Actouka & Morris Lai. 1989. Project Holopono, Evaluation
report, 1987-1988. Honolulu: Curriculum Research and Development
Group, College of Education, University of Hawai‘i.
Holopono [‘success’] was carried out in Hawai‘i
from 1984 to 1988. It involved approximately 300 students of limited
English proficiency in grades 4 to 6 in 8 schools, half of them
speakers of Hawai‘i Creole English (HCE). The program consisted
of 150 hours per week of instruction time, including some awareness
activities, such as contrasting features of HCE and standard English
and emphasizing appropriate contexts for each. An evaluation of
the final year of the project showed an increase in oral English
proficiency among 84% of the students, but no significant gains
in reading proficiency (despite teachers’ claims to the contrary).
B. Afaga and Morris K. Lai. 1994. Project Akamai, Evaluation
report, 1992-93, Year Four. Honolulu: Curriculum Research and
Development Group, College of Education, University of Hawai‘i.
in Hawai‘i, Project Akamai [‘smart’] ran from
1989 to 1993. This program was aimed at more than 600 HCE speakers
in grades 9 and 10 in 11 schools. It involved some contrastive awareness
activities as well as the use of local literature containing HCE.
An evaluation of the final year of the project showed increases
of between 35% and 40% on tests of standard English use and oral
Territory Department of Education. 1997. Annual Reports from
specialist staff in bilingual programs in Northern Territory schools,
1995. Darwin: Northern Territory Department of Education.
report on the Kriol/English bilingual program at the Barunga Community
Educa-tion Centre appears on pp.16-18. It includes sections on curriculum
development, teaching of literacy, staff and school development,
and literature (and video) production.