First, I should note that by democide I mean to define the killing by governments as the concept of murder defines individual killing in domestic society. And it is focusing on this democide, rather than the genocide that is one of its components, which uncovers the true dimensions of mass murder in the world.
Since democide is a government activity or policy, we must consider what type of governments are the worse murderers. Is there a political factor that discriminates between mortacracies--governments characterized by murder--and those who may kill incidentally or situationally? Yes, totalitarianism. Almost without exception, totalitarian governments are or have been mortacracies.
There is much confusion about what totalitarian means in the literature. I define a totalitarian state as one with a system of government that is unlimited constitutionally or by countervailing powers in society (such as by a church, rural gentry, labor unions, or regional powers); is not held responsible to the public by periodic secret and competitive elections; and employs its unlimited power to control all aspects of society, including the family, religion, education, business, private property, and social relationships. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was thus totalitarian, as was Mao's China, Pol Pot's Cambodia, Hitler's Germany, and U Ne Win's Burma. Presently, North Korea is a prime example.
Totalitarianism is also an ideology for which a totalitarian government is the agency for realizing its ends. Thus, totalitarianism characterizes such ideologies as state socialism (as in Burma), Marxism-Leninism as in the former Soviet Union, and Nazism (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei--National Socialist German Workers' Party; although racist and nationalist doctrines dominated, economically, all become subverted to the party, as under communism; as Hitler said: "We are socialists"), and Italian fascism. Other versions dot the modern world, such as the socialist Baathist Party that ruled Iraq under Hussein and still rules Syria.
Not all totalitarianism is socialist. Theological totalitarianism, for example, characterized the Taliban, does so for revolutionary Moslem Iran since the overthrow of the Shaw in 1978-79 and Saudi Arabia. Here totalitarianism is married to Moslem fundamentalism.
In short, totalitarianism is the ideology of absolute power.
The worst of the totalitarian governments, however, by far have been the socialist. Socialist self-righteousness, desire to radically reconstruct the fundamental institution of society (throwing out the institutional evolution and cultural learning of generations), the belief that those who disagree are evil, and that one must "break eggs to make an omelet," have led to monumental democide, as for example by the Soviet Union (about 61 million murdered), Mao's China (about 35 million), and so on for all the communist regimes, as well as the nationalist socialists like Germany (21 million), state socialist like Burma, Baathists like Syria and Hussein's Iraq, socialist Libya, and so on.
By my count for 1900-1987, totalitarian regimes murdered about 138 million (communist regimes about 110 million out of 169 million overall governments. Democracies murdered 2 million (149 thousand domestic, mainly due to the Spanish Civil War).
Some, mainly on the left, argue that my figures for communist systems are way too high, while being too low for democracies, especially like the United States. Okay, cut in half all my estimates for communist systems, and double those for democracies. That leaves the communist murdering 55 million versus 4 million for the democracies. We can even go further and do this again, and the conclusion remains the same--nondemocratic socialism is one of the great threats to human life. In other words, as far as democide is concerned, the major danger, by far, is from the nondemocratic far left. the major danger, by far, is from the nondemocratic far left, the major ideological source of mortacracies.
Be clear, regimes on the right, such as the absolute monarchies and non-socialist fascists like Chiang's Nationalist government of China (10 million murdered) and Japan's WWII military government (6 million), also commit major democide, but overall much less than those far on the left.
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