University of Hawaii Community Colleges
Instructional Annual Report of Program Data (ARPD)

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Review Year: College: Program:

College: University of Hawaii Maui College
Program: Administration of Justice

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Program did not provide date of the last comprehensive review.

Program Description

The Mission of the Administration of Justice Program

The Administration of Justice (AJ) Program is a learner centered program that prepares students to work in the criminal justice system; to meet the pre-service needs of those preparing for justice related careers; and to meet various in-service educational and training needs of justice professionals.  This program strives to create a student focused educational environment that emphasizes quality teaching and higher learning.  Like the University of Hawai‘i Maui College, this program serves a diverse student population, many of whom are first generation college students.  We are responsive to the needs of both traditional and non-traditional students whose life experiences and commitment to learning enrich the overall educational environment.

Program Description

The AJ program is is one of three Public Service programs at the College.  It is competency-based and stresses both theoretical and hands-on practical application of classroom information.  Upon completion of requisite coursework in AJ and Liberal Arts, students receive a Certificate of Achievement (CA) and/or an Associate in Applied Science (AAS) degree.  AJ majors are eligible also to receive as many as six Certificates of Competence in Law Enforcement, Corrections, and Private Security.  After successfully earning 12 credits at UHMC, Police Officers may receive up to 21 AJ credits for completing basic police training as required by government law enforcement agencies. 

Program staff currently include one full-time faculty/program coordinator and several part-time lecturers.

Overall Program Purpose

The Administration of Justice program serves the following broad purposes:

  1. To provide general academic knowledge, concepts, and theory pertaining to the criminal justice system.
  2. To meet the pre-service needs of those preparing for careers in law enforcement, corrections, private security and related rields.
  3. To meet various in service educational and training needs of professionals currently working in the administration of justice.

Part I. Quantitative Indicators

Overall Program Health: Cautionary

Majors Included: AJ

Demand Indicators Program Year Demand Health Call
09-10 10-11 11-12
1 New & Replacement Positions (State) 161 184 117 Unhealthy
2 *New & Replacement Positions (County Prorated) 14 16 11
3 *Number of Majors 56 79 81
4 SSH Program Majors in Program Classes 450 705 504
5 SSH Non-Majors in Program Classes 360 312 375
6 SSH in All Program Classes 810 1,017 879
7 FTE Enrollment in Program Classes 27 34 29
8 Total Number of Classes Taught 13 12 12

Efficiency Indicators Program Year Efficiency Health Call
09-10 10-11 11-12
9 Average Class Size 20.8 28.3 24.4 Cautionary
10 *Fill Rate 76% 92% 96%
11 FTE BOR Appointed Faculty 1 1 1
12 *Majors to FTE BOR Appointed Faculty 55.5 78.5 80.5
13 Majors to Analytic FTE Faculty 42.8 58.9 60.4
13a Analytic FTE Faculty 1.3 1.3 1.3
14 Overall Program Budget Allocation $70,781 $76,648 $66,987
14a General Funded Budget Allocation $70,781 $76,648 $63,895
14b Special/Federal Budget Allocation $0 $0 $0
14c Tuition and Fees Not Reported Not Reported $3,092
15 Cost per SSH $87 $75 $76
16 Number of Low-Enrolled (<10) Classes 3 0 1

Effectiveness Indicators Program Year Effectiveness Health Call
09-10 10-11 11-12
17 Successful Completion (Equivalent C or Higher) 79% 83% 83% Cautionary
18 Withdrawals (Grade = W) 15 11 7
19 *Persistence (Fall to Spring) 65% 77% 79%
20 *Unduplicated Degrees/Certificates Awarded 7 12 9
20a Degrees Awarded 6 10 9
20b Certificates of Achievement Awarded 7 9 9
20c Advanced Professional Certificates Awarded 0 0 0
20d Other Certificates Awarded 2 9 0
21 External Licensing Exams Passed Not Reported Not Reported Not Reported
22 Transfers to UH 4-yr 0 2 3
22a Transfers with credential from program 0 1 2
22b Transfers without credential from program 0 1 1

Distance Education:
Completely On-line Classes
Program Year  
09-10 10-11 11-12
23 Number of Distance Education Classes Taught 0 0 0  
24 Enrollment Distance Education Classes 0 0 0
25 Fill Rate 0% 0% 0%
26 Successful Completion (Equivalent C or Higher) 0% 0% 0%
27 Withdrawals (Grade = W) 0 0 0
28 Persistence (Fall to Spring Not Limited to Distance Education) 0% 0% 0%

Perkins IV Core Indicators
2010-2011
Goal Actual Met  
29 1P1 Technical Skills Attainment 90.10 84.00 Not Met  
30 2P1 Completion 45.00 28.00 Not Met
31 3P1 Student Retention or Transfer 56.00 69.23 Met
32 4P1 Student Placement 51.00 54.55 Met
33 5P1 Nontraditional Participation 16.25 40.66 Met
34 5P2 Nontraditional Completion 15.15 50.00 Met
Last Updated: August 6, 2012
Glossary | Health Call Scoring Rubric

Part II. Analysis of the Program

1. Demand - Occupational Demand          

 

 

07-08

08-09

09-10

10-11

11-12

Vacancies State

185

470

161

184

117

Vacancies Maui

16

19

14

16

11

 

The data identifies 117 statewide vacancies, 11 of which are on Maui.  This should be considered a conservative estimate specific to law enforcement. The Bureau of Labor Statics Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system identifies employment needs based on specific job titles and classifications.  This data does not accurately reflect industry demand and job vacancies in related areas such as public safety, court support, dispatch, counseling, private security, loss prevention and private investigation.  This program seeks to expose program majors to a broad range of employment possibilities in order to better equip them to work in the industry and find fulfilling careers.

Student Demand

Academic Year

F07

08-09

09-10

10-11

11-12

Declared Majors

22

32

56

79

81

 

For the 2011-2012 academic year, the number of declared majors showed a modest increase from 79 to 81.  Effective program coordination and active promotion have contributed to overall program growth, which appears to have slowed due to the changing economic climate and employment opportunities.             

Student Semester Hours (SSH)

 

F06

F07

F08

F09

F10

F11

SSH Program Majors in Program Classes

63

87

216

450

705

504

SSH Non-Program Majors in Program Classes

84

180

226

360

312

375

SSH All program Classes

147

267

442

810

1,017

879

 

Student Semester Hours (SSH) for both Majors and Non-program majors has decreased for the first time in over six years.  The SSH for Non-program majors increased by just over 20%, while SSH for program majors dropped 28.5%.  A 13% reduction was reported in SSH hours for all program classes. These fluctuations correlate with two industry specific classes offered during the spring semester.  These sheltered classes were not available to program majors unless they were in the industry and many of the industry professionals who registered for the course were not declared program majors.   

 

Academic Year

F07

F08

F09

F10

F11

Enrollment

17.8

15

27

34

29

 

Full-Time Enrollment (FTE) in program classes is determined by the total number of student semester hours divided by 30.  According to this calculation (879/30) the FTE for AY11-12 was 29.3, a decrease of 4.6 from the previous year.  In the two industry specific classes offered last spring, less than 8% of the enrolled students were full-time, which accounts for this decrease.

Academic Year

F07

F08

F09

F10

F11

Classes

5

9

13

12

12

 

There is a demand for an Administration of Justice program at the University of Hawai‘i Maui College.  This is supported by general community interest and feedback from the program advisory committee, industry partners, and students who continue to enroll in this unique and challenging program.  Due to the high major count (81) in relation to county positions available (11), the current demand health call for this program is unhealthy.   Employment data that is narrowly defined does not accurately reflect industry demand and current job vacancies.  Without comparing the Bureau of Labor Statics data against other sources of employment data, it is difficult to accurately determine demand.

2.      Efficiency

Average Class Size

Academic Year

F07

F08

F09

F10

F11

Registered Students

17.8

16.4

20.8

28.3

24.4

 

Fill Rate

Academic Year

07-08

08-09

09-10

10-11

11-12

Fill Percent

65.93%

64%

76%

92%

96%

 

This year’s data indicates that although the fill rate has gone down, this has not affected course fill rate. Program marketing, promotion and recruitment continue to be an emphasis and have contributed to program growth.   Significant efforts to monitor student retention and encourage persistence have also been beneficial to both students and the program.

FTE of BOR Appointed Program Faculty

Academic Year

07-08

08-09

09-10

10-11

11-12

Full-Time Faculty

1

1

1

1

1

 

One full-time faculty member administers and coordinates this program.  Classes are taught by the program coordinator and supplemented by part time lecturers. According to current data from spring 2012, the AJ program had a total of 81 declared majors at the University of Hawai‘i Maui College.   EMSI data indicates the current student/faculty ratio is 80.5 to 1.  This ratio clearly contributes to the cautionary efficiency health call.    

The only expenses incurred by the AJ program in the last year were personnel related costs for lecturers and the program coordinator.  Additional equipment, teaching materials, visual aids, supplies and services have not been purchased for several years in an attempt to exhaust previously accumulated supplies.  The Social Sciences Department furnishes other required materials to the program and the overall program cost per semester hour is unknown at this time. 

Number of Classes Enrolled under 10

Semester/Year Collected

F07

08-09

09-10

10-11

11-12

Low Enrolled Class

1

2

3

0

1

 

Upon initial assessment, it would appear that this program is extremely efficient considering the number of student majors, minimal overall cost and a healthy fill rate at 96%.  However, the efficiency of the program is identified as cautionary.  Institutional data recognize the ideal student/faculty ratio as 60:1.  The current ratio of 80.5 to 1 is beyond the upper limits of a single person program.  It is clear that this program is making every attempt to work as efficiently as possible however without the addition of another full-time faculty or a reduction in program majors the efficiency health call will continue to be cautionary.

3.      Effectiveness

Persistence of Majors from Fall to Spring

Semester/Year Collected

F07

08-09

09-10

10-11

11-12

Administration of Justice

50%

63%

65%

74%

79%

 

Significant efforts to monitor student retention and encourage persistence have been beneficial to both students and the program.  Over the last five years, persistence numbers have continued to increase and currently stand at 79%.  This is the highest persistence rate since fall 2005. 

Degrees and Certificates Awarded

Academic Year

2007-8

2008-9

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

Awards Conferred

0

0

7

12

9

 

Adjusted Degrees and Certificates Earned

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

AASDegree

0

2

6

10

9

 

Certificates Earned

AJCertificate

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Competence/ Achievement

0

4

9

18

9

 

A total of 18 degrees and certificates were awarded to 9 students following the spring 2012 semester.  Although multiple degrees and certificates were awarded, there were 7 withdrawals which diminished the program’s perceived effectiveness.  In order to minimize student decline, program orientations, faculty advising and student mentoring are being employed throughout the school year.  By working in partnership with the counseling department and campus support services, we hope to reduce student withdraws and become more a more effective program.

Perkins Data

Although the overall effectiveness for the Administration of Justice program is rated as Cautionary, the Administration of Justice Program has met or exceeded all but two of the goals set by the Perkins IV Core Indicators.  

Program Analysis

The Administration of Justice Program seeks to provide educational opportunities to a diverse community of learners and prepare them for employment in a sensitive area of our community where high-quality education will make a significant difference.   As the job market becomes more competitive, employers are going to become increasingly selective in the quality of potential employees.  Students who receive a quality education will stand out as quality employees.   Fortunately, the demand by security and enforcement related industries has not decreased the current job market in Maui County.

In addition to granting an Associate in Applied Science degree, the program offers several certificates and provides courses for personal and professional job skill development.  We are fortunate that the importance of education is recognized and encouraged by our industry considering that many entry-level jobs do not require any post-secondary school education.  We support an educated workforce and encourage our students to continue their education beyond the associate degree.  This program assists students reach goals of higher education and encourages graduates to continue on to bachelor degree programs within the University of Hawai‘i system.

According to the program data, overall program health is cautionary in spite of the fact that declared  majors, class fill rates and successful completion numbers are high.  It appears that in addition to effective marketing, greater consistency and stability has benefitted this program.  With the effective support of the Program Coordinator, this program will continue to benefit UHMC students, the community and industry partners. 

Other than instructor positions, this program has been able to function without incurring substantial costs for facilities or equipment.  Student advising has become an integral component of this program.  When caught and addressed early, problems in a student’s academic career can be avoided altogether.

The AJ Program is continuing to fulfill its Memorandum of Understanding with the Maui Police Department, enabling police recruits to receive 21 credits for successful completion of the MPD Police Recruit School after earning 12 credits at the College.  The memorandum is currently under evaluation by the AJ program coordinator and MPD’s Plans and Training Division.  This is to ensure that it continues to fulfill the high academic and professional standards of UHMC.

The Maui Police Department, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Maui Community Corrections Center and other industry partners have advised strongly that UHMC continue to expand the AJ program.   There is continued interest in working with the College on curriculum development including updating courses and placing more emphasis on additional liberal arts areas such as communication skills, effective note taking and report writing, keyboarding, cultural sensitivity, counseling and Hawaiian Language.  These changes will better prepare graduates of this program for the working environment they will enter. 

The AJ Program Advisory Committee has traditionally had a large advisory group that gives feedback that directly affects the Program.  Since the members are all active in the community, and most are engaged in the Administration of Justice professions, their input is critical to the success of the program.  The AJ program’s Student Learning Outcomes and assessment practices were the primary focus of the most recent advisory meetings.  The committee supported the current program SLO’s and gave positive feedback on possible assessment activities that might add greater relevancy to student learning.  

Part III. Action Plan

Goals are an integral part of a healthy program and are necessary to fulfill the purpose of this program.  For the 2012-2013 academic year, the AJ program has elected to continue working toward accomplishing the program goals developed in 2011-2012.

Program Goals for 2012-2013

Actively promote the program with an emphasis on individuals currently working in the industry. 

Develop new curriculum and courses that support new and growing sectors of the industry.

Increase student retention and persistence by assisting students develop and meet their educational goals.

Continue to develop and refine a comprehensive system of authentic assessment to further align campus, course and student learning outcomes.

Planned Changes due to Assessment Evidence

Current and future assessment activities are intended to directly address all of the current program goals:  

Part IV. Resource Implications

Currently, one full-time, non-tenure track faculty member coordinates the Administration of Justice Program.  This faculty member also teaches the majority of 190V experimental courses and courses in Political Science and Sociology.  Course instruction is supplemented by the addition of one to three lecturers per semester.  Each lecturer teaches specialized topics and are utilized when course-scheduling conflicts occur.

As with other one-faculty programs, Administration of Justice only draws on a small amount of college resources to fulfill it goals.  With a minimal budget, this program has been able to keep abreast with current trends in crime detection, prevention and analysis.  Significant technological advances in criminalistics, corrections and private security have been made since this programs initiation in 1971.  In order to meet the growing demands of the job market, additional resources may be required in the future. 

Currently, Administration of Justice is part of the Social Sciences Department, which adequately supports this program by supplying teaching materials, supplies and clerical support.  As evidenced by the program data, the AJ program has improved significantly over the last 5 years.  The program has grown from 19 majors in 2006 to 80 majors in 2012.  Although promising, the 80:1 student teacher ratio has resulted in a unhealthy call in program efficiency.  It is evident that this program will require additional faculty support if this growth continues.  One additional permanent, general funded position would add greater stability to the program and support students in achieving their academic goals.

This Document Submitted to ARPD October 26, 2012

Program Student Learning Outcomes

For the 2011-2012 program year, some or all of the following P-SLOs were reviewed by the program:

Assessed
this year?
Program Student Learning Outcomes

1

Yes
• Demonstrate the use of critical observation skills and decision-making within the legal/ethical parameters of justice professions.

2

Yes
• Assess and respond appropriately to situations containing potential conflicts, hazards and threatening situations.

3

No
• Demonstrate the maintenance of physical and mental fitness, utilize stress management techniques and maintain a drug-free lifestyle.

4

No
• Perform independently and inter-dependently to accomplish shared professional outcomes.

5

No
• Demonstrate the ability to interact with the public and co-workers in ways that effectively support “justice for all.”

A) Evidence of Industry Validation

No content.

B) Expected Level Achievement

No content.

C) Courses Assessed

Fall 2011, AJ 104: Criminalistics

Assessment of program learning outcome #2: Assess and respond appropriately to situations containing potential conflicts, hazards and threatening situations.

The Criminalistics class was used to assess Program Learning Outcome #2.  This course emphasizes identification of physical evidence.  Studies specialized scientific methods and their relationship with the courts.  Students are acquainted with psychological, physical and biological hazards at crime scenes.  Heightened awareness of hazards is developed through lectures, videos, reading assignments and in class demonstrations.  Over the course of the semester, students were evaluated via embedded oral and written questions and observed during a simulated crime scene investigation.  Students were assessed on observations skills and recognizing seen and unseen hazard, appropriate responses and proper management of the following hazards:

        

Hazard

Examples

Psychological

Suicide, Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, Homicide, Home invasion, Terroristic Threatening

Physical

Weapons (firearms, edged and impact weapons), hazardous debris (natural and man-made disasters), Traffic and highway related investigation scenes.  

Biological

Bodily fluids (blood, semen, vomit, excrement), chemical, bacterial and viral threats.

 

Evaluation was based on the following criteria:  Initial response, Hazard identification, Review of appropriate options and suitable response.  Proper use of appropriate forensic investigation techniques and other critical observation skills were also evaluated but were not assessed under PLO #2.

Analysis of data

The data collected during the semester indicates that five of fifteen students assessed were able to demonstrate what they had learned at a high proficiency.  Six students performed at the proficient level and three students showed some proficiency.  One student withdrew from the course prior to completing the entire assessment which accounts for no proficiency. 

73.3% of the students who completed the AJ 104 course were proficient or highly proficient demonstrating their critical observation and decision making abilities when dealing with simulated hazards.  The 26% of students that demonstrated some or no proficiency is attributed to those students who placed greater emphasis on the overall investigation as opposed to crime scene management. 

 

High Proficiency

Proficient

Some Proficiency

No Proficiency

15 students

5

6

3

1

% of students

33.3%

40%

20%

6.6%

 

Course improvement based on analysis

AJ 104 was used to assess PLO 1 in spring 2010 with unsatisfactory results.  This course appears to be more appropriate for assessing PLO 2. Current data results appear promising with class size positively impacting the outcome.  A 15:1 student/teacher ratio is ideal in an hand-on type class where safety and hazard management are emphasized.  The AJ program map has been adjusted to indicate that PLO 2 is given major emphasis in this course.  The next scheduled assessment of PLO 2 will be in fall 2013 in AJ 232: Officer Survival.

 

Spring 2012, AJ 190V: Introduction to Homeland Security

Assessment of program learning outcome #1:Demonstrate the use of critical observation skills and decision-making within the legal/ethical parameters of justice professions.

AJ 232: Laws of Arrest, Search and Seizure, was originally scheduled to assess PLO 5 in this semester however, in March 2011, the AJ comprehensive program review committee convened and made the following recommendation:

"Consider a course on ethics and character, or weave that throughout the curriculum. There was rich discussion around the ethical and moral choices that officers in the field are faced with, and ways to address and strengthen ethical and moral character with students."

The AJ 190V Introduction to Homeland security course was determined to be more appropriate to assess PLO 1.  PLO 5 is now being assessed during the fall 2012 semester.  59 students enrolled in the AJ 190V course that was offered in three sections, two of which were closed to employees of TSA only.  Of the 59 students, 33 students were general UHMC students and the remaining 26 were TSA officers. 

Throughout the semester, students collected and examined news stories relating to justice professionals and accusations of wrong doing.  Since this was a TSA related course, special emphasis was placed on articles from aviation security and related homeland security fields.  An ethical decision making rubric from the University of Charleston was adapted for use in the assessment.   

Ethical Decision Making Assessment Rubric

Outcome

Proficient

Acceptable

Emerging

Issue Recognition:

·        Recognizes ethical issues in societal, personal, professional life.

·        Demonstrates awareness of personal value system / world view.

·        Identifies conflicting values in ethical issues.

 

 

 

Information Engagement:

·        Seek relevant resources useful in understanding the breadth of issues.

·        Distinguishes between value judgments and factual claims.

·        Identifies range of stakeholders and their interests.

 

 

 

Option consideration:

·        Recognize and demonstrates sensitivity to alternative moral points of view.

·        Demonstrates appropriate respect for alternative points of view.

·        Incorporates relevant ethical factors in ethical analysis.

 

 

 

Action explanation:

·        Articulates an explicit, convincing and reasoned ethical position on issues.

·        Incorporates institutional core values, professional guidelines and societal laws in decision-making.

·        Takes ownership for position, decision and action.

 

 

 

Outcomes evaluation:

·        Reflectively evaluates multiple results of chosen position, decision, action.

·        Retrospectively analyzes problem-solving process employed.

·        Recognizes that alternative moral perspectives result in differing outcomes.

 

 

 

For the final assignment, all students were given a copy of the rubric and a copy of one of six open ended scenarios with unknown outcomes.   Each student was then asked to deliver an opinion on the legal/ethical question, impact and outcome.  Each student’s opinion was then assessed based on criteria in the rubric.  Students were considered proficient, acceptable or emerging based on their articulation relating to all outcomes listed in each category.

Analysis of data

Just over 89% of the 59 students performed at the proficient or acceptable level.  They demonstrated the ability to recognize the significant ethical issue and organize a realistic evaluation of possible outcomes.  The remainder of the students (10%), were identified as emerging and were able to grasp the concepts and form plausible arguments however, their supporting documentation or written content did not meet the required criteria established in the rubric. 

 

Proficient

Acceptable

Emerging

59 students

22

31

6

% of students

37.28%

52.54%

10.16 %

D) Assessment Strategy/Instrument

No content.

E) Results of Program Assessment

Course improvement based on analysis

The Administration of Justice field is extensive and the program learning outcomes reflects a broad range of objectives.  The greatest challenge faced during this assessment project was designing an assessment tool for student proficiency in a program learning outcome that covers an extremely broad scope.  This coupled with a large classroom population presented additional challenges in this assessment activity.  The results of this activity are promising with a great majority of the students grasping the concepts and demonstrating proficiency in that outcome. 

Following the advice of the community advisory board and industry partners, critical observation skills and decision-making within the legal/ethical parameters will continue to be emphasized and assessed in all AJ classes. 

The Program Advisory Committee supports the importance of this learning outcome and its relevance to the industry.  This program learning outcome is scheduled to be re-assessed during the Fall 2012 semester.  This will provide an opportunity to develop additional assessment tools that can be embedded in multiple assignments as opposed to relying on one large project.   

Results of Student Learning

As a result of assessment evidence collected during the 2011/12 academic year, the following program changes have been made:

F) Other Comments

Goals are an integral part of a healthy program and are necessary to fulfill the purpose of this program.  For the 2012-2013 academic year, the AJ program has elected to continue working toward accomplishing the program goals developed in 2011-2012.

Program Goals for 2012-2013

Actively promote the program with an emphasis on individuals currently working in the industry. 

Develop new curriculum and courses that support new and growing sectors of the industry.

Increase student retention and persistence by assisting students develop and meet their educational goals.

Continue to develop and refine a comprehensive system of authentic assessment to further align campus, course and student learning outcomes.

G) Next Steps

Planned Changes due to Assessment Evidence

Current and future assessment activities are intended to directly address all of the current program goals: