefs (parts I & II). Natural History 58: 118-131; 226-235.

Wells, J. W. 1957. Coral reefs. Chapter 20, pp. 609-631. In Hedgepeth, J. W. and H. S. Ladd, (Eds.). Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology. Vol. 1, Ecology.

Feb 27 The low Hawaiian Islands as atolls. Lamoureux. Typical and atypical features, comparisons with high islands.


** Conant, S., C. C. Christensen, P. Conant, W. C. Gagné, and M. L. Goff. 1984. The unique terrestrial biota of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Proc. 2nd Symposium on Resource Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2: 77-94. NHHI II: 378-390.

** Ladd, H. S., J. I. Tracey, Jr. and M. G. Gross. 1967. Drilling on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. Science 156: 1088-1095. NHHI II: 41-52.

Amerson, A. B., Jr., R. B. Clapp and W. 0. Wirtz, II. 1974. The natural history of Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bull. 174: 1-306.

Bailey, A. M. 1956. Birds of Midway and Laysan Islands. Denver Mus. Nat. Hist. Pictorial No. 12.

Bryan, E. H., Jr. 1954. The Hawaiian Chain. B. P. Bishop Museum.

Clapp, R. B. 1972. The natural history of Gardner Pinnacles, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bull. 163: 1-29.

Clapp, R. B. and E. Kridler. 1977. The natural history of Necker island, Northwestern Hawaiian islands. Atoll Research Bull. 206: 1-102.

Clapp, R. B., E. Kridler and R. R. Fleet. 1977. The natural history of Nihoa Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bull. 207: 1-147.

Clapp, R. B. and W. 0. Wirtz, II. 1975. The natural History of Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bull. 186: 1-196.

Ely, C. A. and R. B. Clapp. 1973. The natural history of Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bull. 171: 1-361.

Gross, M. G., J. D. Milliman, J. I. Tracey, Jr., and H. S. Ladd. 1969. Marine geology of Kure and Midway Atolls, Hawaii: a preliminary report. Pacific Science 23: 17-25.

Lamoureux, C.H. 1961. Botanical observations on leeward Hawaiian atolls. I. Notes on the plants of Kure Atoll. II. Vascular plants from Tern Island, French Frigate Shoal. Atoll Research Bull. 79: 1-10.

Lamoureux, C.H. 1963. The flora and vegetation of Laysan Island. Atoll Research Bull. 97: 1-14.

Lamoureux, C.H. 1964. The leeward Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Botanical Society Newsletter 3: 7-11.

Schlanger, S.0. and G.W. Gillett. 1976. A geological perspective of the upland biota of Laysan atoll (Hawaiian Islands). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 8: 205-216.

Woodward, P. W. 1972. The natural history of Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bul. 164: 1-318.

Feb 27-28 (Discussion Video: "Beyond Honolulu" VT 6338) QUIZ 6

March 4 The Hawaiian Monk Seal. Reagan. National Marine Fisheries Service.


Ching, P. 1994. The Hawaiian Monk Seal. Univ. Hawai`i Press. 42 pp.

Gerrodette, T., and W. G. Gilmartin. 1990. Demographic consequences of changed pupping and hauling sites of the Hawaiian monk seal. Conservation Biology 4:423-430.

Gilmartin, W. G. 1983. Recovery plan for the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi. Southwest Region, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 29 p. + tables, appendix.

Wexler, M. 1993. A monk on their backs. National Wildlife Dec/Jan 93: 44-49.

March 6 (16) ***MID-TERM EXAMINATION***

March 6 - 7 (Discussion Video: "New Species from Old" VT 8503)

March 11 Insular evolution. Lamoureux.

SUGGESTED READING: (The literature on this subject is enormous. Some of it has been cited for other lectures. The following are merely a few of the samples that deal with more than one group of organisms.)

** Gosline, W. A. 1968. Considerations regarding the evolution of Hawaiian animals. Pacific Science 22: 267-273. NHHI II: 264-270.

** Hubbell, T. H. 1968. The biology of islands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 60: 22-32. NHHI II: 359-369.

Carlquist, S. 1980. Hawaii: A Natural History. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. Especially chapters 3-13.

Carlquist, S. 1974. Island Biology. Columbia University Press.

Simon, C. 1987. Hawaiian evolutionary biology, an introduction. TREE: 175-178.

Wagner, W.L. and V.A. Funk, (Eds.). 1995. Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press. 467 pp.

March 13 Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: plants. Lamoureux. General principles and specific examples.


** Gillett, G W. 1966. Hybridization and its taxonomic implications in the Scaevola gaudichaudiana complex of the Hawaiian Islands. Evolution 20: 506-516. NHHI II: 300-310.

** St. John. H. 1946. Endemism in the Hawaiian flora, and a revision of the Hawaiian species of Gunnera. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Ser. 4, 25(16): 377-419. NHHI II: 271-291

Baker, G. E., and R. D. Goos. 1972. Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: fungi. NHHI: 409-431.

Carlquist, S. 1974 Island Biology. Columbia University Press. Chapter 2. Long-distance dispersal: evidence and implications. Chapter 4. Adaptive radiation: Hawaiian Islands. Chapter 10. Insular woodiness. Chapter 11. Loss of dispersibility in island plants. Chapter 13. Reproductive biology on islands.

Fosberg, F. R. 1948. Derivation of the flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Pp. 107-119 in: E. C. Zimmermann, Insects of Hawaii, Vol, 1. NHHI: 396-408

Fosberg, F. R. 1951. The American element in the Hawaiian flora. Pacific Science 5: 204-206

Gillett, G. W. 1975. The Diversity and History of Polynesian Bidens, section Campylotheca. Univ. Hawai`i. H. L. Lyon Arboretum Lecture No. 6: 32 pp.

Hoe, W. J. 1974. Annotated checklist of Hawaiian mosses. Lyonia 1: 1-45.

Magnusson, A. H. 1955. A catalogue of the Hawaiian lichens. Arkiv fur Bot. 3: 223-242. Read introductory statements.

Rabakonandrianina, E. 1980. Infrageneric relationships and the origin of the Hawaiian endemic genus Lipochaeta (Compositae). Pacific Science 34: 29-39

Skottsberg, C. 1940. The flora of the Hawaiian Islands and the history of the Pacific Basin. Proc. 6th Pan-Pacific Sci. Congress. 1939. IV: 685-707. Univ. Calif. Press.

Sohmer, S. H. and R. Gustafson. 1987. Biology and Derivation of the Hawaiian flora, pp. 20-37 in Plants and Flowers of Hawai`i. Univ. Hawai`i Press.

Wagner, W. L., D. R. Herbst and S. H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i. (2 vols.). Univ. of Hawaii Press.

Zimmerman, E. C. 1948. Insects of Hawaii. Vol. 1: 63-178. Univ. of Hawaii Press.

March 13-14 (Discussion Video: "Adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian silversword alliance" VT 110)

March 18 Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: plants. Carr. Botany Department. Adaptive radiation.


** Carr, G. D. 1987. Beggar's ticks and tarweeds: masters of adaptive radiation. TREE: 192-195. NHHI II: 292-299.

Carr, G. D. 1985. Monograph of the Hawaiian Madiinae (Asteraceae): Argyroxiphium, Dubautia, and Wilkesia. Allertonia 4(1): 1-123

Carr, G.D. 1995. A fully fertile intergeneric hybrid derivative from Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum X Dubautia menziesii (Asteraceae) and its relevance to plant evolution in the Hawaiian Islands. Amer. Jour. Bot 82: 1574-1581.

Carr, G.D., B.W. Baldwin, and D.W. Kyhos. 1996. Cytogenetic implication of artificial hybrids between the Hawaiian silversword alliance and North American tarweeds (Asteraceae: Heliantheae - Madiinae). Amer. Jour. Bot. 83: in press.

Check out Dr. Carr’s Home Page ( for more info on this topic, and for pictures of plants discussed in lecture 18.

March 20 Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: Marine mollusks. Kay


** Kay, E. A. and S. R. Palumbi. 1987. Endemism and evolution in Hawaiian marine invertebrates. TREE: 183-186. NHHI II: 346-353.

Gosline, W. A. 1955. The inshore fish fauna of Johnston Island, a Central Pacific Atoll. Pacific Science 9: 442-480. NHHI: 456-494, read 477-494.

Hourigan, T. F. and E. S. Reese. 1987. Mid-ocean isolation and the evolution of Hawaiian reef fishes. TREE: 187-191

Jokiel, P. T. 1987. Ecology. biogeography and evolution of corals in Hawaii. TREE: 179-182.

Kay. E. A. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells. B. P. Bishop Museum Press. Introduction pp. 12-17.

Kay, E. A. 1967. The composition and relationships of the marine molluscan fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Venus 25: 94-104. NHHI: 446-455

Kay. E. A. 1961. On Cypraea tigris schilderiana Cate. The Veliger 4: 36-40

March 20-21 (Discussion Video: "Species and Evolution" VT 109) QUIZ 7

March 24 - March 28 SPRING RECESS

April 1 Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: terrestrial mollusks. Kay.


** Hadfield, M. G. 1986. Extinction in Hawaiian achatinelline snails. Malacalogia 27(1): 67-81. NHHI II: 320-334.

Baldwin, D. D. 1887. The land shells of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Annual 55-63.

Cooke, C. M. 1924. Notes on the distribution of Hawaiian land shells. Proc. Pan-Pacific Sci. Congress (1923) Australia 2: 1545-1548

Cooke, C. M. and Y. Kondo. 1960. Revision of Tornatellinidae and Achatinellidae. B. P. Bishop Museum Bull. 221. Introductory portions.

Hadfield, M. G. and B. S. Mountain. 1980. A field study of a vanishing species: Achatinella mustelina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), in the Waianae mountains of Oahu. Pacific Science 34: 345-358.

Hadfield. M. G. and S. E. Miller. 1989. Demographic study of Partulina proxima. Pacific Science 43: 1-16.

Hart, A. D. 1978. The onslaught against Hawaiian tree snails. Natural History 87 (12): 46-56.

Vagvolgyi, J. 1975. Body size, aerial dispersal, and origin of the Pacific land snail fauna. Systematic Zoology 24: 465-488.

April 3 Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: insects. Kaneshiro. Center for Conservation Research and Training.


** Howarth, F.G. and W.P. Mull. 1992. Origin of the Hawaiian insect fauna. Pp. 17-29 in: Howarth, F.G. and W.P. Mull. Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. Univ. of Hawai`i Press. NHHI II: 370-377.

** Kaneshiro, K. 1988. Speciation in the Hawaiian Drosophila. Bioscience 34(4): 258-263. NHHI II: 311-319.

Carson, H. L., D. E. Hardy, H. T. Spieth and W. S. Stone. 1970. The evolutionary biology of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae. Essays in evolution and genetics in honor of Theodosius Dobzhansky. Appleton-Century Crofts. pp. 437-543.

Zimmerman, E. C. 1970. Adaptive radiation in Hawaii with special reference to insects. Biotropica 2: 32-38. NHHI: 528-534.

INSECTS OF HAWAII, A Manual of the insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including an enumeration of the species and notes on their origin, distribution, hosts, parasites, etc. Univ. of Hawai`i Press. Vol. I published in 1948, many volumes published to date, but still incomplete.

April 3-4 (Discussion Video. "The Picture Wings of Hawaii" VT 110) QUIZ 8

April 5 FIELD TRIP: This trip will be to Ka`ena Point, the northwestern tip of O`ahu. Transportation by private cars. Leave at 9 a.m., return at 5 p.m.

April 8 Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: evolution in Hawaiian Drosophila. Carson. Genetics Department.


** Carson, H.L. 1983. Genetical processes of evolution on high oceanic islands. Geojournal 7(6): 543-547. NHHI II: 259-263.

Carson, H. L. 1987. Tracing ancestry with chromosomal sequences. TREE: 203-207.

Carson, H. L., D. E. Hardy, H. T. Spieth and W. S. Stone. 1970. The evolutionary biology of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae. Essays in evolution and genetics in honor of Theodosius Dobzhansky. Appleton-Century Crofts. pp. 437-543.

Carson, H. L. 1970. Chromosome tracers of the origin of species. Science 168: 1414-1418. NHHI: 546-554.

Carson, H. L. 1982. Evolution of Drosophila on the newer Hawaiian islands. Heredity 48: 3-25.

Kaneshiro, K. Y. 1983. Sexual selection and direction of evolution in Hawaiian Drosophila. Annual Review of Entomology 28: 161-178.

Kaneshiro, K. Y. and C. R. B. Boake. 1987. Sexual selection and speciation: Issues raised by Hawaiian Drosophila. TREE: 207-212.

April 10 Evolutionary ecology of Hawaiian cave and aeolian ecosystems. Howarth. Bishop Museum.


Howarth, F. G. 1987. Evolutionary ecology of aeolian and subterranean habitats in Hawaii. TREE: 220-223.

Howarth, F. G. 1991. Hawaiian cave faunas: macroevolution on young islands. Pp. 285-295 in: E. C. Dudley (Ed.), The unity of evolutionary biology. Vol. 1. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR. 588 pp.

Howarth, F. G. 1973. The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes. I. Introduction. Pacific Insects 15 (1) : 139-151.

Howarth, F. G. 1979. Neogeoaeolian habitats on new lava flows on Hawaii Island: An ecosystem supported by windborne debris. Pacific Insects 20: 133-144.

Howarth, F. G. 1983. Ecology of cave arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 28: 365-389.

April 10-11 (Discussion Video: "Islands within islands within islands" VT 109) QUIZ 9

April 15 Evolutionary ecology of Hawaiian freshwater ecosystems. Kinzie. Zoology Dept.


** Ford, J. I. and R. A. Kinzie, III. 1982. Life crawls upstream. Natural History 91(12): 60-67. NHHI II: 391-395.

Kinzie, R. A. III. 1992. Predation by the introduced carnivorous snail Euglandina rosea (Ferussac) on endemic aquatic lymnaeid snails in Hawaii. Biological Conservation 60: 149-155.

Maciolek, J. 1969. Freshwater lakes in Hawaii. Verh. Internat. Vereins. Limnol. 17: 386-391.

Maciolek, J. 1975. Limnological ecosystems and Hawaii's preservational planning. Verh. Internat. Vereins. Limnol. 19: 1461-1467.

Maciolek, J. 1977. Taxonomic status, biology and distribution of Hawaiian Lentipes, a diadromous goby. Pacific Science 31: 355-362.

Timbol, A. and J. Maciolek. 1978. Stream channel modification in Hawaii. Part A. Statewide inventory of streams, habitat factors and associated biota. U.S. Fish wildlife service, Biological Service Program. FSW/QBS 78/16,157 p.

Williams, F. X. 1936-1946. Biological studies in Hawaiian water-loving Insects. Parts 1 through 5. Proc. Hawaiian Entomological Society, Vols. Ix-xii.

April 17 Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: fossil birds. Ziegler. Consulting Zoologist.


** Olson, S. L. and H. F. James. 1991. Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs No. 45: 1-88. NHHI II: 439-455.

** James, H. F. and S. L. Olson. 1991. Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs No. 46: 1-88. NHHI II: 456-466.

Feduccia, A. 1980. The Age of Birds. (Chapter 6: The evolution of flightlessness.) Harvard Univ. Press. 196 pp.

Olson, S. L. and H. F. James. 1984. The role of Polynesians in the extinction of the avifauna of the Hawaiian islands. In: Martin, P. S. and R. G. Klein, (Eds.). Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution. Univ. of Arizona Press, pp. 768-787.

James, H. F. and S. L. Olson. 1983. Flightless birds. Natural History 92(9):

Olson, S. L. and H. F. James. 1982a. Fossil birds from the Hawaiian Islands: evidence for wholesale extinction by man before Western contact. Science 217: 633-635.

Olson, S. L. and H. F. James. 1982b. Prodromus of the fossil avifauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 365: 1-59.

Olson, S. L. and A. Wetmore. 1976. Preliminary diagnoses of two extraordinary new genera of birds from Pleistocene deposits in the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 89: 247-258.

Stearns, H. T. 1973. Geologic setting of the fossil goose bones found on Molokai Island, Hawaii. B. P. Bishop Museum, Occasional Papers 24: 155-163.

April 17 - 18 (Discussion Video: "Manana, Island of Birds" VT 6361) QUIZ 10


April 22 Endemism and evolution in the Hawaiian biota: birds. Conant. General Science Dept.


** Freed, L.A., S. Conant and R. C. Fleischer. 1987. Evolutionary ecology and radiation of Hawaiian passerine birds. TREE: 196-203. NHHI II: 335-345.

Berger, A.J. 1970. The present status of the birds of Hawaii. Pacific Science 24: 29-42. NHHI: 432-445.

Berger, A.J. 1981. Hawaiian Birdlife. 2nd. Edition. Univ. Hawai`i Press. 260 pp.

Berger, A.J.1975. The Hawaiian Honeycreepers, 1778-1974. Elepaio35: 97-100,110-118.

Berger, A. J. 1974-75. History of exotic birds in Hawaii. Elepaio 35: 60-65, 72-80.

Hawai`i Audubon Society. 1993. Hawai`i's Birds. 4th Edition. Hawai`i Audubon Society, Honolulu.

Pyle, R. L. 1983. Checklist of the birds of Hawaii. Elepaio 44: 47-58.

Raikow, R. J. 1977. The origin and evolution of the Hawaiian Honeycreepers (Drepanidiae). Living Bird. Fifteenth Annual: 95-117.

April 24 A photographic journey through evolution Hawaiian style. Mull. Naturalist/Photographer.


Howarth, F. G. and W. P. Mull, 1992. Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. Univ. of Hawaii Press. 160 pp.

April 24 - 25 (Discussion Video: "Guided by the Nene" VT 5613) QUIZ 11

April 29 Effects of the Polynesians on Hawaiian natural history. Dye. State Archaeologist.


** Kirch, P. V. 1982. The impact of the prehistoric Polynesians on the Hawaiian ecosystem. Pacific Science 36(1): 1-144. NHHI II: 25-438.

Allen, J. 1992. Farming in Hawai`i from colonisation to contact: radiocarbon chronology and implications for cultural change. New Zealand Jour. Archaeology 14: 45-56.

Dye, T and E. Komori. 1992. A pre-censal population history of Hawai`i. New Zealand Jour. Archaeology 14: 113-128.

Kirch, P. V. 1982. Transported landscapes. Natural History 91(12): 32-35.

Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks. Univ. of Hawaii Press. 349 pp. (Read especially pp. 215-236; 284-308).

May 1 Effects of humans on the terrestrial biota of the Hawaiian Islands. Lamoureux.


** Cuddihy, Linda W. and C. P. Stone. 1990. Alteration of Native Hawaiian Vegetation. Effects of Humans, Their Activities and Introductions. Pp. 103-107: Summary of vegetation alteration in the Hawaiian Islands. Coop. National Parks Resources Studies Unit. Dept. Botany, Univ. of Hawai`i, Honolulu. NHHI II: 467-472.

** Stone, C. P. and J. M. Scott. 1985. Hawaii's native ecosystems: importance, conflicts, and suggestions for the future. Pp. 495-534 In: Stone, C. P. and J. M . Scott, (Eds.). Hawaii's Terrestrial Ecosystems: Preservation and Management. Coop. National Parks Resources Studies Unit. Dept. Botany, Univ. of Hawai`i, Honolulu. NHHI II: 473-489.

Fosberg, F. R. and D. Herbst. 1975. Rare and endangered species of Hawaiian vascular plants. Allertonia 1: 1-72.

Fosberg, F. R. 1975. The deflowering of Hawaii. National Parks and Conservation Magazine. Oct. 1975, 4-10.

Gerrish, G. and D. Mueller-Dombois. 1980. Behavior of native and non-native plants in two tropical rainforests on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Phytocoenologia 8(2): 237-295.

Graf, W. and L. Nichols, Jr. 1967. The axis deer in Hawaii. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 63: 629-734.

Grant, P.R. 1995. In Remembrance: Chloridops kona, Died ca. 1895. Linnean Soc. London, Newsletter and Proceedings 11(3):14-23.

Hart, A. D. 1978. The onslaught against Hawaii's tree snails. Natural History 87 (12): 46-57.

Juvik, J. D. and S. P. Juvik. 1984. Mauna Kea and the myth of multiple use: endangered species and mountain management in Hawaii. Mountain Research and Development 4(3): 191-202.

Lamoureux, C.H. 1994. Conserving Hawaiian biodiversity - the role of Hawaiian botanical gardens. Pp. 53-57 in: Peng, C.-I and C.H. Chou, (Eds.), Biodiversity and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Inst. Botany, Academia Sinica Monograph Series 14.

Lamoureux, C. H. 1973. Conservation problems in Hawaii. In: A. B. Costin and R. H. Groves, (Eds.), Nature Conservation in the Pacific, Australian National Univ. Press, pp. 315-319.

Lamoureux, C. H. 1968. Should the Axis deer be introduced to the island of Hawaii? Elepaio 29: 10-15.

Scowcroft, P. G. 1983. Tree cover in mamane (Sophora chrysophylla) forests grazed by sheep and cattle. Pacific Science 37: 109-119.

St. John, H. 1947. The history, present distribution, and abundance of sandalwood on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 1: 5-20.

Stone, C. P., C. W. Smith, and J. T. Tunison, (Eds.). 1992. Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawai`i: Management and Research. Univ. Hawai`i Press for Cooperative National Parks Resources Studies Unit. Dept. of Botany Univ. Hawai`i, Honolulu.

Tagawa, T. K. 1976. Endangered species in Hawaii, effect on other resource management (with response by C. H. Lamoureux). Hawaiian Botanical Society Newsletter 15: 7-21.

Tomich, P. Q. 1969. (Second Edition, 1986). Mammals in Hawaii. B. P. Bishop Museum Press, Spec. Pub. 57. 238 pp. (Read especially pp. 119-139).

Van Der Schalie, H. 1969. Man meddles with nature--Hawaiian style. The Biologist 51: 136-146.

Vitousek, P. M., L. L. Loope and C. P. Stone. 1987. Introduced species in Hawaii: biological effects and opportunities for ecological research. TREE: 224-227.

Warner, R. E. 1960. A forest dies on Mauna Kea. Pacific Discovery 13(2): 6-14.

Wester, L. and J. 0. Juvik. 1983. Roadside plant communities on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Journal of Biogeography 10: 307-316.

Yocom,, C. F. 1967. Ecology of feral goats in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. American Midland Naturalist 77: 418-451.

May 1 - 2 Presentation of student reports

May 3 FIELD TRIP: To upper Manoa Valley to examine effects of humans on terrestrial environment and biota. Saturday - Leave at 12:30 p.m., return at 5 p.m.

May 6 Effects of humans on the marine biota of the Hawaiian Islands. Kay.


** Grigg, R.W. and S.J. Dollar. 1990. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs. Pp. 439-452 in: Z. Dubinsky, (Ed.). Coral Reefs. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. NHHI II: 490-503.

** Carlton, J. Patterns of transoceanic marine biological marine invasions in the Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Sciences 41(2): 452-465. NHHI II: 504-517.

Banner, A. H. 1974. Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: urban pollution and a coral reef ecosystem. Proc. 2nd International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 685-702

Boggs, C.H. and B.S. Kikkawa. 1993. The development and decline of Hawaii’s skipjack tuna fishery. Marine Fisheries Review 55 (20; 61-68.

Galtsoff, P. S. 1933. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaii, hydrological and biological observations. B. P. Bishop Museum Bull. 107.

Grigg, R. 1993. Precious coral fisheries of Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific Islands. Marine Fisheries Review 55 (2): 50-60.

Haight, W.R., D.R. Kobayashi, and K.E. Kawamoto. 193. Biology and management of deepwater snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago. Marine Fisheries Review 55 (2): 20-27.

Johannes, R. E. 1975. Pollution and degradation of coral reef communities. Chapter 2 In: E. J. Ferguson-Wood and R. E. Johannes (Eds.), Tropical Marine Pollution.

Kirch, P. V. 1975. Excavations at sites Al-3 and Al-4: Early settlement and ecology in Halawa Valley. In: Kirch, P. V. and M. Kelly, (Eds.), Prehistory and ecology in a windward Hawaiian valley: Halawa Valley, Molokai. Pacific Anthropological Records, No. 24. B. P. Bishop Museum.

Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks. Univ. Hawai`i Press. 349 pp. (Read especially pp. 199-214, Chapter 8, Harvesting the sea)

Polovina, J.J. 1993. The lobster and shrimp fisheries in Hawaii. Marine Fisheries Review 55 (2):28-33.

Polovina, J.J. 1994. The case of the missing lobsters. Natural History 103 (2): 50-59.

Smith, S. V., K. E. Chave, and C. T. 0. Kam. 1973. Kaneohe Ray: A reef ecosystem under stress. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-TR-72-01.

Smith, S. V., et al. 1981. Kaneohe Bay sewage diversion experiment: Perspectives on ecosystem responses to nutritional perturbation. Pacific Science 35(4): 279-395.

Thursday, May 15, 1997 - 9:45 to 11:45 a.m. in St. John 011


Each student in Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands is required to undertake a project in some area in which he or she is particularly interested and to prepare a report on the Project. This project can take any of several forms. such as:

a) an original piece of research involving fieldwork and/or experimentation

b) a literature survey

c) preparation of a slide/tape or videotape interpretive guide for a short field trip (not acceptable for those students under the writing intensive (WI/) option)

Examples of a few of the kinds of topics which would be acceptable are:

- The history of any one plant or animal introduction to Hawaii

- Adaptive radiation in some group of Hawaiian organisms

- Origin of the Hawaiian flora (or insect fauna, or bird fauna, etc.)

- Evolution in some group of Hawaiian organisms

- The distribution of some organism or group of organisms

- Dispersal mechanisms in some group of Hawaiian organisms

- The effects of humans on some specific aspect of Hawaiian natural history

The report can take any appropriate form. For most research reports this would involve the standard form of a scientific paper that has an introduction in which you set forth the problem and summarize what previous workers have done, the body of the paper containing your methods and observations, a discussion and conclusions, a brief summary, and a list of literature cited. Organize your report in some logical manner and include headings and subheadings as necessary to guide the reader. Follow the style of the articles you have read for this course, or current scientific journals such as Pacific Science for documenting and referencing your statements. Make certain that any information based on previously published work or work in progress by other people, is carefully indicated and cited as such and kept separate from your own observations and conclusions. Plagiarism (using the words or ideas of another as your own, without crediting the source) is not condoned.

Reports should not exceed ten to fifteen pages in length. Slide/tape shows may utilize up to 36 to 40 slides and run up to 10 to 15 minutes. Videotapes should not exceed 15 minutes in length. Slide/tape and videotape shows should include a written list of literature consulted.

When you have selected a topic for your project, check with one of the instructors before starting to work on it. You must select your project, and have it approved by either Dr. Kay or Dr. Lamoureux, no later than Thursday, March 6, 1997 (the day of the midterm examination). The instructors will be happy to read and comment on an early draft of your paper or review an early version of your project, provided that you submit it to us two to three weeks before the due date (i.e., no later than April 3).

IF YOU ARE TAKING THE COURSE AS A WRITING-INTENSIVE COURSE you must select your project topic, and have it approved by Dr. Kay or Dr. Lamoureux no later than Tuesday, Feb. 25, since you will be required to submit a detailed outline of your paper by Thursday, March 6, 1997. We will comment on this outline and return it to you by Thursday, March 13. Then you must submit a complete first draft of the paper by Thursday, April 3. We will return this to you with comments by Thursday, April 10. Some of you may be told, after our review of your first draft to prepare the final draft. If so, that final draft should be submitted by Tuesday, April 22. Some of you, however, may be asked to prepare a second draft for our review, in which case the second draft should be submitted to the instructors by Tuesday, April 22. We will return this to you by Tuesday, April 29 and you must submit the final version of the paper by Tuesday May 6.


TUE. FEB. 25 Select topic  
THUR. MARCH 6 Submit outline Select topic
THUR. MARCH 13 Outline returned  
THUR. APRIL 3 Submit first draft Submit first draft (optional)
THUR. APRIL 10 First draft returned First draft returned (optional)
TUE. APRIL 22 Final report due
OR (if necessary)
Second draft due
TUE. APRIL 29 Second draft returned  
TUE. MAY 6 Final report due  



NOTE ON MEETING DEADLINES: The dates given above are the dates on which you are expected to finish the assignments described. You must stick to them if you expect to submit your final report on time. We reserve the option to deduct points from your final score for each day your final report is late. If, for reasons totally beyond your control, and they had better be outstanding reasons, you find you will be unable to complete your report by the April 18/April 30 deadline, consult your instructor well in advance of the deadline dates to make alternative arrangements to take a grade of I (Incomplete) in the course, and to submit your report at a later date, or you will be subject to the daily point penalty.



A. There will be two exams - a midterm on March 6 and a final on May 15. Each counts 100 points. Exams will have some short-answer questions and some essay questions. While the final will emphasize the last half of the semester, as is usual in science courses the material covered in the last part of the course will build upon that learned in the first part. To that extent the exams are cumulative, and you may be called upon to remember something in the final which was covered during the first lecture.

B. A third 100 points of your grade is based on a project which you will soon be selecting. For more information see pages 16 and 17 of syllabus.

C. Finally, during the discussion sessions we will have brief quizzes on concepts and definitions. Over the course of the semester these will total 50 points. There will be 11 quizzes, each worth 5 points. We will count only the 10 highest scores. By having 11 quizzes, you can also miss one without losing points. For this reason, no make-up quizzes are given.

Thus, all together, you will have a chance to earn 350 points.


A. Each week you must write a one-half to one page summary and review of one of the papers assigned for required reading the previous week. At the top of the page give the complete citation of the paper you are summarizing and reviewing. This paper is to be turned in during the discussion session. No numerical grades will be assigned, but the instructors will review and comment on your papers and return them the next week. We prefer that you submit these assignments in typed, double-spaced format, but will accept them in whatever legible form you can produce.

B. You are required to submit a detailed outline of your project report, and a first draft of the report for review and comment by the instructors. For more information see pages 16 and 17 of syllabus.

III. COURSE GRADE: Basically 90% or better is A, (315-350 points); 80-89% is B, (280-314 points); 70-79% is C, (245-279 points); 60-69% is D, (210-244 points); 59% or less is F, (209 points or less). If you are taking the course under the Credit-No Credit option, the grade of CR indicates C or better work, and NC is D or poorer work.. The course has many upper division and graduate students, and we do not grade on a curve - it is possible (though not probable) that everyone could make an A (or an F).

IV. DAYS TO DROP: From now through Tuesday, January 21 are THE ONLY DAYS TO DROP WITHOUT PENALTY. After Jan. 21 you will receive a "W" grade. If you're contemplating dropping, please do so right away, in order to make your spaces available to others.

From today through Monday Jan. 27 you can add courses and change grade options (and change from WI/ to non-WI/ or vice versa). We suggest that you obtain the instructor's signature for any changes, since we may have to issue closed section overrides.

Between Jan. 22 and March 14 you can drop only for good reason and only with permission of instructor AND dean. If you drop during this period you will receive a "W" grade on your report card. On and after March 15 no withdrawals are allowed except for unusual or extenuating circumstances beyond the control of the student.

[Subject: Natural Sciences; Polynesia]

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