May, 2008 Vol. 33 No. 2
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Mānoa at 100

Download the special insert from the May 2008 issue celebrating 100 years of excellence at UH Mānoa.

Mānoa at 100
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Published May 2008

100 Contributions

The University of Hawaiʻi concludes its first centennial with some remarkable achievements under its belt. Here’s a sampling of ways the university has made a difference during its first 100 years through—

Carey Miller
2. Carey MillerKlaus Wyrtki
6. Klaus WyrtkiBarbara Smith
14. Barbara SmithRaymond Vaught
26. Raymond VaughtEngineering Materials Testing facility
33. Engineering Materials Testing facility James Moy with case of papayas
35. James MoyKilomoana research vessel
39. Hawaiʻi Ocean Time black and white photo of a kabuki performance
41. Kabuki Arthur R. Keller
54. Arthur R. Kellerlocal reference books
66/ 67. Local reference booksresearchers studying papaya fruit
71. Disease-resistant papaya shrimp
72. Aquaculture research propagation of rare plants
78. Rare Hawaiian Plant ProjectPaul Scheuer
87. Paul ScheuerKenneth Kaneshiro
89. Kenneth KaneshiroGeoscience researcher
93. Geoscience citations



    Pioneering faculty

  1. Frederick Krauss joined UH as a professor of agriculture from 1911, explored the viability of various crops and headed the Extension Service. more
  2. Carey Miller’s 1936 book on the nutritional content of Hawaiʻi fruit remains a standard. more
  3. Doak Cox conducted the first modern post-tsunami survey in 1946 and helped plan UH’s Hawaiʻi Institute for Geophysics. He joined the faculty in 1960 and established the Joint Tsunami Research Effort, Natural Hazards Group and Water Resources Research Center. more
  4. Albert Tester, a UH zoologist from 1948 until his death in 1974, developed an international reputation for early research on tuna and extensive work on shark sensory systems.
  5. O. A. "Ozzie" Bushnell, microbiologist, medical historian and novelist, described the effect of diseases on an isolated island group in Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in Hawaiʻi 23 years after retiring from UH in 1970.
  6. Klaus Wyrtki joined UH in 1961 in time to join the International Indian Ocean Expedition and subsequent research cruises. He identified key components of the El Niño phenomenon, produced the most comprehensive and first computer-made atlas of the Indian Ocean and was named a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. more
  7. Hampton Carson joined UH’s genetics faculty seven years after his first contact with the Hawaiian Drosophila Project in 1963. His research on evolutionary genetics earned him international acclaim. more
  8. George "Doc" Wollard, head of the Hawaiʻi Institute of Geophysics 1963-1979, studied gravity and magnetism. A symposium in honor of his 66th birthday drew 100 participants from 25 countries; his name graces an Antarctic mountain and a Geological Society of America’s award.
  9. George P. L. Walker, first to hold UH’s Gordon A. Macdonald Chair in Volcanology, is considered the father of modern volcanology for his work on basaltic volcano formation around the globe. more
  10. John Craven established the Natural Energy Laboratory at Keāhole Point, proposed a floating city and predicted the Navy would stop bombing Kaho'olawe if Hawaiʻi’s people would exert political pressure.
  11. Vincent De Feo identified hormone-induced changes to the uterus during pregnancy in the 1950s, recruited medical faculty who advanced understanding of human sexuality from the 1960s, championed problem-based-learning in the 1980s and advocated for women’s health issues throughout. more
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    New disciplines

  13. Comparative philosophy was advanced by Charles Moore, who hosted the first East-West Philosophers’ Conference in 1939, and Eliot Deutsch, who joined the faculty in 1967 and edited the journal Philosophy East and West. more
  14. World History, established in 1990 with Jerry Bentley as editor, fit an institution that was the first to offer world civilization courses (in 1945) and later became the headquarters of World History Association. more
  15. Ethnomusic grew when classical pianist Barbara Smith learned koto, hula chant and Bon dance drumming after joining the music department in 1949; a master’s program was established in 1960. more
  16. Asian-focused MBA programs and one of the nation’s first federally designated Centers for International Business Education and Research have brought Shidler College of Business a top-25 ranking as it approaches its 50th anniversary. more
  17. Linguist George Grace joined UH in 1964 and introduced instruction in Austronesian language. With Robert Hsu’s concordance, the Pacific and Asian Linguistics Institute’s 7 reference grammars and 12 dictionaries took the languages of Micronesia from among the most poorly documented to among the best. Later Teresita Ramos introduced the world’s first Ilokano program. more
  18. Travel management in hospitality, tourism and transportation was integrated for the first time with founding of the School of Travel Industry Management in 1966. Faculty members focus on cultural and sustainability concerns. Economist James Mak’s new book examines a half century of local tourism development for lessons in Developing a Dream Destination. more
  19. Alternative future studies is the focus of James Dator, Hawaiʻi’s resident futurist since 1969 and a participant in the World Futures Studies Federation. UH has the only department offering an advanced degree in the subject. more
  20. Ethnobotany was introduced by a generation of students when Beatrice Krauss, the first woman to earn a BS from UH in 1926, returned to teach as a volunteer upon retirement
  21. A creole language (Hawaiian pidgin) bibliography was the first publication of the Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications. Derek Bickerton conducted a large historical study in the 1970s and wrote extensively on pidgin and creole linguistics through his retirement in 1995.
  22. Political scientist Glendon Schubert built on writings he began in the 1950s to help develop subdivisions of judicial behavior and biopolitical behavior during his UH tenure, 1971-2000. more
  23. The Center for Biographical Research, founded under George Simson in 1976, was the first such center in the country. It produced the first academic journal, Biography, on the subject; and brought life writing to the public through brown-bag talks and the Biography Hawaiʻi public television series. more
  24. Decision science founding Chair Ralph Sprague played a major role in developing the subfield of decision support systems. His framework article was one of the 25 most cited works in the information systems field during the 1980s. more
  25. Conservation biology launched as a graduate specialization in 1991, building on the 5-year-old Hawaiian Evolutionary Biology Program with fundamentals of biology and principles of resource management. more
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    Outreach

  27. After World War II, the university’s Pacific Islands experts advised the Navy and Department of the Interior in administering Micronesian islands formerly under Japanese control. Political scientist Norman Meller helped emerging Pacific nations develop their constitutions.
  28. Advancing the arts, Professor of Music Raymond Vaught founded the Honolulu String Quartet; dance Chair Carl Wolz helped create the Asia Pacific Dance Alliance and Hawaiʻi’s Artists in the Schools program.
  29. Satellite communication for educational and humanitarian purposes was proposed by John Bystrom and realized in 1969 with the Pan-Pacific Education and Communication Experiments by Satellite, or PEACESAT. Multiple technologies now link 16 Pacific Islands sites. more
  30. Award-winning exhibitions netted the UH Art Gallery five Print Casebooks Best in Exhibition Design honors during the 1980s. Recognition continues, most recently in an American Association of Museums 2008 MUSE award for Excelling the Work of Heaven. more
  31. The Citizens Chair in English, created by the Legislature in the mid-1960s, gives Hawaiʻi readers access to prominent literary figures. Pulitzer winning biographer Leon Edel held the post 1969-78.
  32. Children’s Literature Hawaiʻi, a biennial conference founded by the English department in 1982, focuses on creating, using and interpreting literature for children and teens.
  33. Philosophy in the Schools has been teaching children to think critically, express their thoughts and develop reasoning skills since the mid-1980s.
  34. Growing Old in a New Age was the ambitious undertaking of Anthony Lenzer’s Center on Aging. The series aired on national public TV in 1989 and was licensed to 40 colleges as a telecourse.
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    Research initiatives

  36. The Engineering Materials Testing Facility opened in 1915, demonstrating how construction materials behave under stress and testing concrete construction at Pearl Harbor dry dock. Work in the College of Engineering continues with materials corrosion studies.
  37. Coconut Island’s Hawaiʻi Marine Laboratory was UH’s first designated research lab. Robert Hiatt courted individuals, foundations and federal funding agencies for resources and lobbied lawmakers to designate 64 surrounding acres of coral reef a marine laboratory refuge. more
  38. Coral reef ecology has been a Hawaiian Institute of Marine Biology focus since the 1960s. Researchers documented affects of temperature change and sewage discharge and identified the phase of the moon when coral spawn.
  39. Food irradiation research began when Edward Ross brought an irradiator to Mānoa in 1964; James Moy, principal investigator since 1968, developed low-dose protocols for disinfestation of fruits for export. In 1995, Hawaiʻi became the first place in the world to use the technology. more
  40. Hawaiʻi Geothermal Project, organized in 1972, demonstrated the viability of volcanic geothermal energy as an alternate source of electricity with a pilot project in Puna before cultural and environmental concerns created resistance.
  41. Hydrogen fuel researchers launched a program in 1983 and hosted an international conference the following year. Hawaiʻi Natural Energy Institute’s work in the field was designated a National Research Success Story in 1999. more
  42. Criminologist Meda Chesney-Lind has brought national attention to tough issues, including juveniles and crime, women in the criminal justice system, gangs, violence and school safety. more
  43. Hawaiʻi Ocean Time Series has obtained physical and biogeochemical observations for 20 years at a location north of O'ahu characteristic of the central North Pacific Ocean. more
  44. Women’s Health Initiative is a 15-year project seeking answers on the interaction of diet, hormone replacement therapy and other factors with cancer, osteoporosis and other health concerns to women. UH joined 23 other institutions enrolling women beginning in 1994.
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    Scholarly achievements

  46. Kabuki, performed at UH as early as 1923, marked the opening of John F. Kennedy Theatre in 1963 and set the stage for the university’s prominence in Asian theatre. more
  47. Hawaiian language Noting increased interest, Henry Judd released a Hawaiian language text with 83 lessons in grammar and vocabulary in 1936.
  48. Asian identity In the 1930s, Ch’en Shou-yi examined 18th-century English literature’s view of China. Since 1976, anthropologist Takie Lebra has been defined cultural patterns in how Japanese women’s sense of self. more
  49. Shogun history Minoru Shinoda published the first monograph on medieval Japanese history in 1960; his translation from the Azuma Kagami, or Mirror of the East, remains an important document for Japan scholars. more
  50. Rain maps created by UH meteorologists and geographers in he 1980s remain the standard.
  51. Ancient writings Walter Maurer was a leading Sanskrit scholar. Robert Littman digitized the Codex Singiticus, the oldest Greek manuscript of the Bible. Ulrich Kozok identified and studies the oldest Malay manuscript, a legal code. more
  52. Chinese lexicography Emeritus Professor John DeFrancis created the unprecedented ABC (Alphabetically Based Computerized) Chinese English Dictionary (UH Press). Other works include a 12-volume set of educational materials on the Chinese language and an account of his 1935 trek In the Footsteps of Genghis Khan. more
  53. Seventeen academic journals are published by UH Press, on topics ranging from Buddhist-Christian studies and contemporary Chinese art to archaeology, geography and science of the Pacific/Asia region. more
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    Building namesakes

  55. John M. Young Quadrangle for the first engineering professor, whose plan for the college in 1909 included schools of law, medicine and architecture and an observatory on Waʻahila Ridge. He introduced reinforced concrete power poles to resist termites.
  56. William George Hall for the former Geneva College president who served in the French army and Italian ambulance service in World War I before becoming dean of arts and sciences in 1930.
  57. Arthur L. Andrews Outdoor Theatre for one of the early Cornell-trained faculty. He taught English and organized the first play, campus newspaper and annual.
  58. Leonora (and Earl) Bilger Hall for the chemistry faculty couple. She oversaw construction of the building, was named the nation’s outstanding female chemist in 1953 and donated $25,000 to remodel a biochemical laboratory in her husband’s memory.
  59. John A. Johnson Hall for the student leader and athlete turned sugar company manager. One of the few non-Nisei members of the 100th Battalion, he died in the Battle for Cassino.
  60. Arthur R. Keller Hall for the lawyer and civil engineer whose paving experiments produced the first campus road. He also designed a drainage and flood control system for lower Mānoa.
  61. Charles Edmondson Hall for the biologist who wrote the first text on marine animals and organized the first Pacific Science Congress in 1920.
  62. Kenichi Watanabe Hall for the physicist considered a pioneer on study of ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere. He established a vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy lab at Mānoa before his untimely death in 1969.
  63. Harold St. John Laboratory for the pioneering Pacific botanist who oversaw harvesting of Cinchona bark as an alternate source of malaria drugs during WWII.
  64. Willis T. Pope Laboratory for one of UH’s first doctoral candidates, who served as territorial superintendent of public instruction as well as a UH instructor and administrator.
  65. Wilfred Holmes Hall for the dean who oversaw growth in engineering enrollment from a few dozen to 800 in two decades following World War II. He wrote under his own name and as Alec Hudson.
  66. Allan (and Marion) Saunders Hall for the political scientist who fought for the right to wear aloha shirts in 1953, helped establish the state constitution and started the Hawaiʻi chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union in 1965.
  67. Shunzo Sakamaki Hall for the one-time student debater, actor and journalist who taught Asian history for 34 year and established summer course sessions.
  68. G. Donald Sherman Laboratory for the soil scientist and American Association for the Advancement of Science fellow who promoted Hawaiʻi’s guava and passion fruit industries.
  69. Stanl Sheriff Center for the athletic director who secured broadcast deals, balanced the books and successfully fought for the 10,000-seat domed complex, which opened one year after his death.
  70. More building names.

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    UH Press best sellers by decade more

  71. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation, by Ralph S. Kuykendall, associate professor of history (1948). Describes pre-contact Hawaiʻi, how Europeans transformed the native kingdom and foundations of modern Hawaiʻi. Later volumes cover efforts to maintain independence and the Kalākaua dynasty.
  72. Hawaiian-English Dictionary, by Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel H. Elbert, professor of pacific languages and linguistics (1957). Expanded from the 25,000-word first edition, the 1986 version, considered the most complete of any Polynesian dictionary, has sold 107,000 copies and the 1992 pocket version, 200,000.
  73. Place Names of Hawaiʻi: A Supplement to the Third Edition of the Hawaiian-English Dictionary, by Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel H. Elbert (1966). Revised and expanded in 1974 with UH language instructor Esther T. Mookini and released in paperback in 1977, the work "stands alone in American toponymic literature" according to the journal Language.
  74. Atlas of Hawaiʻi, by the UH Mānoa Department of Geography (1973). Professor R. Warwick Armstrong’s project was updated with new census data in 1983 and completely redone by UH Hilo faculty members Sonia and James Juvik and Thomas Paradise with computerized cartography in 1998.
  75. A is for Aloha, by Stephanie Feeney, professor of education, with photos by Hella Hamid (1980). UH Press’s first children’s book was created to provide tots with books portraying local experiences. It has sold about 52,000 copies and spawned three additional Feeney books.
  76. Ka Lei Haʻaheo: Beginning Hawaiian, by Alberta Pualani Hopkins, professor of Indo-Pacific language (1992). Widely used for first-year classroom and personal use, the textbook has sold about 27,000 copies, and an accompanying teacher’s guide, 7,500 copies.
  77. Integrated Korean, by the Korean Language Education and Research Center (2000). Authors include Mānoa’s Young-Geun Lee and Ho-min Sohn. It is the first volume of a five-level series that has dominated the Korean language market. The beginning textbook has sold 22,000 copies; the series and associated materials, 100,000.
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    Economic stimulus

  79. Multiplier effect In 2000, economists pegged UH’s value at about 3 percent of the gross state product, generating more than $183 million in state and local taxes. Then, as in subsequent reviews, every $1 of state general funds invested in the university generated an additional $1.88 in education-related spending. more
  80. Food crops: Papaya ringspot, identified by UH researchers in the 1940s, nearly destroyed the papaya industry once. By the time the virus appeared in previously disease-free Puna, scientists were ready with disease resistant varieties Sun Up and Rainbow, saving the $40 million industry. Other significant varieties developed by UH: the Anahu tomato, Beaumont Guava, Waimānalo eggplant, Mānoa lettuce and fast-growing, disease-resistant sweet and seed corns.
  81. Aquaculture: From the late 1960s, aquaculture has gained momentum. In the late 1980s, UH became part of Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture, one of five U.S. Department of Agriculture designated centers, and operated Marine Research Training Center demonstration projects in shrimp, fish, snail and other projects in Kāneʻohe Bay. more
  82. Black coral: A 1970s research program contributed to a profitable, well managed and sustainable $15 million industry. Work continues as the coral is threatened by alien species.more
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    Greater good

  84. An antidiscrimination proviso in the 1907 legislative charter creating UH states: "No person shall, because of sex, color or nationality, be deprived of the privileges of this institution." During World War II, Regent Hemenway helped convince authorities of the loyalty of Japanese Americans, saving many in Hawaiʻi from internment camps.
  85. Student Health Services was one of the first college health programs to offer family planning services to students.
  86. The Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace has provided a multi-disciplinary approach to peace studies since 1984. more
  87. Rare Hawaiian Plant Project was launched by Lyon Arboretum in 1991 to prevent further extinctions of native species, propagate plants for restoration projects and create a germ plasm collection of endangered species.
  88. Hawaiian sovereignty is an issue that resonates in UH classroom discussions. Mānoa Library’s Special Collections has assembled resources on the topic. more
  89. Nuclear fallout drove Marshallese islanders from their Rongelap atoll for weapons testing in the 1950s and upon discovery of lingering contamination three decades later. In 2002 the Pacific Business Center coordinated assessment, community planning and economic development strategies for their return. Journalism Professor Beverly Keever’s 2004 book News Zero explores the role the New York Times played in shaping public opinion about U.S. nuclear weapon testing.
  90. Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law, a federally funded center for education, research and outreach was established in 2005. more
  91. Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement and Political Manipulation at America’s Largest Charitable Trust in 2006 documented breaches of fiduciary duty resulting in the downfall of trustees overseeing Bishop Estate’s management of Kamehameha Schools. Co-author Professor of Law Randall Roth earlier took a critical look at Hawaiʻi society in the Price of Paradise series.
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    Discoveries

  93. Food chemistry advances were made by Alice Thompson, who analyzed the nutritional value of guava in 1915, and Alice Ball (better known for extracting chaulmoogra oil for an early Hanson’s Disease treatment) who identified the active ingredient in kava.
  94. Protein synthesis and hormonal growth research by Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics founder Theodore Winnick laid the groundwork for later cancer research. more
  95. Lōʻihi volcanism was first documented on 1970 submersible dives by UH scientists. Remote monitoring and repeated dives continue to build knowledge about the birth of volcanic islands. more
  96. The Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, Paul Scheuer’s 1973 book, was the first in any language on the topic. Appointed to the chemistry faculty in 1950, he worked well into his 80s, identifying marine toxins with potential anti-fouling and anti-cancer properties; work continues under Richard Moore. more
  97. Glowing bacteria growing on undersea volcano vents were first observed by oceanographer Dave Karl, the first UH faculty member to receive a National Science Foundation Young Investigator award. Microbiologist Maqsudul Alam was the first scientist to sequence the genome of the new bacterial species.
  98. Sexual selection, the concept that mate preference plays a role in species formation and populations faced with extinction, was first described by Hawaiian Drosophila project researcher Kenneth Kaneshiro in 1987 journal articles. more
  99. Marine mammal behavior, including dolphin cognition, song patterns, humpback migration routes and interaction between mothers and calves, are among the findings made during 17 years of research by psychologist Louis Herman and his associates. more
  100. The first Kuiper’s Belt object was discovered by astronomer David Jewitt in 1992. The ring of debris and small bodies beyond Neptune generates short-period comets and holds clues to planet formation in our solar system and dust rings around other stars. more
  101. Neutrinos have mass, a 1998 finding that challenges the Standard Model of Physics, is just one of advances in particle and astrophysics stemming from international collaborations that involve UH experimental and theoretical physicists. The core high energy physics team was assembled by Vincent Peterson beginning in the early 1960s. more
  102. Geoscience citations tallied by Science Watch placed Mānoa in the top 20 international institutions, with UH research cited 13,226 times in geoscience journals between 1991 and 2001.
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    Inventions

  104. Floriculture varieties developed for growers by UH breeders include new anthurium and orchids created first by Minoru Aragaki, followed by Haruyuki Kamemoto and now Adelheid Kuehnle. more
  105. Before cloned and green transgenic mice, Ryuzo Yanagimachi laid the groundwork in vitro fertilization for zoos, farms and human fertility clinics by identifying the conditions necessary to produce test-tube offspring. Four decades later and retired, he continues to publish on factors that enhance fertilization and influence early embryonic development. more
  106. ALOHA, the Additive Links On-line Hawaiʻi Area systems network developed by electrical engineer Norman Abramson in the 1970s to transmit data by radio waves, was a steppingstone to advanced wireless communication systems. more
  107. Towed sidescan sonar, designed by the Hawaiʻi Mapping Research Group, is charting the ocean floor. more
  108. Ciguatera testing developed by Yoshitsugi Hokama helped detect fish-borne toxin that creates unpleasant side effects in an estimated 100 cases a year in Hawaiʻi. more
  109. Termite barrier of granular material developed by entomologist Minoru Tamashiro provides cheap, permanent, non-polluting protection against destructive subterranean termites. more
  110. 100 A 16-megapixel camera developed by the Institute for Astronomy adaptive optics group made a 30-year-old telescope the best infrared imager in the world. more

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