In conjoining, the relationship between the clauses is expressed by the conjunctor.
|Bumuhos ang ulan
|nabasa si Jane.
|lumakas ang katawan mo.
Enclitic particles may occur in these constructions. Some of these particles are optional. Both kasi and tuloy in the example below are optional.
In some cases, the enclitic makes the sentence sound better.
In other cases, the enclitics are required to complete the expression of a particular relationship. In the second example below, naman puts the second clause in contrast with the first clause.
Our focus is the clause that carries the conjunctor; this is typically the second clause. We start with the neutral case of no semantic relationship or dependency between the clauses.
The most common use of at as conjunctor is to express a neutral relationship between the clauses. It merely expresses the observation that another event occurred simultaneously in time or in close proximity.
The conjunctor at is also used to introduce an explanatory clause. At here is roughly equivalent to English that in the sentence "Good that you have arrived." Here is an example:
The second clause is in direct contrast to the first clause. Samantalang...naman expresses a stronger contrast than at...naman.
The second clause expresses the idea that the event "adds insult to injury," so to speak. The use of na...at...pa is roughly equivalent to the English "on top of it all, and what's more" as in "John lost his job, and what's more, his wife left him." The conjunctor at is optional, and in fact, is typically left out.
The second clause describes an event or states a condition that supplements the first clause.
At gayon din is formal; avoid it.
The second clause expresses the effect of the first clause. Kasi is optional, but if it occurs, it must follow the first constituent of the first clause. The particles tuloy, nga ba, and ngayon optionally occur after the conjunctor kaya.
The cause clause attributes a cause or offers a reason or explanation for the event in the first sentence.
The conjunctors sapagka't and palibhasa'y are rarely used in casual conversation.
In a cause conjunction, the first clause is an effect clause, and the second is cause. Conversely in an effect conjunction (discussed earlier), the first clause is cause and the second is effect.
Nahuli ako (effect), kasi (cause conjunctor) naplatan kami (cause).
Naplatan kami (cause), kaya (effect conjunctor) nahuli ako (effect).