The McNair Student Achievement ProgramThe University of Hawaii at Manoa

McNair Scholars and their Faculty Mentors

 
McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Leina'ala Bright | Major: Hawaiian Studies

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Clyde Tamaru | Department: Molecular Biosciences & Biosystems Engineering

Research Title: A Hawaiian Herbal Medicine Cabinet Through Aquaponics

Research Abstract: The Waihona Lā'au Lapa'au, or Hawaiian Herbal Medicine Cabinet naturally promotes the propagation, conservation and accessibility of Hawaiian and other medicinal plants in an urban setting. This practice was created to provide opportunities for families and communities to create a more independent, healthy lifestyle. Aquaponics, with its many intrinsic and organic qualities, was chosen as the platform for the development of this holistic program. Through the care and maintenance of the Waihona Lā'au Lapa'au multiple benefits are attainable that range from the production of Hawaiian and other herbal medicine, organic vegetables, fish to horticultural therapy. Experiential, hands on work has the potential to reinforce the human/nature connection, creating healing opportunities on many levels; spiritual, mental, emotional, physical and economical. The Waihona Lā'au Lapa'au uses this system with the intention of increasing accessibility to a variety of homeowners, renters, and homesteaders, while leaving a very modest footprint upon the environment. Combining past and present technologies may well provide the opportunities that are needed to empower our families, communities, and future generations to become better stewards of our land, while increasing our self reliance in producing our own food and medicine.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Xi Hang Cao| Major: Electrical Engineering

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Victor Lubecke | Department: Electrical Engineering

Research Title: Using the Best-Fit Ellipse Method to Compute Phase and Amplitude Imbalance in a Quadrature Doppler Radar

Research Abstract: Quadrature microwave Doppler radar is commonly used to detect periodic motion. Amplitude and phase imbalances always exist in quadrature receiver systems due to the hardware imperfections. It is important to correct for these imbalances in order to demodulate the data correctly. The ellipse correction method employs a least square fit to fit data to an ellipse which is then used for correcting the orthogonality of IQ signals, and compute the amplitude and phase imbalance of the system. Gram-Schmidt method is then applied to correct the data.

This method is based on using a segment of measured data to perform a best ellipse fit that yields imbalance factors. The accuracy of this method was verified in experiments and in simulation. It was demonstrated that the best-fit ellipse method could accurately compute the amplitude imbalance and the phase imbalance of a quadrature radar system based on the measurement data of a moving target. In practice, this method can be used to obtain quadrature imbalance factors without any modifications to the Doppler radar.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Edmar Castillo | Major: Biology

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Angela Sy | Department: Public Health Sciences

Research Title: Assessing Health Disparities Among Filipinos in Hawai'i

Research Abstract: Filipinos have been in Hawai'i for a little over a century, first coming to work in the sugar plantations. Now, according to the 2010 Census, they are the second largest ethnic group and the largest Asian ethnic group in Hawai'i. However, they face many social and health discrepancies, including high rates for cardiovascular-related diseases, smoking, and cancer. The purpose of this project is to examine social determinants of health for Filipinos in Hawai'i in order to find culturally-appropriate methods to improving their health.

Seventeen Filipino key informants involved in their community were interviewed using survey questions provided by the Hawai'i Department of Health and the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (AANCART). Observations, cultural insights and recommendations from interviewees were identified and further analyzed by nurses of Nursing Advocates & Mentors, Inc. (NAMI) and AANCART personnel.

Social determinants and underlying themes for the welfare of Filipinos were identified. Financial obligations, time constraints, language barrier, and prevailing cultural beliefs were found to be common barriers Filipinos in Hawai'i face in attaining better health. It is important to take these factors into consideration in order to create programs that would be culturally-appropriate and sensitive to the needs of the Filipino community. In isolating key important elements of Filipino culture and insights, a mutual understanding was gained between the health disparities Filipinos face and the cultural belief and practices Filipino communities display.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Mikhail Coloma | Major: Mechanical Engineering

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Marcelo Kobayashi | Department: Mechanical Engineering

Research Title: Topology and Geometry Optimization of Flapping Wings in Micro Air Vehicles

Research Abstract: A study was conducted to understand how fluid transport, topology, and geometry of wing venation affect power, lift, and drag of flapping wings in micro air vehicles by using parameter optimization software. Insect-size aircrafts are currently in development by the Air Force that would be used for surveillance, targeting, and remote sensing applications. Research on the properties of flapping wing flight of insects will provide the design requirements for production of MAV's. MATLAB code is used as the computational programming software to generate the topology and geometry as well as simulate fluid transport throughout the wing. Parameters for topology, geometry and fluid transport are optimized using a generic algorithm through the multi-objective optimization tool, DAKOTA. Results are to be analyzed to understand how the fluid transport, topology, and geometry will affect power, lift, and drag.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Laura Corley | Major: Geology & Geophysics

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Chip Fletcher | Department: School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology

Research Title: Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Historic Aerial Photographs

Research Abstract: Orthorectified aerial photomosaics are used in studies of historical shoreline change. Historical shoreline change studies are necessary to understand the impacts of coastal erosion and are used for coastal planning. Aerial photographs of Northwest Maui are currently being orthorectified and mosaiced to be used in the shoreline study for Maui County.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Tyler Daguay | Major: Entomology

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Alberto Bressan | Department: Plant & Environmental Protection Sciences

Research Title: Examining the transmission efficiencies of Maize chlorotic mottle virus by corn thrips, Frankliniella williamsi, and corn planthoppers, Peregrinus maidis.

Research Abstract: Corn is an economically important resource used in numerous forms like oils, candy, fossil fuel, as well as nutrition for humans and farm animals. With an increase of corn production, there is an increasing amount of pests that contract viruses as well. One of these viruses is Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV), one of many important pathogens on corn. When MCMV is combined with a potyvirus, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) or Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), it can form Corn lethal necrosis (CLN) known to wipe out cornfields from an estimated 92 – 100%. Hawaii's temperate climate is best suited for growing high yield in crops, corn in particular. Shipping and trade overseas could increase the probability of CLN spreading throughout corn crops globally. During the 1990s, MCMV has been detected in some Hawaiian Islands including Kauai, Maui, Molokai and even Oahu. After demolishing all infected corn in the late 18th century, MCMV has managed to reappear into crop fields yet again some two years later. Further lab research with specific corn pest insects found that corn thrips, Frankliniella williamsi, was in fact a main vector to contracting and spreading Maize chlorotic mottle virus to healthy corn crops. However, there is concern about whether or not other economically important insect vectors that transmit other viruses are able to also transmit MCMV.

Here, I will determine if the corn plant-hopper, Peregrinus maidis, an important vector of Maize mosaic virus (MMV), can also be a transmitter as well as characterize the transmission characteristics of MCMV by the corn thrips.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Ann Dang | Major: Chemistry

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. William Chain | Department: Chemistry

Research Title: o-Quinone Methides in Synthesis: Michael Additions of Ketone and Ester Enolates

Research Abstract: Ortho-Quinone methides, or o-methylene cyclohexadienones, are highly reactive species that participate in a variety of organic reactions. ortho-Quinone methides (OQMs) behave as 4p and 2p components in intra- and intermolecular cycloadditions, undergo electrocyclizations, and are susceptible to attack by a variety of nucleophiles. They act like a hybrid zwitterion and biradical and due to their highly reactive nature, it is advantageous to generate OQMs in situ at a rate comparable to their consumption. We describe herein a coupling reaction between enolates and OQMs generated in situ simultaneously in a single flask under mild conditions.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Nong Dang | Major: Biology

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Tung Hoang | Department: Microbiology

Research Title: Expressions of exoT and poxB genes within a bacterial biofilm architecture

Research Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterium that can form biofilms made up of extracellular polymers. The bacterial biofilms often associate with chronic infections in animals, including humans. Here, we want to show that gene expression within a bacterial biofilm architecture is dependent on local environmental conditions (e.g. nutrient and oxygen availabilities). This study focuses on the expressions of two well-characterized virulence genes, exoT and poxB, within a biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To achieve this, the green fluorescence protein encoding gene (gfp) was integrated immediately downstream of exoT and poxB genes, individually. The two newly engineered fusion strains were used to grow biofilm. Biofilms were cultivated on the surfaces of stainless steel coupons, with continuous flow of bacterial minimal medium (BMM), in a drip-flow reactor. Biofilms were removed from the coupon and vertical sections were obtained. Observed by fluorescence microscopy, exoT or poxB gene was highly expressed in the middle and the surface, or the bottom and the middle of the biofilm architecture, respectively. This shows that individual exoT and poxB genes were differentially expressed within the biofilm architecture. In the future, this method may be used to identify genes that can help us find a way to disintegrate bacterial biofilms.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Aliah Irvine | Major: Nat.Resources/Enviro

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Andy Kaufman | Department: Tropical Plant & Soil Science

Research Title: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Creating a Sustainable Horticulture Garden for Displaced Individuals Living in Coastal Areas of O'ahu

Research Abstract: Compared to the other States in the US, Hawai'i ranks among the highest in rates of homelessness per capita. For every 10,000 residents in Hawai'i, 47 individuals are homeless. The US national average is 22 homeless persons per 10,000 (US National Study, 2007). Lawmakers and State policies are making efforts to address this critical social issue. To promote science inquiry and education, the intention of this research project is to develop, design, and implement a horticulture program targeting displaced individuals who live displaced lifestyles on coastal landscapes. An IRB is currently pending approval to: (1) implement the one day educational workshop in horticulture and recycling; and (2) evaluate pre- and post responses from the participants (n=20). The purpose of the voluntary pre- and post- evaluation is to assess the respondents' prior knowledge of subject matter and to determine the effectiveness of this learning activity. We hypothesize that horticulture therapy will have a positive influence on improving human psycho-physiological state. The findings of this study will be given to lawmakers and policy stakeholders to inform them of alternative ways to address the homelessness situation.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Raymond Lee | Major: Biology

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Maarit Tiirikainen | Department: Cancer Research Center of Hawaii

Research Title: Feasibility of Saliva RNA Expression Profiling for Cancer Research

Research Abstract: RNA expression profiling is used for diagnostic purposes and determining personalized cancer therapy. For the purpose of this study, normal volunteer saliva samples were extracted, followed by quantification and characterization of total RNA including miRNA (microRNA). Total RNA quality is tested by PCR and miRNAs are profiled by RT-qPCR methods. Although total RNA appears degraded, multiplex PCR shows that mRNA fragments of at least 92 bp are present. Many samples have fragments between 92 and 300 bp which shows that saliva RNA is suitable for gene expression profiling by qPCR. As expected, miRNAs are present in saliva and miRNA profiling is feasible for cancer detection. Since miRNA is very short and stable (only about 20bp) miRNA profiling should be feasible in cancer research, even used in advance technology such as microarray.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Jiacheng Liang | Major: Electrical Engineering

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Aaron Ohta | Department: Electrical Engineering

Research Title: Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting

Research Abstract: The purpose of this research project was to harness energy using thermoelectric generators (TEG) with the human body as the heat source. TEG creates power by using the Seebeck effect. Named after the German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck, the Seebeck converts temperature differences directly into electricity. Although the output power is in the milli-watts range, it is still applicable for many different applications, such as laser pointer, LED, and in particular, biomedical devices such as pulse oximeter. Every TEG has been tested to assure that they work as intended. Then two TEGs are connected in series and attached to a human arm to perform testing and then gathering output power data. The result was as predicted, which showed output power in the range of 80mW to 200mW.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Colleen Macduff | Major: Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. David A. Christopher | Department: Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering

Research Title: Genome-Wide Expression Profiling with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Array

Research Abstract: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a key enzyme that mediates proper folding of nascent proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by catalyzing the reduction and oxidation of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in the polypeptide. PDIs also chaperone target proteins in the cell during trafficking.

In animals, PDIs play a key role in degenerative diseases, aging, and cellular growth, but their roles in plants are only recently being studied. In the completely sequenced genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, there are 12 known PDI genes. The deduced PDI proteins vary in the number and position of thioredoxin domains, presence of transmembrane domains and ER retention signal (KDEL). PDI8 is novel in that it contains a single thioredoxin domain (instead of two) and a single transmembrane domain. To understand the role of PDI8 in plants, it is important to determine its subcellular locations, interacting substrates and expression levels. A PDI8-specific antibody would serve as a vital tool to achieve these goals. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to produce a recombinant PDI8 protein in Escherichia coli (E. coli), purify it and use it as an antigen to generate a PDI8-specific antiserum.

The purified PDI8 protein was confirmed using SDS-PAGE immunoblot analysis using an anti-His antibody. The purification is being scaled up for antiserum production.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Aileen Maldonado | Major: Marine Biology

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Robert Richmond | Department: Zoology

Research Title: The Effect of 4-Nonylphenol on Pocillopora damicornis Growth

Research Abstract: Coral reefs play significant roles in our biosphere including providing food and livelihood for millions of people worldwide, support of major industries (fishing and tourism) and coastline protection.  High species and genetic diversity make coral reefs the tropical rainforests of the ocean.  Unfortunately the persistence of coral reefs is being threatened by anthropogenic pollution.  One such pollutant found in sewage and runoff is a compound known as 4-nonylphenol.  4-nonylphenol is an endocrine disruptor, and is found in measurable concentrations in the ocean.  Coral nubbins were used to test the effects of sublethal concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 ppb) of 4-nonylphenol on coral growth.  After one month of exposure, no significant impact on average coral growth was found.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Tristan Martinez | Major: Mechanical Engineering

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Marcelo Kobayashi | Department: Mechanical Engineering

Research Title: Topology and Geometry Optimization of Flapping Wings in Micro Air Vehicles

Research Abstract: A study was conducted to understand how fluid transport, topology, and geometry of wing venation affect power, lift, and drag of flapping wings in micro air vehicles by using parameter optimization software. Insect-size aircrafts are currently in development by the Air Force that would be used for surveillance, targeting, and remote sensing applications. Research on the properties of flapping wing flight of insects will provide the design requirements for production of MAV's. MATLAB code is used as the computational programming software to generate the topology and geometry as well as simulate fluid transport throughout the wing. Parameters for topology, geometry and fluid transport are optimized using a generic algorithm through the multi-objective optimization tool, DAKOTA. Results are to be analyzed to understand how the fluid transport, topology, and geometry will affect power, lift, and drag.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Dioreme Navasca | Major: Women's Studies

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Andy Kaufman | Department: Tropical Plant & Soil Science

Research Title: An Assessment of the Effects of Plants and Artwork in Mammography Clinics to Influence Decision Making Related to Annual Mammogram Screenings among First Generation Filipino Women in Hawai'i

Research Abstract: The screening mammography rates have increased over the last 10 years nationwide, but a review of the literature showed that disparities still exist, particularly for minority women. Though the number of breast cancer cases among Filipinos is lower than that of Caucasians, Filipinos hold the highest mortality rate from breast cancer. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among Filipino women living in the United States. Despite having a higher proportion of English proficiency than other Asian groups, first generation Filipino women, or Filipinas, specifically women 40 years and over, had the lowest mammography rates within the past year compared to Hawaiian, Japanese, and Caucasian women. This disparity was notable, given that fewer Filipinas (64.1%) were diagnosed with early stage breast cancer relative to Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women, according to the Hawai'i Tumor Registry. The disproportionate mortality rate of foreign-born Filipino women from breast cancer is enough justification to examine other factors that may be contributing to this health disparity.

As a result, this study aims to look at other factors that may be causing resistance by Filipinas to get a mammogram. This behavior-based query proposes to examine how, if any, environmental effects of plants and artwork in mammography clinics influence physiological stress responses associated with decision making of Filipinas to obtain an annual mammogram. Mammography clinics are identified by women as highly stressful due to their anticipation of pain and concerns about results of the screening. Thus examining the effects of plants on first generation Filipino women contains high intuitive appeal. Using a biofeedback machine, the respondent's psychophysiological reactions, such as heart rate (ECG), muscle contractions (EMG), brain waves (EEG), eye movements (EOG) and sweat secretion (GSR), are measured and interpreted, in addition to emotional recordings through the respondent's answers to surveys.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Lindsay Oxiles | Major: Biology

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Alberto Bressan | Department: Plant & Environmental Protection Sciences

Research Title: Developing a protocol for Immunogold labeling of Banana bunchy top virus within its aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa

Research Abstract: Developing a protocol for Immunogold labeling of Banana bunchy top virus within its aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa. This research develops a step-by-step methods and treatments for the aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa to be used in Immunogold Labeling. Insects' chemical structure are found to be more difficult and complicated to work with Immuno-research. Invertebrate protocols are more developed and popular in which case they can be applied in medical research. Insect works are also important for the understanding of infection in agricultural plants. In this case, it is the understanding the cycle of infection in banana trees by the aphid vector.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Andy Pham | Major: Electrical Engineering

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Aaron Ohta | Department: Electrical Engineering

Research Title: Solar Track

Research Abstract: The motivation of the solar track project was to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel for electric energy by increasing the efficiency of solar voltaic panels. The concept of the design was to have a system that auto-adjusts the solar panel plane until it is perpendicular to where there is the most abundant source of sunlight. The automatic system was integrated between microelectronics and mechanical structures. The built prototype of the design was a success as the system was able to auto-adjust the panel within a (+/-) 4-degree error. The next step of this project is to collect data and calculate the actual improvement of solar absorption due to the new auto system.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Laurel Pikcunas | Major: Psychology

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Andy Kaufman | Department: Tropical Plant & Soil Sciences

Research Title: People's Responses to Indoor Windowfarming

Research Abstract: Based on previous research, people have positive psychological and physical benefits when working with plants. This is a pilot study to determine responses of Hawai'i residents to caring for a window garden with an emphasis on its daily care. In this study, respondents will be given a windowfarm (vertically stacked, potted plants, in reusable bottles) and will be shown how to properly care for it. They will be asked to care for the plant daily, and record their reactions on a given questionnaire after they have cared for the plant. In order to properly prepare participants, they will attend a two hour workshop on how to properly care for an indoor vertical farm.

Objective: By identifying people's responses to caring for indoor plants, the development of specific educational programs of proper plant care as well as associated human benefits can be identified.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Justin Ragasa | Major: Linguistics

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Stefan Keller | Department: Social & Behavioral Sciences

Research Title: Drinking‐related Social Norms Among Youth in Hawaiʻi

Research Abstract: Despite the vast research done on underage drinking, little is known about Asian and Pacific Islander youth. This study explores the differences in behaviors and subjective norms, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, among youth in Hawaii. The analysis is based on a 2009 telephone survey that was completed by 592 youth aged 13-20 years across Hawaii. About 80% of the sample was Caucasian, Japanese, Hawaiian, or Filipino. Information collected was self-reported by youth. While Hawaiians reported the overall highest consumption of alcohol, differences across ethnicities in drinking behavior were not significant. Hawaiian youth had the highest scores in descriptive norms and the lowest in injunctive norms (p < 0.05), and they lived in more permissive households (p < 0.001). Filipinos reported significantly lower scores for descriptive norms than Hawaiians (p < 0.05). Alcohol prevention programs need to address Hawaiian and Filipino youth. Although there was a significant difference in subjective norms across ethnicities, future studies should examine the roles of age and gender in relation to youth alcohol consumption.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Robert Thach | Major: Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Maarit Tiirikainen | Department: Cancer Research Center of Hawaii

Research Title: Genome-Wide Expression Profiling with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Array

Research Abstract: My study focuses on microarray methodology and quality assessment of the microarray data collected from Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. I utilized samples derived from normal lung mesothelial cells that were treated with potentially carcinogenic asbestos fibers under 15 different treatment conditions. The exposure to asbestos fibers is known to cause mesothelioma, lung cancer and other cancers.  I used Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays for genome-wide expression profiling to see which genes were differentially expressed due to the exposure to asbestos in cell cultures.

Clear and consistent differential expression patterns in response to the length of the treatment was seen in the biological duplicates, further indicating that the microarray data was informative and of high quality. It conveys that Microarray technology is a powerful tool for genome-wide expression profiling, such as for identifying which genes and pathways are responding to asbestos treatment in lung mesothelium cells and potentially involved in the carcinogenic process.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): Thomas Trinh | Major: Psychology

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Kristen Scholly | Department: University Health Services Manoa

Research Title: Factors that Contribute to Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Undergraduates at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa

Research Abstract: Alcohol consumption is a health risk factor for college students. Through an Anheuser and Busch Grant, Mānoa Alcohol Project (MAP) was established to make students aware of the actual norms related to alcohol use on
campus and to address other priority health behaviors. An article pertaining to academic performance and alcohol usage in students was reviewed. The study emphasized a relationship between alcohol, sleep deprivation and academic performance. The review demonstrates that programs like MAP are 
necessary on a college campus because they help students understand the link between health and wellness and overall college success.

McNair ScholarFaculty Mentor

McNair Scholar (left): My Huong Vong | Major: Food Science & Human Nutrition

Faculty Mentor (right): Dr. Maria Stewart | Department: Human Nutrition, Food & Animal Sciences

Research Title: In vitro fermentability of tropical fruits frequently consumed in Hawaii

Research Abstract: Mango, Banana, Papaya and Pineapple are commonly consumed in Hawaii. The goal of this study is to investigate how rapidly these fruits digested and fermented by in vitro. During in vitro digestion, digestive components: a-amylase, pepsin, pancreatin, mucin, and bile were added at different time points. In vitro fermentation with healthy human fecal inoculum was carried for 24 hours under anaerobic conditions. Gas volume, pH and SCFA (short-chain fatty acid) concentration were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. SCFAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. At 8-hour time points, mango produces both more gas volume and acetated concentration than Banana, Papaya, and Pineapple. In 24 hours total there were no significant differences in individual SCFA Production. In comparison between these four tropical fruits, bacteria more rapidly fermented in Mango than Banana, Papaya, and Pineapple. Overall, these fruits may promote colon health, so it is essential to continue to live a healthy lifestyle and consume a variety of fruits and vegetables each day.