Still Life, 1982, Mark Tansey

Art 123--Introduction to Painting

Theory and practice of painting; material and technical procedures.


Colors--oil paints:
--titanium white—large tube (60c.c.)
--naples yellow or yellow ochre
--burnt sienna
--thalo blue
--thalo green
--cadmium yellow light
--permanent green light
--alizarin crimson
--(optional colors—burnt umber, ivory black, cadmium red light)

Mediums and solvents:
--Eco-House--neutral thin
--stand oil (cooked linseed oil)
--Damar varnish
--paint thinner (can use Eco-House)

Brushes: Bristle-type
--flats, brights, or filberts #6, #8, #10
--rounds #4, #6 (optional #10, #2)
--large household painting brush—natural hair 2”

--canvas boards
--1- 12” x 16”
--3- 16” x 20”
--primed canvas—53”width—approx. four feet

--stretcher bars—4- 18”, 6- 24”, 2- 30”
--(optional—pre-stretched canvas, 2- 18” x 24”, 1-24” x 30”)

--small sheet of glass, strip palette pad, or freezer wrap paper

Misc. items:
--glass jar with lid
--metal cans,
--liquid detergent
--mechanics hand soap
--cotton rags
--paper towels

Still Life, 1982, Mark Tansey

Still Life

*Burnt Sienna Painting

16" x 20" canvas board

burnt sienna
ultramarine blue
naples yellow
titanium white

Painting medium--to be mixed with tube paint
1 part Damar Varnish
1 part stand oil
5 parts Eco-House

Traditional Oil Painting Process
Dark > Light
Transparent > Opaque
(Background > Foreground)

     Color Properties:
warm cool
dark burnt sienna ultramarine blue transparent
light naples yellow titanium white opaque

Color/Paint Properties:

Hue -- color name
Value -- light-dark--dark better layereds
Intensity -- saturation/chroma (how much hue in the mixture)--color mixing=loss of intensity

burnt sienna (wipe off light value areas)

Layer order:
burnt sienna
ultramarine blue
naples yelow and white
(these 4 colors have equal tinting strength)

Color Perception

Chiaroscuro--light to dark
value notation--the illusion of volume

Light logic
1 highlight--the lightest, brightest spot on the object
2 lowlight/midtone--maximum color intensity--this is the local value that an object would have under ambient/indirect light
3 reflected light--the light that hits other things and bounces back on the object
4 core shadow--the shadow on on and created by the object itself
5 cast shadow--the shadow that cuts out the shining light source--its always the darkest part

Light temperature
light source
warm in studio = naples yellow--should add to white
core shadow should be cooler than midtone therefore add ultramarine blue not black

temperature in midtones and reflected light are derived from adjacent surfaces

What is oil painting?
light logic
optical mix
review of process

easier to paint over underpainting if some time as lapsed and it has dried

Art historical references:
Earliest: b/w first painted under and then color added on with glazing
Burnt Sienna Painting #1 follows this historically

lack of brush strokes
some optical mixing--see burnt sienna through ultramarine blue

Compositional scale and proportions:
these vary according to painting, and within the painting

Contrast of value:
mix pigments according to local value

Contrast of edges:
drawings have crisp edges
paintings have diffused edges

*Thalo Blue Painting

16" x 20" (or larger) canvas board

additional colors:
thalo blue
cadmium red medium
cadmium yellow light

Underpainting: thalo blue
Wipe back light values and reds and oranges

Make sure you clean your brushes;
have clean medium or your colors will not be as intense

Color Theory -- see link yyy--color wheel and pigment colors

Complementry Colors:
opposite on the color wheel
secondaries are the mixture of 2 primaries

hue matching
intensity matching
note especially the hue and intensity of the wall color
note especially the hue and intensity of the cloth color

Dry Brushing:
scrubbed on over main color for reflected light
shadows--color choice depends on the light source

sharp focus but not in overall painting
sharp painting allows viewer to select

*Alizarin Crimson Painting

Commonality of Still Life
different reference points 

need not paint entire canvas in alizarin crilmson for red painting
(best black alizarin crimson and thalo green in value and tinting strength)

Shadows are the complement of light
yellow-white light source=blue/greeen/purple shadows

on red=orange
on green=bluish
light green-blue-greenish
light blue=orangish

Art historical examples:

limited palette
smooth painting showing reflected light and shadows

greater palettes
texturing of paint

painted objects in broken patches of color
this is closer to our perceptual reality
v. paintings have a greater intensity of color
i.e. v. cowl -- 1 small white patch--rest is color =3-d
i.e. walls--graduated color--grays etc
ambient light and color
i.e. color creates subliminal emotion effect
i.e. shadows are complementary

19c. more immediate
19c. paint manufacturers created greater range and vibrance in paint tubes
square brushes first used
Manet--paint placed directly on the canvas

Part of painting is to suggest what is there

Work toward balance of whole
individual objects need to be worked through with corresponding resolution but individual objects must be a part of the whole

more complex subject matter
more selected close up composition or cropped view, creating independent design elements
red--work back for lights
eyes want to see green
patches of colors can suggest

highlight white with color and value--white needs push back to tie painting together
Cezanne--nightlight? left canvas white--used patches of color

paint texture--colors can be broken--optically mixed

warm colors come forward
cooler colors recede

Art historical examples:
similar thickness and size of textured strokes
light conveys emotion--subliminal strangeness
i.e. light green on flesh (not in normal earth envoronment)

Abstract formal modernist
only colors and shapes and textures, but has to be based on some sort of human experience

Van Gogh early painting muddy brown/gray
later pure intensity (not painting intuitively)

still life=neutral objects
mannequin not neutral--has human characteristics

*Thalo Green Painting

objects and their reflections
filiment light and colored light
second light above and close
banker's lamp transparent and reflected
contrast of lamp bulb with socket
center of interest/focus might shift during the painting process
emphasis on confidence and careful overall balance
contrasts of chalk board
small liberty with neutrals i.e. toaster
technique and approach should be directed by subject matter (in-class: directed by instructor)

*Food Painting

Wet on wet approaches--Alla Prima
buttery textures pasteries preferred

texture as thick as frosting
freshness and directness of painting

bottom to top
dark to light

1 day painting

not just appearance--rather nuances
only palinting remains of sensory source
photo to help see subject matter

Gas, Edward Hopper, 1940


*Outside-Inside Landscape
Surface/support Comparison:
canvas board -- pressure and touch--push back--different rhythm
pre-stretched canvas on stretcher bars--bounce back

unlimited depth (still life has 3-4' depth)
atmospheric perception-intensity diminished with distance
include interior--provides value specificity (window frame)

Work from back to front
simplify back
i.e. canopy of tree dark--then light
cast shadow dark then holes of light
burnt sienna ground
could be alizarin crimson under brown

How to stretch a canvas:

Monet example

*Krauss Hall Pondscape

*Final Painting

Laura Ruby
956-5250 (message only)

In progress: January 2010