A. Ventilation 1. Laboratory ventilation is normally designed to provide eight air changes per hour. This flow is not necessarily sufficient to prevent accumulation of chemical vapors. Laboratory work shall be conducted in a fume hood, glove box, or similar device when: a. Procedures call for work with toxic substances which are volatile; i.e., evaporate at normal temperature and pressure, or b. There is a possibility the action level or PEL (see Appendix III) will be exceeded. 2. The protection provided by the laboratory fume hoods is dependent upon two important factors: a. proper use of the hood, and b. maintenance of adequate airflow through the hood. 3. The way the hood is used will determine the degree of protection it will provide. Each employee is responsible for implementing the following work practices when using a hood. a. Continually monitor air being drawn into the hood by attaching a kim wipe or light-weight strip of paper to the bottom of the sash. b. Operate the hood at the proper sash position; i.e., maximum 12 inch sash height for hoods with vertical sliding (up and down) sashes and the sashes closed as much as possible for hoods with horizontal sliding (left and right) sashes. This helps to ensure optimum protection when conducting operations in the hood. A small sash opening maximizes air velocity through the hood face and may provide additional protection from unexpected splashes or chemical reactions. c. Avoid using the hood for storage of bottles and equipment, especially along the back wall. Any apparatus that must be housed within the hood should fit completely inside the hood. Elevate the apparatus on blocks (at least 2 inches off the benchtop) to allow air to flow freely around and beneath. d. Manipulations within the hood should be performed at least 6 inches inside the face of the hood or as far towards the back of the hood as possible. This minimizes the possibility of contaminants escaping from the hood. e. Fully close the hood sash and turn off the fan (if possible) when the hood is not in use. The fan should remain on if volatile materials are being temporarily (i.e., for the duration of a current project) stored in the hood. f. Things which cause air turbulence across the face of the hood such as fans, window air conditioning units, or excessive movement should be avoided. g. Exhaust hoods do not provide adequate protection for all operations involving toxic materials. A higher level of containment should be used for procedures where minor contamination can be serious. If you are in doubt about the level of containment needed for operation, ask your PI or contact the CHO. 4. EHSO conducts annual surveys of fume hoods to ensure adequate airflow is maintained through the hood face. Face velocities should be between 80 and 120 feet per minute (fpm). Hoods that do not meet these minimum standards are considered "inadequate" and should not be used for protection from toxic or volatile materials. Contact EHSO at x65180 if you suspect the hood is not working properly. 5. At no time shall laboratory fume hood alarms be tampered with or disabled. Upon activation of the alarm work within the hood should cease and facilities and/or the EHSO must be notified. B. SPILL CLEAN-UP PROCEDURES The range and quantity of hazardous substances used in laboratories requires preplanning to respond safely to chemical spills. The cleanup of a chemical spill should only be done by knowledgeable and experienced personnel. Spill kits with instructions, adsorbents, reactants, and protective equipment should be available to clean up minor spills. A minor spill is one that does not spread rapidly, does not endanger people or property except by direct contact, does not endanger the environment, and the laboratory staff is capable of handling safely without the assistance of safety and emergency personnel. All other chemical spills are considered major and EHSO must be notified at x63202. In the event of a minor spill the following procedures shall be carried out: 1. Attend to anyone who may have been contaminated or hurt. 2. Ensure that the fume hood(s) is on. Open windows where possible to increase exhaust ventilation and if the spilled material is flammable, turn off all ignition and heat sources. 3. Secure cleanup supplies. Neutralize acids and bases, if possible. Ensure protective apparel is resistant to the spill material. 4. Control the spread of the liquid by containing the spill. 5. Absorb the liquid by adding appropriate absorbent materials from the spill's outer edges toward the center. 6. Collect and contain the cleanup residues by scooping it into a plastic bucket or other appropriate container. 7. Properly dispose of the waste as hazardous waste. 8. Decontaminate the area and affected equipment. Ventilating the spill area may be necessary. 9. Document what happened, why, what was done, and what was learned. Such documentation can be used to avoid similar instances in the future. Major incidents are almost always preceded by numerous near misses. In any event, there should be supplies and equipment on hand to deal with the spill, consistent with the hazards and quantities of the spilled substance. These cleanup supplies should include neutralizing agents (such as sodium carbonate and sodium bisulfate) and absorbants (such as vermiculite and sand). Paper towels and sponges may also be used as absorbent-type cleanup aids, although this should be done cautiously. For example, paper towels used to clean up a spilled oxidizer may later ignite, and appropriate gloves should be worn when wiping up highly toxic material with paper towels. Also, when a spilled flammable solvent is absorbed in vermiculite or sand, the resultant solid is highly flammable and gives off flammable vapors and, thus, must be properly contained or removed to a safe place. If you have questions regarding spill clean up requirements please contact EHSO at x63198. In the event of a major spill the following procedures shall be carried out: 1. Attend to anyone who may be hurt or contaminated if it can be accomplished without endangering yourself. 2. If flammable materials are spilled, de-energize electrical devices if can be done without endangering yourself. 3. Call Campus Security at x66911. C. CLOSE-OUT PROCEDURES FOR DEPARTING/RETIRING FACULTY AND STAFF Proper disposition of all hazardous materials used in laboratories is primarily the responsibility of the PI or researcher to whom a laboratory is assigned. Safe disposition of hazardous materials is required whenever a PI or researcher leaves the University or transfers to a different laboratory. The following procedures should be completed when a Principle Investigator or researcher leaves the University or transfers to a different laboratory. 1. Assure that all chemical containers are labeled with the name and hazard. All containers must be securely closed. Beakers, flasks, vials, evaporating dishes, etc. must be emptied and the contents properly disposed. Remember to check refrigerators, freezers, cold rooms, fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, bench tops, storage cabinets, stock rooms, etc. One of the most problematic situations is the sharing of storage units such as refrigerators, freezers, cold rooms, stock rooms, etc., particularly if no one has been assigned to manage the space. Shared spaces must be properly surveyed in order to locate and appropriately dispose/designate remaining chemicals. 2. Determine which chemicals are usable and transfer responsibility for these materials to another party who is willing to take charge of them. If a new user cannot be found, the materials should be disposed. 3. Controlled substances must be disposed of as specified by the DEA permit under which it is held. Abandonment of a controlled substance is a violation of the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) requirements. Permission to transfer ownership of a controlled substance to another individual must be received from DEA. 4. Remove compressed gas cylinder connections, replace cylinder caps, and return cylinders to suppliers. If cylinders are non-returnable, contact the Hazardous Materials Management Program at x63198. 5. If laboratory equipment will be left for the next occupant, clean or decontaminate it before departing the laboratory. 6. If laboratory equipment will be discarded, be aware that capacitors, transformers, mercury switches, mercury thermometers, radioactive sources and chemicals must be removed prior to disposal. Contact the EHSO for assistance. 7. Wash off fume hood surfaces and bench tops. 8. Prepare chemicals targeted for hazardous waste disposal by following procedures in Appendix VII. This process should be started at least a month before departure from the laboratory to allow ample time to properly dispose all materials. Hazardous waste pickup should be completed before the laboratory is vacated. Contact the EHSO Hazardous Materials Management Program at x63198. 9. Notify the department Chair and the Chemical Hygiene Officer at x65180 when the laboratory has been cleared.