Pidgins and Creoles in Education (PACE)



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    NEW (publications on Norfolk Island, Northern Australia, Vanuatu, Jamaica and Haiti):


    Mühlhäusler, Peter and Joshua Nash (2012). Norfolk Island: History, People, Environment, Language. London: Battlebridge. [publisher's website]

    This book includes a great deal on the language of Norfolk Island, whose speakers write its name as Norf'k. Norf'k now has official status on the island – and is even used in schools. The book gives quite a lot of space to the development of its writing system, publications in the language, and how it achieved official status. (Also lots of other information about its history, links with Pitcairn, vocabulary, etc.)

    Journal articles

    AUSTRALIA (articles on Kriol and Aboriginal English):

    Special issue of the
    Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 36(3) (2013) [all online]

    Jill Wigglesworth [online]

    Teaching creole-speaking children: Issues, concerns and resolutions for the classroom
    Gillian Wigglesworth and Rosey Billington [online]

    Everywhere and nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contact languages in education and Indigenous language contexts
    Juanita Sellwood and Denise Angelo [online]

    Aboriginal English: Some grammatical features and their implications
    Ian G. Malcolm [online]

    Writing Aboriginal English and Creoles: Five case studies in Australian education contexts
    Samantha Disbray and Deborah Loakes [online]

    Educational failure or success: Aboriginal children’s non-standard English utterances
    Sally Dixon [online]

    Conducting communication assessments with school aged Aboriginal children in the Kimberley Region of Australia
    Claire Salter [online]


    Wigglesworth, Gillian, Rosey Billington and Deborah Loakes. 2013. Creole speakers and standard language education. Language and Linguistics Compass 7(7), 388-397 [abstract]

    VANUATU (journal articles on Bislama and education)

    Willans, Fiona (2011). Classroom code-switching in a Vanuatu secondary school: Conflict between policy and practice. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 14(1), 23-38. [abstract]

    Vandeputte-Tavo, Leslie (2013). Bislama in the educational system? Debate around the legitimacy of a creole at school in a post-colonial country. Current Issues in Language Planning 14(2), 254-269. [abstract]

    From the media

    JAMAICA (newspaper article)

    Tyson, Esther (2013). The Language Of Instruction - Jamaican Creole Or Standard Jamaican English? The Gleaner [online]

    HAITI (electronic media):

    DeGraff, Michel (2013). MIT-Haiti Initiative Uses Haitian Creole to Make Learning Truly Active, Constructive, and Interactive. Educational Technology Debate [online]

    Durandis, Ilio (2013). How Science, Math and Creole Education Can Lead to Prosperity in Haiti. Caribbean Journal [online]

    Okrent, Arika (2013). Haiti is teaching kids in the wrong language. TheWeek [online]




Lacoste, Véronique (2012). Phonological Variation in Rural Jamaican Schools. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins (Creole Language Library 42). [publisher's website]

Rickford, John R., Julie Sweetland, Angela E. Rickford and Thomas Grano (2012). African American, Creole, and Other Vernacular Englishes in Education: A Bibliographic Resource. London/New York: Routledge and Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English. [publisher's website] [SEE THE BOOK REVIEW BELOW]

Devonish, Hubert S. (2007). Language and Liberation: Creole Language and Politics in the Caribbean (second edition). Kingston: Arawak.

Migge. Bettina, Isabel Lˇglise and Angela Bartens (eds.) (2010). Creoles in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. [publisher's website]

    chapters on Aruba, Bonaire and Cura¨ao; Guadeloupe; French Guiana; NIcaragua; Jamaica; San Andres, Ptovidence and Sant Catalina; Belize; HawaiŌi; the Phillipines; and Cape Verde.

    Siegel, Jeff (2010). Second Dialect Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [publisher's website ]

    Vˇdrine, Emmanuel W. (2007). Yon koudˇy sou pwoblˇm lˇkol Ayiti [A look at the problem of schools in Haiti] (second edition). Cambridge, MA: Soup to Nuts Publishers. [description] [abstract in English]

    Journal articles

    Hebblethwaite, Benjamin (2012). French and underdevelopment, Haitian Creole and development: Educational language policy problems and solutions in Haiti. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 27(2), 255-302. [abstract]

    Mather, Patrick (2011). The role of Creole in education: Arguments in favour of bilingual programs. Online in Linguistique et Politique / Linguistics and Politics.

    Siegel, Jeff (2010). Bilingual literacy in creole contexts. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 31(4): 383-402. [journal's website]

    Lacoste, Vˇronique (2007). Modelling the sounds of Standard Jamaican English in a
    Grade 2 classroom. Caribbean Journal of Education 29: 290Š326.

    Tamura, Eileen H. 2008. HawaiŌi Creole (Pidgin), local identity, and schooling (special ssue of Educational Perspectives 41 (1&2). [PDF of whole issue ] (click on Vol. 41, Numbers 1 & 2, 2008)

10 articles comcerning the role of HawaiŌi Creole in formal education.

Book chapters

Siegel, Jeff (2012). Educational approaches for speakers of pidgin and creole languages. In Androula Yiakoumetti (ed.), Harnessing Linguistic Variation to Improve Education, 259-292. Oxford/Bern: Peter Lang.[publisher's website]

From the media

Neyfah, Leon (2011). The power of Creole [Haitian Creole]. In The Boston Globe [online]


Devonish, Hubert S. and Karen Carpenter (2007). Full bilingual education in a creole language situation: The Jamaican Bilingual Primary Education Project. St Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago: Society for Caribbean Linguistics (Occasional Paper No. 35).

Morren, Diane M. and Rondald C. Morren (2007). Are the goals of Jamaica's Bilingual Education Project being met? SIL Electronic Working Papers 2007-09. [link]


Lacoste, Vˇronique ( 2009). Learning the sounds of Standard Jamaican English: Variationist, phonological and pedagogical perspectives on 7-year-old childrenÕs classroom speech. PhD thesis (completed 2008). University of Essex and Universitˇ Paul Valery, France. UMI/ProQuest Dissertations Database. [abstract]



Rickford, John R., Julie Sweetland, Angela E. Rickford and Thomas Grano (2012). African American, Creole, and Other Vernacular Englishes in Education: A Bibliographic Resource. New York/London: Routledge and Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English. xx + 306 pp.

This comprehensive resource is a bibliography of over 1600 works from the last 50 years on the topic of language and education. It includes references for books, journal articles, book chapters and web-accessible dissertations, as well as abstracts for about a third of the entries. The focus is on the education of speakers of unstandardised vernacular varieties of English – such as African American (Vernacular) English, Latina/o Englishes and Australian Aboriginal English – and speakers of English-lexified pidgins and creoles – such as Tok Pisin and Jamaican Creole.

Research on language and education follows a wide range of approaches and covers a plethora of topics. What sets this volume apart from other bibliographies is that the references are classified according to one of more of 22 topics, each with a letter code. These are as follows:

Assessment and achievement (A)
Bidialectalism and/or contrastive analysis (B)
Culture and curriculum (C)
Disorders of speech, language or communication (D)
Edited volumes, overviews, reviews, or other bibliographies (E)
Features (F)
Ideology, attitudes, and/or identity (I)
Controversies about vernacular Englishes in schools (K)
Language or dialect awareness approach (L)
Materials for instruction (M)
Narrative, discourse, speech events, or style (N)
Oral and aural arts: Speaking and listening
Politics and policy (P)
Language acquisition (Q)
Reading (R)
Strategies for instruction (S)
Teacher preparation and practice (T)
Code choice (U)
Vernacular literacy or dialect readers (V)
Writing (W)
Language transfer or interference (X)
Video resources (Z)

The volume begins with an overview for each topic followed by a list of short citations (author and year) of the entries that deal with the topic. These overviews talk about the important issues and types of research in the topic. The main bibliography gives the full references alphabetically, each followed by relevant topic letter codes. If the reference concentrates on a particular type of variety, a number code is also given, as follows:

1.    AAVE (African American Vernacular English)
2.    Anglophone pidgins and creoles
3.    Asian and Asian American English
4.    Latino/a Englishes
5.    Native American English
6.    Other vernacular Englishes

The compilers of this volume are some of the top researchers in many of the topics covered, and their thorough knowledge of the field shines through in the topic overviews and the scope of the research encompassed in the bibliography. This volume is an invaluable resource for students, sociolinguists, applied linguists, educationists and anyone interested in unstandardised vernacular varieties of language, and the issues surrounding the education of their speakers. It also sets a new benchmark for the compilation and presentation of bibliographic resources.