I. Simple Sentences
A. Sentences with a Subject
The typical simple sentence in Tagalog has a subject (or
topic) and a predicate (or comment about the topic). The normal order
of these elements is Predicate then Subject. In contrast, in English
the order is Subject then Predicate.
Predicate + Subject
Tumakbo si John. John ran.
The subject can be a noun, a pronoun, a demonstrative,
an adjective, a verb, or a prepositional phrase.
Noun Subject In
terms of the way they are marked, noun subjects divide into two general
classes: personal names marked by si versus all other
nouns, which are marked by ang. Examples of sentences
with personal nouns as subjects:
Marker Personal Noun
Ngumiti si Perla.
Lumaban si Daniel.
The last two examples have subjects which are personalized
names of a dog and a cat. Non-human animate subjects when personalized
are marked by si.
Non-personal nouns are marked by ang. These
are common nouns and any inanimate nouns including what, in English,
are considered as proper nouns, such as names of places, buildings,
Ngumiti ang dalaga.
Malungkot ang Noli Me Tangere
Kin terms and civic terms are marked by either ang or si. Ang is less personal and a bit more
Marker Kin Terms
Dumating si / ang Tatay.
Marker Civic Terms
Darating si / ang Presidente.
The plural of personal nouns is formed by replacing the
marker si with sina. The plural of non-personal
nouns is formed by adding mga (pronounced manga)
Personal si sina
Non-personal ang ang mga
Kumain ang mga bisita.
Namasyal sina Donna. (Donna
Non-personal proper nouns may also be pluralized, although
the need for it seldom arises.
Magkakasinglaki ang mga San Fernando.
The San Fernando (Towns) are of the same size.
Common nouns may be personified. They take the personal
Marker Common Nouns
Pumasok na si Estudyante.
Personal names can be used as common nouns, in which case
the marker ang is used, as well as the form mga when plural.
Maganda ang Marilyn. The (name) Marilyn
Magaganda lahat ang mga Marilyn. All
the Marilyns are pretty.
Pronoun Subject The forms of pronoun subjects
are distinguished according to person: first, second, or third,
and number: singular or plural. In the first person plural,
an added distinction is made between exclusive (excluding the
hearer) and inclusive ( including the hearer). Pronouns are not
preceded by ang or si.
Pronoun Subject Set
1st Person ako kami (exclusive)
2nd Person ikaw/ka kayo
3rd Person siya sila
Ikaw usually occurs initially while ka occurs elsewhere.
Bumili ka ng saging.
Ikaw ba ang bagong dating?
The form kita (kata in some dialects), not in the
chart above, refers to the singular hearer and the speaker. It is also
used in place of the subject and the object in sentences lilke "I
Kita nga e mag-usap. Lets
the two of us talk.
Mag-usap nga kita. Lets
the two of us talk.
Nakita kita = Nakita ko ikaw. I
Ipagdadasal kita. Ill
say a prayer for you.
Demonstrative Subject Demonstratives indicate
the relative distance of objects from the speaker and the listener.
Demonstrative Subject Set
iyon that yonder
In rapid speech, the I- of the demonstrative is
dropped. The plural forms are constructed by adding ang mga before
Itapon mo ito. Itapon mo ang
Basahin mo iyan. Basahan mo ang
Adjective Subject The form of the basic Tagalog
adjectives is ma + root.
ma + hirap mahirap
ma + dali madali
When used as subject, adjectives are preceded by the subject
Kawawa ang mahirap.
Magbabayad ang malupit.
When in the plural, the first consonant and vowel of the
root is reduplicated; mga is optionally added after the marker ang.
Kawawa ang mga mahihirap
Magbabayad ang mga malulupit.
Roots that can be used as adjectives without adjectival
prefix can only be pluralized by the addition of mga to the marker.
It is incorrect to reduplicate the first consonant-vowel of the root.
Na-gong ang mga pangit. Na-gong ang mga *papangit.
Nauntog ang mga pandak. Nauntog ang mga *papandak.
Verbal Subject Verbs can also be used as subject.
They are preceded by the subject marker ang, and additionally
by mga when plural.
Verb Subject Verb Subject
Naubusan ang natulog. Naubusan ang
Naghanda na ang lalangoy. Naghanda na ang
Prepositional Phrases as Subject Prepositional
phrases can also be used as subject.
Nahulog ang nasa kusina.
Nabasag ang kay John.
The phrases can be given both singular and plural readings.
When the subject phrase expresses location, its plurality can be made
explicit by the addition of mga to the marker.
Nahulog ang mga nasa kusina.
Nabasag ang mga nasa kahon.
B. The Predicate
The Predicate can be a verb, an adjective, a noun, or
a prepositional phrase.
Nahulog si Bill.
Tinamaan ang ibon.
Batugan si Bill
Malabsa ang kanin.
Boksingero si Mike.
Nars ang girlfriend niya.
Nasa kusina si Rafael.
Bukas ang laro.
Time expressions like bukas, mamaya, kahapon, etc.
are treated as prepositional phrases, although they do not show a preposition-like
C. Subjectless Sentences
The ang phrase, which serves as the subject of
the sentence, does not occur in a special set of sentences. In these
sentences, none of the participants in the event is subject or focus
of the sentence.
Sentences with gusto like, want, followed
by a noun phrase functioning as object or goal, do not require a subject
when the object is indefinite.
Actor Indefinite Object
Gusto ng bisita ng litson.
Gusto ni Dan ng halu-halo.
When the object is definite, it must be the subject.
Actor Definite Object
Gusto ng bisita ang litson.
Gusto ni Dan ang halu-halo.
When a verb is present in the gusto sentence in a construction
similar to the English "likes to eat," or "likes to hike."
the actor-focus verb requires no subject, whereas the object-focus verb
requires a subject. Notice the linker na/-ng after the actor.
Gusto ni Dan na kumain ng litson.
Gusto ni Pedrong kainin ang litson.
Ibig and nais are synonymous of gusto.
Avoid the stilted nais. The negative of gusto is ayaw.
Ayaw ng tsuper ng ulan.
Ibig mo ba ng tubig?
D. Phenomenal Sentences
Sentences whose predicates consist of verbs starting certain
acts of nature, when inflected as -um verbs, dont show
a subject phrase.
Umulan. It rained.
Umulan nang malakas. It rained
Other roots in this class are:
araw sun Umaaraw na!
ambon drizzle Umambon kanina.
kulog thunder Kumulog kamakalawa.
The last two roots allow some flexibility in that they
may also show a subject phrase.
Dumilim ang panahon.
Lumiwanag ang panahon.
Indeed, they seem to belong to a class by themselves in
that they are the only two roots in this class that accept the verbal
Nagdilim sa salas. Nagdilim ang salas.
Phenomenal roots, when inflected as -in-verbs,
require a subject phrase.
Binaha ang Maynila.
Nilindol* ang San Francisco.
*Remember, -in- becomes ni- in roots beginning with
the sound l.
Of course when these words are used in the non-phenomenal
sense, they require a subject phrase even when the -um- affix.
Lumiwanag ang mukha ni Joaquin.
Dumilim ang pag-asa ni Grant.
Sentences that refer to time or phrases of the day are
Alas-tres na pala.
Gabi na naman.
Similarly, when inflected as -in- verbs, they require
Ginabi si Mario.
Inumaga si Damian sa madyungan.
E. Sentences with ka- Verbs
Ka- marks a recently completed action of the verb.
Like the rest of the sentences in this section, it has no subject phrase.
It is often followed by the adverbial particle lang. The recently
completed aspect is formed by the affix ka- followed by the reduplicated
first consonant-vowel of the verb root. The reduplication signals action
ka + li + linis
ka + ba + balik lang ni Lourdes. Lourdes just returned.
F. Exclamation Sentences
Sentences in which the predicate or its adverbial modifier
is made the focus of an exclamation have no subject. The focus word
is marked by ang.
Ang bilis ng babae! How fast the woman
Ang takbo ni Ben! How Ben ran!
To turn a simple sentence into an exclamation sentence:
the subject marker with a non-subject marker
Mahusay ang mekaniko --- ng mekaniko.
l Remove the affixes of the adjective or verb modifier
Mahusay ang mekaniko --- husay
l Introduce the sentence with an exclamation marker.
Mahusay ang mekaniko Ang husay ng
Adjectives are the most common word bases in this construction.
Adverb and verb word bases also occur.
Mabilis tumakbo si Bjorn. Ang bilis
tumakbo ni Bjorn.
Mabagal lumakad si Josefa. Ang bagal lumakad
Tumakbo si Kurt. Ang takbo ni
Umiyak si Martin. Ang iyak ni Martin!
When the focused word is an adjective or an adverb, the
marker anong and kay may be used instead of ang.
Anong bilis ni Ben.
Kay yaman ng Sultan.
These markers may not combine with focused verbs.
*Anong takbo ni Ben.
*Kay kain ni Dante.
When a verb has an adverbial modifier, only the modifier
can serve as the focus of the exclamation sentence.
Mabilis umusad si Nina. Ang bilis umusad
*Ang mabilis usad ni Nina.
To express the strongest exclamation, reduplicate the
adjective root, prefix it with pagka -, and introduce the sentence
Anong pagkabilis-bilis ni Ben!
Anong pagkayaman-yaman ng Sultan!
G. Intensive Sentences
An adjective predicate or an adverbial modifer may be
intensified by dropping their affixes and prefixing napaka- to
the root. The subject marker is replaced by the appropriate non-subject
the subject marker with a non-subject marker
Mahusay ang mekaniko. -- ng mekaniko
l Replace the affixes of the adjective or verb modifier with napaka-
Mahusay ang mekaniko. Napakahusay
Masaya ang piknik. Napakasaya
H. The Existential Sentence
May / mayroon sentences are often identified as
existential sentences. Existentials express:
existence of something:
May Diyos. God
exists; or, There is God.
existence of something somewhere:
May giyera sa Asya. There
is war in Asia.
existence of something owned or possessed:
Mayroon siyang pera. He has money.
Mayroon is a combination of may and roon,
the letter being a locative demonstrative. Wala is the negative form
of may / mayroon. It means non-possession or non-existence.
Walang Diyos. There
is no God.
Walang giyera sa Asya. There
is no war in Asia.
Wala siyang pera. He
has no money.
May is always followed immediately by the object
phrase. With mayroon, the object phrase may occur before or after
May alipunga si Alberto.
May masamang alipunga si Alberto
The possessor is always an ang phrase.
May konsiyensiya ang Gobernador.
When the existential expresses the existence of something
in some location, it is subjectless.
May tao sa silong.
May yelo sa bundok.
When it expresses the existence of something owned or
possessed, it has a subject, which is the possessor.
May libro si Carol.
May kalukohan si Tarcila.
When the object whose existence is asserted is a nominalized
verb, the existential may or may not have a subject depending on the
focus of the verb. An actor focus verb requires no subject, whereas
an object focus verb requires a subject.
May bumili ng saging (Actor-focus
verb has no subject)
May biniling mangga si Dante (Object-focus
verb has a subject)
II. The Verb: Aspect and Focus
Aspect indicates, by means of verbal inflection, whether
the action has been started or not, and if started, whether it has been
completed or if it is still continuing. Verbal inflection includes affixation
and/or reduplication. Reduplication is the repetition of parts of the
affix or of the root.
The three aspects of the verbs are:
* completed, for action started and terminated.
* contemplated, for action not started.
* incompleted, for action started but not yet
completed or action still in progress.
The form of the verb that does not imply any aspect is
the neutral or infinitive form. Ka- verbs, discussed
earlier, are sometimes considered to form another aspect category, referred
to as recent perfective.
The closet equivalent in English to the completed aspect
is the past tense, to the contemplated aspect the future tense, and
to the incompleted aspect the progressive.
Verbal inflection to indicate aspect differs according
to the affix class of the verb. The four verb affix classes are -um,
mag-, ma-, and mang-.
1. The -um- Verb
The neutral or infinitive form of the -um- verb
is constructed by placing -um- before the first vowel of the
verb or base. The completed aspect is similarly formed.
Root langoy to swim
alis to go away
Neutral lumangoy (-um- inserted
before first vowel of root)
Completed lumangoy (-um- inserted
before first vowel of root)
The contemplated aspect is formed by reduplicating the
first consonant and vowel of the root, or simple the vowel in roots
that begin with a vowel.
Contemplated lalangoy (The
first CV or first V of root is
In the incompleted aspect, the first (consonant)-vowel
of the root is reduplicated, and then the affix -um- is inserted
before the first vowel of the reduplicated base.
Incompleted lumalangoy (-um- is inserted in the duplicate syllable)
Here are more examples:
Root Completed Contemplated Incompleted
ulan umulan uulan umuulan
takbo tumakbo tatakbo tumatakbo
tanggi tumanggi tatanggi tumatanggi
yakap yumakap yayakap yumayakap
salubong sumalubong sasalubong sumasalubong
2. The mag- Verb
The neutral form of this class of verbs is constructed
by prefixing mag- to the verb root.
Root laba to wash
Neutral form maglaba
The completed aspect is formed by changing m- of
the prefix to n-.
The contemplated aspect is formed by reduplicating the
first syllable of the root and prefixing mag- to the base.
The incompleted aspect is formed by prefixing nag- to the verb root and reduplicating its first syllable.
Root Neutral Completed Contemplated Incompleted
dala magdala nagdala magdadala nagdadala
tanim magtanim nagtanim magtatanim nagtatanim
3. The ma- Verb
The ma- verb follows the same aspect formation
as does the mag- verb. N- replaces the m- of hte
prefix for the started action and the first consonant- vowel or vowel
of the root is reduplicated for action not terminated.
Root tulog to sleep
Neutral matulog to
Completed natulog slept
Incompleted natutulog sleeping
Contemplated matutulog will
4. The mang- Verb
The mang- affix undergoes the same m- to n- replacement for started action and reduplication for non-terminated
action, but there are some changes in the final nasal sound of the affix
as it gets influenced by the following initial sound of the root. The
first consonant of the root may drop under certain conditions. These
changes may be represented by the following rule, where p, t, k,
b, or d are initial sounds of the root or base.
mang + b => mam
mang + t => man
mang + k => mang
mang + buli mamili
mang + pulot mamulot
The consonant h, g, the semivowels y and w, and the vowels do not influence the final nasal of the prefix mang- to change.
mang + gulo manggulo
mang + huli manghuli
After the affixed verb form has undergone changes, the
second syllable is reduplicated to form the incompleted and completed
Where no changes occur, the first syllable of the root
Verb bases having initial consonants l and a few
with d retain these sounds after the final nasal of mang- has undergone the sound change.
mang + likum manlikum
mang + loko manloko
mang + lito manlito
Focus is the expression in the verb of the grammatical
role of the subject of the sentence. The role can be one of actor, object,
benefactor, location, instrument, or cause. As in Aspect, this expression
is in the form of verbal affixes. Different roles induce different affixes
on the verb.
When the subject performs the role of an actor, the verb
is in actor focus; when the subject of the sentence is an object, the
verb is in object focus, and so forth. Thus, in addition to these two
focuses, the verb may be in benefactor focus, locative focus, or causative
Focus is similar to voice, except that in Tagalog,
as shown above, the division would not be limited to the English active
(actor) and passive (object) voices.
The verbal affixes that indicate that the actor, doer,
or the originator of the action is in focus are -um-, mag-, mang-, and ma-.
Verb Affix Verb Subject Object
-um- Gumawa ang panadero ng tinapay.
The baker made some bread.
mag- Magbili ka ng gulay.
(You) sell some vegetables.
mang- Manghuli kayo ng daga
You catch some mice.
ma- Matulog na kayo.
As observed earlier, each of these focus affixes follow
unique ways of inflecting the aspect.
Object or Goal Focus
Verbal affixes that indicate that the subject of the sentence
is the object or goal of the action include the suffixes -in and -an and the prefix i-.
Verb Affix Verb Actor Object (subject)
-in Pukpukin mo ang
(You) hammer the nail.
-an Huagasan mo ang kotse.
(You) wash the car.
I- Isulat mo ang kuwento
(You) write the story.
The -in Object-Focus Suffix The neutral
form of the -in verb is formed by suffixing -in to
the verb root.
Neutral alis + in alisin
basa + in basahin
If the root ends in a vowel, -hin is suffixed to
the root rather than -in. With the addition of the suffix -in there is also a shift in stress to the next syllable toward the
end of the word.
The completed aspect is formed by placing -in before
the first vowel of the root.
Completed in + alis inalis
in + basa binasa
In the incompleted aspect, the first syllable of the root
is reduplicated and then the infix is inserted before the first vowel
of the base.
Incompleted in + alis in + basa
aalis babasa (Reduplicate
inaalis binabasa then
insert -in- before first vowel)
The contemplated aspect is similar to the neutral form
but with the first syllable of the base reduplicated.
Contemplated in + alis in + basa
alisin basahin (Attach -in at end of root,
aalisin babasahin then
reduplicate first consonant-vowel)
The I- Object-Focus Prefix The
neutral aspect of the I- verb is formed by prefixing I- to
the verb root. To this neutral form, insert the infix -in- before
the first vowel of the root and the completed aspect is formed. If instead
the first (consonant)-vowel of the neutral form is reduplicated, the
contemplated aspect is formed. If the first (consonant)-vowel of the
neutral form is reduplicated and then the infix -in- is inserted
before the first vowel of this reduplicated syllable, the incompleted
aspect is formed.
Root abot tapon
Neutral iabot itapon
Completed iniabot * itinapon
Contempated iaabot itatapon
Incompleted iniaabot* itinatapon
*Remember that the infix -in- becomes ni- before vowels and the consonants h, y, n, l.
The verbal affixes that indicate that the subject is the
location of the action or that the action is done toward that direction
include -in, -an, and pag...an.
Locative Affix Verb Actor Locative
-an Punasan mo ang
-in Balibagin mo ang
pag...an Pagsabihan mo si
-An and -in follow a consonant sound, and -han and -hin a vowel sound. There is also an accompanying
shift in stress to the next syllable with the addition of the suffix.
punas + an balibag + in pag
+ sabi + an
Neutral punasan balibagin pagsabihan
Completed pinunasan binalibag pinagsabihan
Contemplated pupunasan babalibagin pagsasabihan
Incompleted pinupunasan binabalibag pinagsasabihan
A couple of things to note: The locative suffix -in is dropped in the completed aspect, and the incompleted aspect infix -in- is inserted in the reduplicated CV in both the -an and -in verbs.
If the verb has a directional meaning, for example, balibag throw something at, the focus of the verb is sometimes referred
to as "source" or "goal" depending on the direction
of the action.
The verbal affixes that indicate that the beneficiary
of the action is the subject are generally I- or ipag-.
Verb Actor Beneficiary-Subject Goal/Object
I- Ibili mo ang Nanay ng
You buy a pair of shoes for Mother.
ipag- Ipaglaba mo ang maysakit ng
You wash clothes for the sick one.
The ipag- verbs behave like the I- verbs
except that the -in- or the indicator of the action started is
infixed in the prefix rather than in the root.
Neutral ipagluto ibili
Completed ipinagluto ibinili
Contemplated ipagluluto ibibili
Incompleted ipinagluluto ibinibili
The verbal affix that refers to anything used or acted
upon to bring about the action as subject is ipang-, usually
shortened to I-.
Verb Actor Instrument-Subject Goal
ipang Ipanghiwa mo ang
kutsilyo ng mangga.
You use the knife to cut the mango.
The ipang- verb is inflected in the same manner
as the ipag- verb. In addition, its final nasal undergoes the
same sound changes mang- undergoes.
ipang + tahi
Neutral ipangtahi, ipanahi
III. Simple Expansions
of the Basic Sentence
Identifying Other Participants
One way to expand a simple sentence is to identify the
other participants in the event, where appropriate. We typically only
report the actor and the object, making assumptions that the other participants
are either understood or inconsequential. In addition to the actor and
object participants, noun phrases may perform the roles of location,
beneficiary, or instrument. Heres a sentence that includes all
Binasag (verb, broken)
ni Sandro (actor, by Sandro)
sa kusina (location, in the kitchen)
ang alkansya (object, the piggybank)
para kay Dan (benefactor, for
sa pamamagitan ng martilyo. (instrumental, with a hammer)
As shown earlier, one of the participants is focused as
the subject or topic of the sentence; in the above example, this is alkansya. The subject word is introduced or marked by ang or si. When not functioning as subject, these phrases retain
their own markings:
Non-Subject Noun Markers
Role Personal Non-Personal
actor ni ng
goal ni ng
location kay sa
beneficiary para kay para sa
instrument sa pamamagitan ni sa pamamagitan
Based on their markers, these phrases are grouped into
two: those marked by ni and ng-phrases, thus the actor,
goal, and instrument phrases; and those marked by kay and sa,
called the sa-phrases, which include the location and beneficiary
The ng and sa-phrases have pronoun and demonstrative
counterparts. The following chart also gives the ang set that
marks the subject of the sentence.
Non -Subject Subject
Non-Personal (sg.) ng sa ang
(pl.) ng mga
sa mga ang mga
Personal (sg.) ni kay si
(sg.) 1 ko (sa)
2 mo (sa)
iyo ikaw, ka
3 niya (sa)
(pl.) 1 inclusive namin (sa)
exclusive natin (sa)
2 ninyo (sa)
3 nila (sa)
Object near speaker nito dito ito
Object near listener niyan diyan iyan
Object away from niyon doon iyon
speaker and listener
Expansion by Modification
Single-Word Modifiers Adjectives serve as
single-word modifiers of nouns. They may occur by the juxtaposition
of the adjective and noun, but also by the linking of the two words
using the linker na / -ng. The linker -ng is attached
to the first word if it ends in a vowel, or the linker -g is
attached to if it ends in -n. The linker na occurs when
the word before it ends in a consonant.
adjective + linker + noun noun + linker
lumang libro librong luma
paling na linya kalang bago
mabait na bata gulong na malambot
sapin na makapal supot na malaki
Phrase Modifiers Phrases may be used to
modify nouns. Like single-word modifiers, phrase modifiers may occur
before or after the noun modified. As well, the modifier and the noun
are linked by some form of the nasal linker depending on the last sound
of the first word (see above for the rule). Locative, possessive, benefactive,
and informational phrases are some of the kinds of phrases that may
be used as noun modifiers.
Phrase Modifier Noun Phrase
locative ang nasa kusinang bisita
ang bisitang nasa
possessive ang kay Pedrong libro
ang librong* para
informational ang tungkol kay Fe na libro
ang librong tungkol
*Note the absence of the linker before the possessor phrase ni Pedro.
Naka- Constructions as Modifiers Naka- is an adjective prefix which can be followed by nouns (limited to
things or accessories that can be worn or put on) and by verb roots.
ang babaing nakaluksa the woman (who is)
ang babaing naka-asul the woman (who is)
Taga- Constructions as Modifiers Taga-, a prefix that occurs before nouns, also occurs before verb roots
to mean "one whose occupation, work, or duty is the one expressed
by the verb."
ang sundalong tagalinis ng baril linis clean
Verbal Constructions as Modifiers Verbs
can be used as the basis of a modification structure after nouns.
Ang batang umiiyak.... The child
(who is) crying...
Modification structures involving adjective and phrase
modifiers can be given a complex structure analysis where the modifiers
represent an embedded sentence. Verbal construction modifiers as embedded
sentences are discussed in some detail in a later section.
Except for adverbs indicating time or duration of time,
verbal modification is marked by the occurrence of the linker na
/ -ng between the modifier and the verb or by the adverbial marker nang when the modifier follows the verb.
Ma- Modifiers A limited number of
combinations of ma- and a base word are used to modify the verb.
They function like adverbs of manner. The verbs occurring after these
adjectives are in the infinitive form (i.e., uninflected for aspect).
ma- modifier linker infinitive
Madalas (na) magsimba si
Marunong (na) magtrabaho si
The linker na in this construction is often dropped,
but not that linker -ng.
Verbal Modifiers Verbal forms may modify
verbs; both the verbal modifier and the modified verb usually have the
same focus. These verbal modifiers are often in the incompleted aspect
Umiiyak na umalis si Susan. Susan
Humihikbing natulog si Juliet. Juliet
Intensified Modifiers Modifiers of verbs
may be intensified by reduplication or by the addition of adverbial
intensifiers to the modifier.
(+ ubod) Tumakbo siya nang ubod nang bilis.
He ran very fast.
(+ napaka-) Tumawa siya nang napakalakas.
He laughed very loudly.
(+ base reduplication) Lumakad siya nang dahan-dahan
He walked very slowly.
(+ base reduplication Nagbihis siya nang magandang-maganda.
and linker) She dressed very beautifully.
(+ pagka- and base Umiiyak siya nang pagkalakas-lakas.
reduplication) He cried very loudly.
Modifying the Single-Word Modifier
Persons, things, and actions may be compared in terms
of degrees of equality, superiority, or inferiority. These degrees of
comparison are indicated by comparative markers.
Equality magkasing-, kasing-
Non-Equality mas, sa / kaysa (sa),
Equality To express the same degree of equality
in nouns or verbs being compared, the adjective root is prefixed by magkasing- or kasing-.
Magkasingtaas si Karla at si Frank
(sina Karla at Frank).
Non-Equality When the quality
in one noun being compared is more than the quality in the other, the
phrase markers kaysa kay or kaysa sa occurs before the
personal or non-personal noun being compared. The adjective is marked
by mas, lalo or higit na.
Mas malakas si Jaime kaysa kay Johnny.
Mas is more common: higit is on the formal
side. Kay or sa may be omitted, leaving behind kaysa.
Superlative Degree The superlative degree
of the adjective is expressed by the affix pinaka- prefixed to
the ma- adjectives or to the adjective roots that do not need
the ma- affix.
The superlative adjective usually occurs before the modified
Pinakamagandang artista siya.
Pinakamagaling na titser si Lydia.
But, to emphasize the modified noun, the order is reversed.
Artista siyang pinakamaganda.
Titser na pinakamagaling si Rhonda.
Intensified Adjectives To express high intensity
of the quality, the adjective roots are preceded by the following:
sukdulan nang sukdulan nang ganda
ubod nang ubod nang ganda
The high intensity of the quality is also expressed when
the adjectives are repeated, the two being joined by a linker.
magaling na magaling
Expansion by Compounding
Two or more syntatically equivalent units can be joined
in a coordinate structure by the use of conjunctors. These conjunctions
may occur betweeen words, phrases, or sentences.
ni... ni neither... nor
pero, subalit, ngunit, datapwat but
ikaw at ako you and I
ikaw o ako you or I
ni ikaw ni ako neither
you nor I
tanyag pero walang-kapararakan famous
Events, participants, and modifiers may be compounded.
Lumundag at kumokak ang palaka.
Pumikit at kumindat ang mama.
Lumangoy sina Pete at Abra. (compound
Kumita nang malaki ang matindi at madamdaming pelikula.
Other Types of Sentences
The basic predicate-subject order of Tagalog statements
can be reversed. If the subject is shifted to precede the predicate,
the inversion marker ay is inserted between the two elements.
Regular Order Inverted Order
Predicate Subject Subject ay Predicate
Sundalo si Ricardo. Si Ricardo
Matamis ang atis. Ang atis ay matamis.
To convert an affirmative sentence into a negative, the
negative particle hindi is placed before it.
Pilipino si Joyce. Hindi Pilipino
si Joyce. Joyce is not a Filipino.
When the subject is a pronoun, that pronoun is shifted
before the predicate and thus follows hindi.
Abala siya. Hindi siya abala. He
is not busy.
In the inverted order, hindi always follows ay and precedes the predicate.
Si Jorge ay hindi Pilipino.
Yes-no questions are usually formed by inserting the question
marker ba after the first word of a sentence. There are affirmative
yes-no questions and there are negative yes-no questions. A third type
is the tag-question.
Affirmative Yes-No Question
Abala si Jorge. Abala ba si
However, when the subject is the pronoun ka or
any one-syllable pronoun, then ba follows the pronoun.
Matipid ka. Matipid ka ba?
To construct negative yes-no questions, ba is inserted
after hindi in negative statements.
Negative Yes-No Question
Matulungin si George Hindi ba matulungin
The single-syllable pronoun ka precedes ba but pronouns having more than one syllable must follow ba.
Hindi ba siya aalis?
Tag Questions Hindi ba is a negative
tag question in Tagalog. In rapid speech, it is reduced to di ba.
Statement Tag Question
Artista siya. hindi ba? Hes
an actor, isnt he?
Response Patterns to Yes-No Questions
Question Afirmative Response
Sundalo ba si Jorge? Oo, sundalo si Jorge. Yes,
Jorge is a soldier.
Plain oo yes can stand for the whole
affirmative response. In Tagalog, it is common to agree to a negative
comment by saying oo followed by the negative statement.
Negative Question Affirmative Response
Hindi doktor si Jorge, ano? Oo,
hindi siya doktor.
Yes, he isnt a doctor.
In English, of course, a negative response is reinforced
by another-negative expression, e.g., "No, he isnt a soldier."
Negative Response In cotrast to a negative
sentence, the negative response has two occurrences of the particle hindi.
Negative Question Negative Response
Hindi siya sundalo, ano? Hindi, hindi siya sundalo
No, hes not a soldier.
Questions with Interrogative Words
The common interrogative words are:
sino who alin which
ano what ilan how
saan where kangino whom
kailan when papaano how
Sino ang dumating?
Sino ang abogado mo?
Ano ang gusto mo?
Alin ang ayaw mo?
Ilan ang babae?
Saan siya pumunta?
Kailan siya dumating?
Kangino bumili si Eleanor?
Bakit umalis si Dorotea?
Papaano nililinis ang isda?
Inversion of Interrogative Sentences To
invert a question, the ang phrase is shifted to initial position
in the sentence, which is followed by the question marker ba, the
inversion marker ay, and then the interrogative word. The question
words sino, ano, alin, and kailan allow inversion.
Ang abogado mo ba ay sino?
Ang pangalan mo ba ay ano?
Affirmative Commands Infinitive forms of
the verbs are used for commands and the actor is limited to the second
person form of the personal pronoun.
Focus Verb Pronoun Complement
Actor Maglinis ka/kayo ng bahay. You
clean the house.
Goal Kunin mo/ninyo ang damit. You
get the clothes.
Negative Commands Hwag instead of hindi is used in negative commands.
Huwag kang tumayo. Dont
you (sg.) stand.
Huwag mong inumin ang gatas. Dont
you (sg.) drink the milk.
Note the inversion of the pronoun and the verb in negative
Affirmative command: Inumin mo ang
Negative command: Huwag mong
inumin ang gatas.
The verbal prefix-paki- and the particle nga express a request. The verb stem with paki- takes an object
as the subject of the sentence. The pronoun as actor is limited to the mo/ninyo forms.
Pakiabot mo nga ang libro. You
(sg.) please hand over the book.
Note the occurrence of mo before nga and ninyo after nga. Requests of this form are usually said
with a rising intonation.
An exhortation construction expresses a wish that an action
takes place. It takes the plural pronoun tayo for actor-focus
and natin for goal-focus verbs. This imperative construction
is equivalent to the English constrction introduced by "lets."
Kumanta tayo. Lets
Linisin natin ang kotse. Lets
clean the car.
The use of nga or naman adds meaning of
politeness or mild suggestion to the exhortation.
Kumain naman tayo sa labas. Lets
(this time) eat out.
Bumili nga tayo ng pop. Lets
Kaya perhaps indicates uncertainty.
Tumawag kaya siya sa amin. Perhaps
she called my home.
Actually, the use of nga, kaya and the plural pronoun
is an indirect way of giving a command. The most direct command is sentence
1 below and the most indirect way of giving a command is sentence 4.
1. Magsaing ka. Cook rice.
4. Magsaing na kaya tayo. What if we cooked
Perhaps we should cook rice now.
More Functions of the Verb
The maka- or makapag- affix indicates that
the actor has the ability to do the action named by the verb base. Ma- is the goal-focus counterpart of both maka- and makapag- affixes. The following charts give examples of the maka- and makapag- sets.
Focus Verb Actor Object/
actor Makabubuhat siya ng
He can/ is able to lift a car.
goal Mabubuhat niya ang
The aspect forms of the maka-/ma- verbs are as
follows, illustrated for the root basa to read.
Aspect Actor Focus Object/Goal
Infinitive makabasa mabasa
Completed nakabasa nabasa
Contemplated makababasa mababasa
Incompeted nakababasa nababasa
Focus Verb Actor Object/Goal
Actor Makapagdala kaya kayo ng
He was able to bring food.
Goal Madala mo
kaya ang pagkain.
The aspect forms of makapag- and ma- -an verbs
are as follows.
Aspect Actor Focus Object/Goal
Root handa to prepare
Infinitive makapaghanda mahandaan
Completed nakapaghanda nahandaan
Contemplated makapaghahanda mahahandaan
Incompeted nakapaghahanda nahahandaan
Note that verbs having an -an goal focus affix
(e.g. laban) get a ma-... -an compound affix instead of
just ma-. Note, too, that the -ka- of the affix maka- or makapag- may be reduplicated instead of the first syllable
of the word base or root.
Maka- usually occurs with verb roots that take
the -um- and ma- affixes, whereas makapag- usually
occurs with verb roots that take the mag- affix.
Maki- is the actor-focus counterpart of the prefix paki- which makes the verb base a request form. Unlike paki-, however, maki- can also be used to ask permission to use
or partake of something owned by someone. Where no one is addressed
in a paki- request, the object may take a ng marker.
Pakiabot mo nga ang asin.
Pakiabot nga ng asin.
Note the differences in the use of maki- in the
Request Makibili nga ako ng kartolina
Makikuha nga ako ng tubig.
Permission Makitawag nga
sa telepono ninyo.
The various aspects may also be expressed with the maki- and paki- affixes. The following chart illustrates the occurrence
of the different aspect forms with both affixes.
Aspect Maki + Verb Base Paki
+ Verb Base
Infinitive makibili pakibili
Completed nakibili pinakibili
Contempated makikibili pakikibili
Incompleted nakikibili pinakikibili
In both the maki- and paki- forms, the last
syllable of the affix instead of the first (consonant-) vowel of the
base is reduplicated for the contemplated and incompleted aspects.
The Addition of Enclitics
Order of Enclitics
Enclitics (e.g., na, pa, nga, etc.) normally occur
after the first full word of the sentence. In a sentence with more than
one enclitic, the normal order is as follows:
1. nga affirmation marker
2. kaya speculation marker
3. daw, raw reported speech marker
4. din, rin too
5. lang, lamang only
6. na already
7. pa still
8. pala surprise marker
9. sana optative marker
10. yata uncertainty marker
11. naman instead
Nga when added to the sentence indicates
affirmation, assertion, or emphasis.
Pupunta nga siya sa party. (Youre
right.) he is going to the party.
Gwapo nga siya. He certainly
Tama nga nanay. Mother is definitely
Ikaw nga ang nasa parada. You (for
sure) were the one in the parade.
Kumanta nga ang artista. The actress
Daw Daw/raw marks indirect discourses.
It means according to; it is said. Daw indicates
that the sentence represents what someone other than the speaker said. Raw, a variant form of daw, occurs after vowels.
Maganda raw si Aleli. It is said
that Aleli is beautiful.
Realization: pala The use of pala in a sentence expresses a sudden realization or surprise at
an unexpected even or happening. It follows one-syllable pronouns or
Dumating pala si Romulo. So Romulo
Pala is also used to signal change of topic in
Siyanga pala, umalis na siya. And by the
way, he left.
Rejoinder: din/rin Din is commonly
used to express similarity between two situations. It is usually translatable
by too or also. A variant form is rin,
which occurs after vowel sounds.
Maganda si Cora. Si Estrelita rin.
Maganda rin si Estrelita.
Cora is pretty. And so is Estrelita.
Estrelita is pretty, too.
Na and Pa as Time Markers In general, na denotes completed section or action about to be performed
while pa denotes non-completed, continuous, resumptive action,
or action in addition to other actions, or action to be performed sometime
in the future. Pa and na usually follow the first word
in the predicate.
With non-verbal sentences beginning with time expressions, na denotes shortness of time, pa denotes length of time.
Bukas pa ang iksamen.
The exam is still tomorrow (theres plenty
of time till then).
In imperative or command sentences, na denotes
immediate performance of an action, pa denotes resumption or
continuation of the action.
Kumain ka na. Eat now.
With verbs in the contemplated aspect, na and pa have the same meanings as in the previous paragraph. However, pa can have a second meaning, that the action expressed by the verb is
an additional one not yet begun, to a series of other actions.
Kakain na ako. Ill eat
now (I havent eaten yet).
With verbs in the incompleted aspect, na denotes
completion of an action, sometimes unexpectedly prior to another action,
while pa denotes an action performed in addition to a past action.
Kumain pa ako. I have already
With adjectives, na indicates a non-existent quality
before, whereas pa indicates a continuing quality.
Maganda na siya. Shes pretty
now (she wasnt before).
With existentials (may, mayroon, wala), na indicates
the existence of something which was non-existent before, whereas pa indicates the continuing existence of something. Na with wala means non-existence of something which existed before. Pa with wala means non-existence yet.
May pera na siya. He now has
money (he didnt before).
Wala na siyang pera. He has no
May pera pa siya. He still has
Wala pa siyang pera. He doesnt
have money yet.
Lang The degree marker lang and
its variant lamang mean just, only. When modifying
a noun or adjective, lang has belittling connotation, a depreciation
of someone or someones accomplishments. The variant lamang is seldom used in casual speech.
Gwapo si Dirk, pandak lang.
Driks good-looking, except hes short.
Naman Naman is used to express
a contrast between two situations, a shift in role or viewpoint, a mild
reproach (in imperative sentences), or a critical attitude. It is often
glossed as on the other hand or instead.
(Contrast) Kuripot naman si Carmen.
Carmen (on the other hand) is stingy.
(Shift) Kumusta ka naman?
And how are you?
(Reproach) Tumahimik naman kayo.
Do keep quiet.
(Critical) Ang ingay naman dito!
How noisy it is here.
Uncertainty: yata Yata used in statements
to express uncertainty or lack of conviction
Wala yatang tao. There seems to be no
one (Im not sure).
Sana Sana is commonly used to
express a hope.
Umaaraw sana bukas. I hope the sun
Speculation: kaya Kaya expresses
speculation usually in questions.
Darating kaya siya? Do you suppose
COMPLEX SENTENCES: CONJOINING
Conjoining can be as simple as joining the sentences using
a conjunctor with hardly any change at all in the combined sentences.
Simple Sentences: Hinawakan ni Ben ang lapis.
Conjunction: Hinawakan ni Ben ang
lapis at sumulat siya.
Ben held the pencil, and he
The simple sentences are joined by the conjunctor at. The two sentences retain their equal standing syntactically with respect
to one another, that is to say, neither is subsumed under the other.
Here is an example:
Humangin nang malakas at bumagsak ang ulan.
The Function of Conjoining
Why conjoin sentences? What purpose does it serve?
Sentence conjoining allows for a more explicit expression
of certain relation ships between the events contained in the clauses.
These relationships are expressed mainly through the conjunctors, and
sometimes with the help of certain particles. A familiar relationship
is effect. Heres an example:
Effect: Napatid ang lubid, kaya
nahulog si Angela.
The rope snapped, so Angela
The conjunctor kaya makes explicit the fact
that the second event is a direct result of the event expressed in the
The rest of this chapter is about the range of relationships
between conjoined clauses in Tagalog. But first, let us look at how
some of them are expressed in English. In the examples below, give short
names for these relationships.
The man looked suspicious, so Roberta followed him.
Life takes on a nasty twist, when liquor stores close
In conjoining, the relationship between the clauses is
expressed by the conjunctor.
Clause Conjunctor Clause
Bumuhos ang ulan kaya (Effect) nabasa
Mag-jogging ka para (Purpose) lumakas
ang katawan mo.
Enclitic particles may occur in these constructions. Some
of these particles are optional. Both kasi and tuloy in
the example below are optional.
Awkward: Matanda na si Doug, pero mahilig siyang
Better: Matanda na si Doug, pero mahilig pa siyang magdisko.
In other cases, the enclitics are required to complete
the expression of a particular relationship. In the second example below, naman puts the second clause in contrast with the first clause.
Neutral: Nagsigarilyo si Pepe, at nagtabako si
Contrast: Nagsigarilyo si Pepe, at nagtabako naman si Daniel.
Our focus is the clause that carries the conjunctor; this
is typically the second clause. We start with the neutral case of no
semantic relationships or dependency between the clauses.
Conjunctor: at 'and'
Example: Namili ako kahapon at nagpunta
ako sa beach.
The most common use of at as conjunctor is to express
a neutral relationship between the clauses. It merely expresses the
observation that another event occurred simultaneously in time or in
Naglagas ang mga dahon at nalaglag ang mga
Conjunctor: at 'and'
Example: Salamat sa Diyos at dumating
The conjunctor at is also used to introduce an
explanatory clause. At here is roughly equivalent to English that in the sentence "Good that you have arrived." Here is an
Mabuti na lang at umalis si Ben.
The second clause can be any declarative sentence. But
the predicate of the first clause appears to be limited to a small set
of "judgment" adjectives, as in the above sentences, and verbs expressing
emotions as in the following list (all in the incompleted aspect):
Natutuwa, nagagalak glad
Nasusuya, nabubuwisit upset, furious
Nanghihinayang feeling angry
Nagduktor si Cutis at nag-abogado naman si Dante.
Nakikain si Dwayne samantalang nakitulog naman si Paul.
The second clause is in direct contrast to the first clause. Samantalang
naman expresses a stronger contrast than at
Inubo si Curtis at na-flu naman si
Nagmatigas si Igor, samantalang nagtapat naman si Natasha.
Conjunctor: (at) and what's more
Particles: na (first clause)
Pa (second clause)
Example: Binaha na nga ang Maynila, at nilindol pa.
The second clause expresses the idea that the even "adds
insult to injury," so to speak. The use of na
roughly equivalent to the English "on top of it all, and what's more"
as in "John lost his job, and what's more, his wife left him." The conjunctor at is optional, and in fact, is typically left out.
Nalugi na nga si Damian, at iniwanan pa ng asawa.
Conjunctors: at saka and also
At gayon din and likewise
Example: Nagluto si Karla ng pansit, at saka gumawa siya ng puto.
The second clause describes an event or states a condition
that supplements the first clause.
Naligo ako sa beach, at saka nagsiyaping
ako sa Ala Moana.
Namili ako sa Mabini, at namili rin ako
Humusay si Esper sa History, at gayon din, humusay
siya sa Math.
At gayon din is formal; avoid it.
Conjunctors: kaya (tuloy) so
therefore; so now
Kaya (nga ba)
Particle: kasi (first clause)
Example: Matiyaga (kasi) si Dindo, kaya (tuloy)
The second clause expresses the effect of the first clause. Kasi is optional, but if it occurs, it must follow the first
constituent of the first clause. The particles tuloy, nga ba, and ngayon optionally occur after the conjunctor kaya.
Conjunctor: kasi because
Dahil kasi, dahil sa
Kung dangan kasi
Example: Napangiti si Ramon, kasi naalala niya si Nancy.
The cause clause attributes a cause or offers a reason
or explanation for the event in the first sentence.
Nahuli ako, kasi naplatan kami.
The conjunctors sapagka't and palibhasa'y are
rarely used in casual conversation.
In a cause conjunction, the first clause is an effect
clause, and the second is cause. Conversely in an effect conjunction
(discussed earlier), the first clause is cause and the second is effect.
Nahuli ako (effect), kasi (cause
conjunction) naplatan kami (cause).
Naplatan kami (cause), kaya (effect
conjunctor) nahuli ako (effect).
Type A Counter-expectation
Conjunctors: pero but
gayon (pa) man
Particles: na (first clause)
Pa (second clause)
Examples: Mayaman na siya, pero nagtatrabaho pa rin siya.
The first clause is a statement that carries certain expectations.
The second clause is not one of these expectations. It asserts
the opposite of one of the expectations. In the first example, the expectation
is that anyone who has become rich should stop working.
Sentences in context give rise to any number of expectations.
A simple sentence like the following may have any number of expectations.
Nakatayo na si Arthur Handa
na siyang lumakad.
Gusto na niyang umuwi.
Maaabot na niya ang ilaw.
Mas malaki siya kay Ramon.
These expectations may turn out to be false. That is,
their negation may be true, giving rise to counter-expectations.
Nakatayo na si Arthur, pero hindi pa siya handang lumakad.
Nakatayo na si Arthur, pero ayaw pa niyang umuwi.
These sentences are much better with the particles na in the first clause, and the particle pa in the second clause.
Another set of particles that occurs in counter-expectations is nga in the first clause and naman in the second clause.
Luma nga ang bahay, pero maganda naman.
The conjunctors nguni't, datapwa't, and subali't are too formal for use in everyday speech.
Type B Counter-expectation
Conjunctor: at and
Particle: pa (second clause)
Example: Dumating si Oscar kahapon, at nakakotse pa!
As in Type A counter-expectation, the cause clause in
Type B constructions contain a statement that is not expected to occur
with the first clause.
Nagtatakbo si Mario, at lumingon pa!
In speech, the particle pa in the second clause
is heavily stressed. The expectations are:
Dapat e hindi na lumingon pa si Mario.
Dapat e hindi na sumayaw pa si Ana.
They are the negatives of the second clauses.
A common use of the second clause of an at
pa conjunction is to express sarcasm. The examples below express the
idea that the speaker does not believe that the person spoken about
is capable of performing the action, or that he considers it wrong or
inappropriate for him to do so.
Aba, at nakakotse pa!
Aba, at naka-Amerikana pa!
Type C Counter-expectation
Conjunctor: imbis na instead
Sa halip na
Example: Nanuod ng TV si Glenda, sa
halip na magluto.
The second clause states the expectation, but the conjunctor
eliminates it as an occurrence; what actually happened is stated in
the first clause.
Nagwaldas ng salapi si Dante, sa halip na nag-aral
Natulog si Minda, imbis na nagbantay siya.
The expectations are:
Dapat na nag-aral na mabuti si Dante.
Dapat na nagbantay si Minda.
In this type of counter-expectation, the second clause
states the expectation which the conjunctor negates. In the previous
two types discussed, the second clause states the opposite of the expectation.
Conjunctor: kahit (na) although; in spite
of the fact that
Example: Mabigat si Alejandro, kahit payat
The first clause is a statement with some assumptions,
and the second clause states the opposite of one of the assumptions.
In the example above, the assertion in the first clause that Alejandro
is heavy carries the assumption (at least in the mind of the speaker)
that he could not have a slim physique. The second clause states that
he in fact is slim.
Study the following conjunctions:
Mahilig pa rin si Doug sa laro, kahit
na matanda na siya.
Assertion: Mahilig si Doug
Assumption: Bata pa siya.
Maganda pa si Digna, gayong pito na ang anak niya.
Assertion: Maganda si Digna.
Assumption: Kakaunti ang
Counter-Assumption: Marami na
Malalim na, samantalang maaga pa.
Assertion: Madilim na.
Assumption: Gabi na.
Counter-Assumption: Maaga pa.
The counter-expectation clause is the assertion in a counter-assumption
conjunction. The counter-assumption clause is the assertion in a counter-expectation
conjunction. This is illustrated in the following sentences.
Counter-assumption: Nagtatrabaho pa rin siya,
kahit mayaman na.
Counter-expectation: Mayaman na siya,
pero nagtatrabaho pa rin siya.
Conjunctor: para (noon / sa gayon (ay)) so
Upang (noon / sa gayon (ay))
At nang (noon / sa gayon (ay))
Example: Magpraktis kang mabuti, para humusay ka.
The second clause serves as a purpose for carrying out
the first clause.
The linker ay may be contracted to 'y or
Kumain ka ng marami, para noon hindi ka
Magtiyaga tayo, at nang sa gayo'y bumuti
ang buhay natin.
Upang and sa gayon are infrequent in informal
Conjunctor: o or
O kung hindi man or if not
Example: Sumulat ka, o tumawag ka ng
The second conjunct is offered as an alternative to the
first. The particle kaya occurs optionally in one or the other
Pupunta ako sa inyo, o kung hindi man magpapasabi
Sa Fabian ang gawin nating presidente, o kaya
Conjunctors: (ka)pag if;
just in case
Kung (saka-) sakali (man) at
Sa sandaling the moment
Basta't as long
Tuwing every time
Example: Kakandidato si Ben, kung hihingin
ng mga tao.
The second clause expresses a condition that must be satisfied
if the first clause is to be true.
Pakakasal ako sa iyo, pag puti ng uwak.
Pupunta ako sa parke, kung hihinto ang ulan.
Pagsasabihan ko si Damian, oras na makita
Umaasim ang sikmura ni Joana, tuwing makikita
niya si Dan.
(Saka) sakali (at) adds to the remoteness of the
plausibility of the condition.
Tatawagan kita, kung saka-sakali ma't madadaan
uli ako rito.
Babalatuhan kita, kung sakali't palarin
The conditional second clause, when introduced by kung,
may be used alone to express a wish.
Kung presidetnte lang sana ako.
Used with the conjunctor at, the conditional expresses
a dare or a challenge.
At kung hindi ako umalis (, ano'ng gagawin mo)?
These constructions express a temporal relationship between
the events of the component clauses. There are a number of possibilities:
the event of the second clause may have started earlier or later or
simultaneously with the event of the first clause. The conjunction may
focus on the fact that both events are ongoing, or that they will terminate
Conjunctors: mula nang/ mula pa noong since
Sapul nang / sapul pa noong
Buhat nang / buhat pa noong
Namayat na si Dindo, buhat nang iwanan
siya ni Tarcilla.
Umunti na ang mga bata dito, sapul pa noong magkaroon ng elektrisidad.
Bumabang lalo ang tingin ko sa kanya, buhat
nang iwan niya si Virgilio.
Conjunctors: habang while
Magtiis mamaluktot habang maikli ang
Nag-volunteer si Ali, samantalang wala
Conjunctor: hanggang (sa) until
=habang hindi while not
Dumito ka muna, hanggang sa makakita
ka ng trabaho.
Dumito ka muna, hanggang hindi ka nakakakita
Sequential The event in the second
clause occurs after the event in the first clause.
Conjunctors: bago (pa) even before
At pagkatapos and afterwards
Sunog na ang bahay nang dumating ang
Nagsalita si Deo, at pagkatapos, tumutol
Nasa daan na si Max, nang bumuhos ang
malakas na ulan.
Reverse sequential The event of the second
clause occurs before the event of the first clause.
Conjunctor: pagkatapos after
Inaantok na bigla si Ester, pagkatapos niyang
uminom ng gatas.
More on Conjoining
In many conjunctions, the second clause, together with
the conjunctor, may physically precede the first clause. For example:
Kumain ka ng marami, para lumakas ka.
Para lumakas ka, kumain ka ng marami.
Pumipito pa si Roger, habang naglalakad
Habang naglalakad, pumipito pa si Roger.
Other conjunctions may not be inverted. For example:
Nalagas ang mga dahon, at nalaglag ang mga bunga.
At nalaglag ang mga bunga, nalagas ang
Kabata-bata pa ni Ramon, pero maisip na siya.
Pero maisip na siya, kabata-bata pa ni Ramon.
A third group of conjunctions allows inversion but only
if both first and second clauses are introduced by conjunctors.
Binaha ang Maynila, dahil sa umulan nang
Dahil sa umulan nang malakas kaya binaha
The following is a list of conjunctors that allow or do
not allow clause inversion.
Sa halip na, imbis na at (saka,
Kahit kaya (tuloy)
Kung (saka-) sakali (man) (at) gayun (pa) man
Sa sandaling o
(sa) oras na o kaya
basta't o kung hindi man
tuwing samantala (contrast,
buhat pa noong
Conjunctors that allow inversion with optional or obligatory
occurrence of conjunctors in the second clause.
Pagkatapos (reverse sequential)
Dahil (sa, kasi)
The following conjunctors are on the formal side and should
be used rarely if at all in casual speech: bagama't, kung saka-sakali
man at, sapul nang, samantalang, nguni't, subali't, datapwa't, gayon
pa man, upang, sapagka't.
Transition Phrases and Introducer Clauses
Transition words, phrases, and clauses connect the ideas
expressed in a series of sentences. Like conjunctors, these devices,
along with certain particles, insure the continuity of the flow of ideas
through the discourse. Although only transition clauses result in complex
sentences, we present all three here because of their functional affinity
Alalaong baga (ay) In
Alalaong baga'y bumuti na siya.
(Ang) akala ko ba (ay) I
Akala ko ba'y umuwi ka sa Pilipinas.
Ang tutuo (nito) (ay) The
truth of the matter is
Ang tutuo, naubusan na rin ako ng pera.