Traditional Fishing Methods Continued
3. Papa: Fishing with bag nets
The word "papa" was used to bag nets. Different word were added to "papa" to describe the method of fishing and the type of i'a desired. Bag nets were made into all sizes and lengths and were used to enclose i'a as the lawai'a herded the catch into the bag.
4. Hīna'i: Fish traps
"Hīna'i" is the general term used to describe several types of fishing traps made of fibers from the 'ie'ie vine. Some hīna'i, for instance the hīna'i palani (trap to catch the palani fish), were large enough to fit serveral men inside. There were many ways to construct hīna'i--some resembeled long cylinders and others were simple basket shapes. The traps, often filled with bait, were set long the ocean floor. Crabs, lobsters, and fish that were attracted to the bait climbed through a funnel-like hole, which acted like a one-way valve, and became trapped in the hīna'i.
5. Kao: Fish spears
Kao, made with wooden poles up to 7 feet long, were used by lawai'a to spear fish from above and below the surface of the water. Unlike today, where most spears have three or more prongs, traditional kao only had a single sharp tip.
6. Hook and line
There were many types of hooks used to catch i'a. Hooks could be made with palaoa (whale ivory), uhi (pearl shell), makau iwi kanaka (bones of humans), makau iwi 'īlio (bones of dogs), and makau 'ea (turtle shell). Additionally hooks could be made of one piece or many. Hooks to catch octopus (makau lūhe'e) were made with a stick that connected a stone sinker to two cowry shells and two barbs. The fishlines themselves were made of strong olonā fibers and could be attached to a wooden pole or controlled by hand.
7. Hola: Stupefying fish
Lawai'a would sometimes use the juices of the 'auhuhu and 'ākia plants to stupefy fish. Juices from the bark of the plants were placed in the water and the fish would become stunned and float to the surface.
Click here to learn about Loko I'a (Hawaiian fishponds).