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Statistics of Democide

Contents | Figures | Tables | Preface

Chapter 1: Summary and Conclusions [Why Democide?...]
Chapter 2: Pre-Twentieth Century Democide
Chapter 3 Japan's Savage Military
Chapter 4: The Khmer Rouge Hell State
Chapter 5: Turkey's Ethnic Purges
Chapter 6: The Vietnamese War State
Chapter 7: Poland's Ethnic Cleansing
Chapter 8: The Pakistani Cutthroat State
Chapter 9: Tito's Slaughterhouse
Chapter 10: Orwellian North Korea
Chapter 11: Barbarous Mexico
Chapter 12: Feudal Russia
Chapter 13: Death American by bombing
Chapter 15: The Lesser Murderers
Chapter 16: The Social Field of Democide
Chapter 17: Democracy, Power, and Democide
Chapter 18: Social Diversity, Power, and Democide
Chapter 19: Culture and Democide
Chapter 20: The Context of Democide Socio-Economic and Geographic
Chapter 21: War, Rebellion, and Democide
Chapter 22: The Social Field and Democide
Chapter 23: Democide Through the Years

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    Chapter 14

    Estimates, Calculations, And Sources *

    By R.J. Rummel

    It is forbidden to kill; therefore all murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets

    In addition to the fifteen actual and suspected megamurderers, forty-seven regimes murdered at least 100,000 people. Together they killed near 10,800,000 men, women, and children.

    Tables 14.1A to 14.1E list the estimates, sources, and calculations for all centi-kilo murderers, and the final totals for the United States from Chapter 13. The tables are for all legally sovereign and territorially independent states. However, not all governments that committed centi-kilomurder were sovereign states. Quasi-states that were in fact independent but not so recognized by other states often subjected people under their control to genocide or mass murder. Such, for example, were the warlord states of China, especially from 1916 to 1928; the White Armies of Russia after the Bolshevik coup; or the Renamo guerrillas of Mozambique after 1976. The tables are divided as follows.

    What separates a quasi-state from many guerrilla or other groups committing terrorism against a government and people is that the leadership of a quasi-state controls a defined and relatively stable territory (which might be evidenced by the collection of taxes or conscription) over which it is de facto sovereign. This was true of the Chinese communist guerrillas before their victory in China in 1949, for example; it was not true of the Algerian rebels operating against the French army in Algeria from 1954 to 1962 or the Angolan rebels fighting the Portuguese from 1961 to 1962. This is not to say that such rebels or guerrillas did not have a form of government, a leadership that organized group activities and distributed rewards and punishments within the group, but that such did not have a durable control over a defined territory. Table 14.2 presents the estimates, sources, and calculations for these quasi-states. The democide of independently operating groups that were neither states or quasi-states is listed along with that of the deka-kilomurdering states in the tables of Chapter 15.

    To locate a particular state or group, go to overview Table 16A.1, which lists all states and groups in alphabetical order, includes their democide, and gives the table and line number of their location in Statisticis of Democide. Tables can then by located by hypertext in the tables part of the contents to Statistics of Democide. In cases where large tables had to be subdivided (no hypertext given), go to the appropriate chapter hypertext in the contents of the above and find the appropriate subdivision there. 


    * From the pre-publisher edited manuscript of Chapter 14 in R.J. Rummel, Statistics of Democide, 1997. For full reference to Statistics of Democide, the list of its contents, figures, and tables, and the text of its preface, click book.

    For citations see the Statistics of Democide REFERENCES

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