SLS Letter XXV

SLS Letter

Volume XXV

Fall-Winter 1995-96


Fall 1995 was a very lively semester, what with a huge march-demonstration to protest the poorly thought-out cuts to the university budget and a number of changes in the university. Our students and faculty have been extremely active in the organization of the demonstration and will be participating in another on the opening day of the 1996 State legislature, which may be considering the building of a major campus in West Oahu to gladden the hearts of the real estate developers there, this at the same time that programs at Manoa and the community colleges are being slashed and lecturers not rehired. On the brighter side, our department’s reputation as an acknowledged world leader in our field has been acknowledged by the university president in a number of forums (fora?). We have also had an excellent response to our appeal to alumni/alumnae to help our increasingly pressed students. They have done this by contributing to the Rickard Fellowships sponsored by the Ruth Crymes Scholarship Fund, which is tax-exempt and complies with current IRS requirements. If there are any of you who have not yet contributed, I urge you to do so. It seems likely that tuition waivers will be severely cut-amongst other proposed actions by the administration. Your assistance is sorely needed. I am happy to report one major donation of $2,500 for a student scholarship. Because of the help and enthusiasm of our alums and friends, the impact of the cuts on our students should be less serious than in many other Manoa programs.

In the fall, a vague proposal was mooted in the oxygen-thin domains of the higher administration to remove the ELI to some other part of the University and make it a profit-earning unit. This would, of course, have been a serious blow to our graduate programs, further removing major support for our students. However, our own proposal to take over the troubled HELP program was successful and so we have now got ourselves into profit/loss-making activities which, we trust, will also make it far less likely that the ELI will be removed. Equally important, this change significantly improves the professional and economic status of HELP teachers, who will no longer be casual hires but Instructor 2’s. We welcome Mary Hammond as Assistant Director in charge of HELP. A fluent speaker of Japanese and Chinese, she has worked in a number of similar university programs, served as Associate Director of the Harvard ESL programs, and has extensive administrative and teaching experience. With her help, we hope to use the strong nucleus of instructors, along with graduate assistants, to create model programs in both HELP and the ELI.

The past few months have been considerably darkened by the very serious illness and consequent retirement of our much-loved colleague Professor Charlene Sato. I first knew her as a truly exceptional student in my grammar class many years ago. Over the years that she has taught here, hundreds of our graduate students have come to regard her with admiration and affection as a superb teacher, model researcher, and-above all-a friend. We already miss her greatly. An important volume celebrating Charlie’s contributions to pidgin and creole studies is currently being edited by John Rickford and Suzanne Romaine.

At this trying time, Naomi has somehow managed to hold the office together despite the freezing of Marilyn Mitobe’s position. Without Naomi we would be in a very serious mess. Her knowledge of the intricate workings of the bureaucracy, her sensitivity to department needs, and her rock-solid stability hold the department together. Marilyn has continued to come in from retirement to help out whenever she can. We are grateful for her loyalty. We have been informed that there is a strong likelihood that we will be getting her position unfrozen early in 1996 and will therefore be able to hire her successor.

We are happy about the return of Professor Carol Chapelle, a well-known figure in work on CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning). Her Spring 1996 seminar on CALL, which has been over-subscribed, makes extensive use of the Power PC’s and servers in the first floor lab.

I should not end without mentioning the very major contribution that my predecessor as chair of this department, Dr. Craig Chaudron, continues to make to the running of our programs. He has been unfailingly willing to take on many sometimes onerous tasks for our programs, students, and faculty. In these difficult times it would have been very difficult for me to be very effective as chair if not for his outstanding dedication. I wish there were a more adequate way to recognize his crucial contribution. Thank you all those who have given so generously for the Rickard Fellowships to aid our students in these times of budgetary crisis.

Roderick (Ricky) Jacobs
Department Chair


ELI News

Due to the budget cuts, we have been unable to hire an Assistant Director to replace Dave Rickard, nor an ELI clerk to replace Marilyn Mitobe, both of whom retired. This Spring we are also unable to use graduate assistants as resource/lead teachers. The ELI has suffered from this cutback tremendously. However, despite the lack of resources, the teachers have been doing an excellent job and the student evaluations have been superb. I want to thank them for hanging in there through tough times.

Kate Wolfe-Quintero, ELI Director



A new multimedia computer lab serving foreign & second language faculty, students, and staff was launched this semester. The lab features networked Power Mac 6100’s which can be reserved by faculty for class instruction, offering easy access to the Internet. Faculty training is an important component of lab activities, and it is hoped that faculty will be able to use the production capabilities of the lab to produce their own CD-ROM’s and other technologically sophisticated language teaching materials.


National Foreign Language Resource Center

The National Foreign Language Resource Center at the University of Hawai’i focuses on materials development for less commonly taught languages, SLA research, and expanding the technological horizons of the foreign language community. Many ESL graduate students have been employed recently as research assistants or workshop leaders.

Once again this year, there will be an NFLRC Summer Institute. About 130 participants are expected to attend workshops on Chinesenet, Pedagogy & the Internet, and Spiderware, or to present papers at the Symposium on New Technologies and Less Commonly Taught Languages. For information, send an email message right away (the deadline is February 15) to, including one or more of the following in the subject header: GET SYMPOSIUM INFO, GET CHINESENET INFO, GET PEDAGOGY INFO, GET SPIDERWARE INFO.

NFLRC technical may be ordered using the form at the end of this issue of the ESLetter. The five Technical Reports published this year contain many chapters written by ESL and SLA graduate students, including Emily Detmer, Hae Young Kim, Yanying Zhang, Xing Chen, Lei Ye, Jinwen Steinberg Du, Kahulu Palmeira, Riika Alanen, and Peter Robinson. Technical Report #8, Virtual Connections: Online activities and projects for networking language learners, edited by doctoral student Mark Warschauer, has almost sold out its first printing before the first copies are ready to be shipped. For more information, visit our website at:

Dick Schmidt, NFLRC Director



HATESL had a very active and productive fall semester. Membership represents an astonishing 75% of the students enrolled in our MA and Ph.D. programs. Thanks to our large enrollment, generous donations by our indulging members and faculty at coolers, and successful fundraising through t-shirts and bake sales, HATESL is well out of the red.

Socially HATESL has maintained its high standards, thanks to our ever-inventive social VPs and our gregarious members. The semester began with a bang as our social VPs pulled together an extraordinary Jungle Fever Party, replete with vines, jungle juice and drums. We were, therefore, already warmed up to the social scene by the time the 25th Annual ESL Retreat rolled around. This was a grand success on all counts: bonding, sharing, learning, fundraising ($2344!). Our academic panels provided a pleasant reminder of the fact that we have an extraordinary resource in our fellow students as well as our esteemed faculty. The potluck proved that if the language school idea fails there is always restauranteering to consider, and if you believe that performing is a large part of teaching, then the beach and campfire follies indicate that the University of Hawai`i has some highly talented pedagogues. Following the retreat, we managed to squeeze a few well attended coolers into the rather hectic post-auction dinner/party schedule, which has lead to individuals from our department being seen eating the likes of flaming Indian spices, elegant tarts, sushi, and tacos in everything from kimonos to leopard skins and drag.

On the political front HATESL has maintained a strong presence at all events protesting the budget cuts and other short-sighted decisions which are having a disastrous impact on our university. In addition to impressive attendance at the Library Read-In overall, about 20 percent of the diehard protesters who slept (shivered) all night in the library were from our department. Our strong presence at the Bake-In included speeches by four of our students. An otherwise average political rally (4000 students and faculty marching from UH to the capital) was transformed into a where-to-be-seen society-first-page event with our very own Megan Taylor as Wonder Woman, political critic and chant leader extraordinaire. The final protest of the semester was made by about ten of our students who went to the tourists to ask for help by panhandling for the university in Waikiki.

Given the (in)famous reputation of our organization, it is not surprising that we once again were approached by individuals from outside the department who were interested in becoming members. We decided initially to address this matter of membership eligibility by going to the source–our constitution…only to find two constitutions which differed in regard to membership and other issues, neither of which was dated. Thank goodness, Jeff Blair (Ex-president of semesters past, still here…) took the constitution by its frayed edges and drafted a new one which shall be ratified soon. A vote on membership eligibility resulted in the following policy: any individual taking classes in the ESL department, or any alumnus of our BA or MA in ESL or Ph.D. in SLA may be a member, but officer positions my be held by enrolled MA and Ph.D. students only.

HATESL has a created a new officer position, Employment Officer, in an attempt to keep students informed of job opportunities and to maintain the strong contacts with institutions and individuals which Dave Rickard has established over the years. Professor Rickard has left some big empty shoes in our department, so we are trying to help to fill them. Any information about job opportunities for our students is greatly appreciated.

The Rickard Fellowship fund, which has been established to help students in financial need, is beginning to grow thanks to the retreat auction take and the grand success of sales from the second t-shirt printing. Thank you very much to all the alumni who responded to our plight, through generous donations extravagant t-shirt purchases. (Sorry to those who ordered gold t-shirts, there has been a delay, but they are on the way). A HATESL cookbook and a HATESL homepage are in the works…stay tuned.

We were pleased to have 12 more students graduate this Fall, renewing our faith in the fact that this can be done. At the end of Fall semester the largest group of HATESL officers ever (18 total) relinquished, with reluctance, their power to allow 14 new and fresh HATESL officers take the helm. So from Steve and Sara (outgoing co-presidents), this has been one hell of a year. Thanks to our constituents and the faculty for their support, and to our fellow officers for their enthusiasm. We are proud to be a part of this organization, as leaders and followers. Thanks to all for everything!

Steve Jacques
Sara Rabie


Summer 1995 graduates:

MA in ESL: Lori Desrosiers, Paul Kandasamy, Myong Hui Ko, Xiao Feng Liu, Terry Menacker, Mark Nagel, Jodi Nishimura, Lourdes Ortega Alvarez-Ossorio, Mary Wang.


Fall 1995 graduates:

MA in ESL: Barbara J. Cabebe, Hyun-Joo Chung, Osamu Ikeno, Hsiu-Jung Kuo, William Murphy, Jonathan Nosaka, Patricia O’Bryen, Paul Sevigny, Mark Stafford, Samuel Toba, Scott Todd, Christina Widjaja, Miki Yagi, and Junko Yamaai.


Department inaugurates web-site

With any luck, by the time readers receive this issue of the ESLetter the department will be on line. Check


Center for Second Language Research

The primary project operating in the Center this academic year is the ANA funded survey of Hawaiian language and literacy use in the Kula Kaiapuni community. We plan to use the data gathered on language use to apply for a second ANA grant focusing on implementation of community Hawaiian language learning and intergenerational language use projects. With the help of GA Rebeca Jasso-Aguilar, the Center is also engaged in collecting information on foreign language needs and resources in Hawai’i. This information will be used for the Hawai’i Council Language Policy & Planning Information packet and ultimately to argue for utilizing the State’s immigrant language resources for economic and educational purposes. Through these efforts, we also hope to gain financial and other support for continuing the “Foreign Language Partnership Project”, currently funded by the NFLRC, and coordinated by Ann Shonle, Audrey Burnett, with assistance from–and video-tape development by– Zafar Syed.

Kathryn Davis, CSLR Director



Once again this year, national surveys showed Honolulu and Hawai’i to be the healthiest places in the US to live, as well as among the safest. However, we are last among the 50 states or very close to it in all of the following: per capita spending for education, teachers’ salaries (adjusted for cost of living), support for the disabled and mentally ill, and voter registration of under-represented groups.

The most positive news of the fall semester was Wahine volleyball. Crowds filled the special events arena ad the team finished up a perfect 30-0 season. Unfortunately, Na Wahine lost a heartbreaker to Michigan State in the NCAA mountain regionals, so another national championship was not to be.

Approximately 5,000 students & faculty marched from UH to the State House on October 31 to protest budget cuts. After first refusing to make an appearance, Gov. Ben Cayetano showed up and demanded to speak. Shouted down by boos (it was widely but falsely reported in the international press that rocks were thrown), he called a press conference and said those at the university need a little remedial education. Demonstration organizers said he deserved the negative reception he got and needs a course or two himself

The Hawai’i based MRC (multifunctional resource center) is closing in March, throwing several ESL professionals out of work. KCC may expand its ESL offerings while the future of ESL at other community colleges remains in doubt (there are more rumors than hard facts at this point).

In December, the UH Board of Regents reviewed final plans regarding budget and tuition increases. It is anticipated that retrenchment notices (i.e. pink slips) will likely be issued soon, and they will include some tenured faculty.

Alumni News


Julie Winter reports that the Anchorage School District finally offered her a full-time position as a bilingual tutor, so she and Andy have decided to stay at least through the spring before perhaps seeking a better job climate.


Yanyin Zhang is teaching at the School of TESOL & International Education, University of Canberra, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. This year most of her students are Indonesian and Vietnamese. Yanying reports that she is quite amazed at the Aussie system of industrial action and enterprise bargaining for university staff salaries. “Things that Marx and Mao advocated but never granted in China.” Yanying can be reached at


1995 was a pivotal year for the ESL Caucus in Hawai’i, as the Caucus became an independent organization and the local TESOL affiliate (the affiliate until this year was HCTE, the Hawai’i Council for the Teaching of English). c Ruth Trimble received tenure and was promoted to Assistant Professor at Leeward Community College. Marilyn Bauer was promoted to Professor, also at Leeward. N The Hull Brothers are on the move again. Philip has moved back to Hawai’i from Alaska and is working for the American Schools of Professional Psychology Hawaii Campus. In the meantime, Jonathan finished up his dissertation research in Hong Kong, returned to the wilds of Somerset England for the writing of it and is we hear at this moment on vacation in New Zealand.


After five years at Rota High School as accreditation coordinator, Frank Sobelewski is now the English instructor (a department of one) at the Rota campus of Northern Marianas College. Frank reports that if present trends continue, sometime in the next century there will be no more native speakers of Chomorro. Jim Belyea (in Hawai’i for a visit last summer, where he hooked up with old pal Ingrid Moa) and Vince Riley continue as English instructors at the main campus of the College in Saipan, where Ivan Probst is Dean of Arts & Sciences.


Jeff Popko is now at a school in Jakarta, where life is not as cheap as it once was, but he does better there than he did in Spain. There may be some great opportunities opening for someone who wants to invest some serious time in Indonesia. Contact: Director of Studies, AELT Center, Jl. Arteri Pondok Indah 8L, Jakarta 12240, Indonesia, fax (62) 21-751-3304, or contact Jeff at Jeff suggests that an alumni e-mail address list might be a mighty handy thing. Is there anyone out there who’d like to put one together and manage it?


After leaving Hawai’i, Ann Anthony (ex-Hitch) moved to St. Croix, then to Texas, and now to Paris, which she characterizes as an economy move (compared to both Hawaii and the US Virgin Islands). She’s retired, but thinking of teaching again if work permit problems can be resolved, or maybe joining up for a second Peace Corps stint.


Myong Ko defended her thesis in May and now reports that she is teaching English in Inchon.


Emiko Yukawa is now back in Japan, after spending two years working on her Ph.D. in Stockholm, Sweden, where she worked with Kenneth Hylstenstam. N Satomi Takahashi ( reports that Kyushu University (Institute of Languages and Cultures) has just accepted her for their teaching position (assistant professor with tenure, starting next April). This university is one of the prestigious national universities in Japan. N Peter Robinson is teaching at Huron University Japan in Tokyo, with plans to move to Aoyama Gakuin this spring. N David Martin (MA `87) has been living near Tokyo for the past 8 years, working at the Tokyo YMCA College of English and writing 4 textbooks which he now distributes through his own publishing company (EFL Press). Interested parties can contact David at 040-772-7724. N Mark Sawyer and Steve Ross both moved from UH’s doctoral program to positions at Kawansei Gakuin University, where they report that their main job is to figure out how to prepare students to succeed in an English-medium content course after one semester, with 6 instructional hours a week and 40 students per class. Mark taught an experimental research methods course for Temple University Japan, while Steve did one on computer applications for language researchers.. Mark report that Kei and Ian both like their schools, Rieko is enjoying doing some translation work, and Osaka is a better place to live than they all expected. Since they live at the foot of a mountain, escapes from city life are quite easy. N C. A. Eddington has accepted the position of director of English programs for Sapporo Maruyama Gakuen Educational Foundation. Her main responsibility is as EFL director for Heidelberg College Japan, for which Sapporo Maruyama Gakuen is the umbrella company.

N AGE DISCRIMINATION AT JAPANESE NATIONAL UNIVERSITIES. Note: The following was received from someone who has been an EFL teacher at a Japanese national university for many years: Dear fellow teachers of English, In 1992, the Ministry of Education sent memos and made phone calls to the universities asking them to review the contracts of older foreign instructors to see if they could be replaced by younger ones. Since then 71% of gaikokujin kyoshi over the age of 45 did not have their contracts renewed … The few remaining senior kyoshi are fighting the battle of their livelihoods to resist these dismissals based upon national origin and age. Many have taught at their respective universities for from five to 30 years, have property and family commitments which require continued income. These dismissals are particularly painful since: where does a teacher who are 48 or 54 or 57 or 61 find another job – especially in Japan? The majority of these dismissed teachers were assured at hiring that his/her one-year contracts would be renewed as long as the teacher desired. … A loose organization of dismissed and soon to be dismissed foreign instructors, and various attorneys are trying stem the tide of discrimination by doing what works best in Japan: publicizing the names of the offending institutions, and generally raising national and international attention to the issue … I am unaware of such treatment for foreign academics in other countries. Certainly foreign scholars have accomplished much in the United States. There would have been no Nobel Prize for Dr. Tonegawa at MIT had he been singled out as foreign and too old at the age of 45. … Thus I, and the others with jobs so threatened, would appreciate the assistance of fellow netters in boycotting TESL-l and TESL-JB listing of [those positions made available by the firing of older foreign instructors] at Japanese national universities. Further information about the issue may be found in the July 7 issue of Science, the July 28th full page coverage by The Chronicle of Higher Education, and a variety of other national (Japan) and international publications.


I miss my instructors and most excellent classmates from the Class of ’85, not to mention Friday nights at Anna Bannana’s (now defunct, surely?) [Ed: no, still going strong, although Pagan Babies disbanded]. Please let people know where I am, and that I welcome correspondence from old classmates and from anyone interested in/planning to visit Turkey. I enjoyed almost 4 years teaching in Sydney, but have now moved closer to home: Istanbul. I am teaching in the English Language Center of a small private university called Koç. Koc University established just 2 years ago, and is located on the “European side” of Istanbul, just 2 blocks from the beautiful Bosphorus. We have a pretty heavy schedule (16-18 hours in class per week) and the students can be a handful, but we have a pretty high-tech computer setup for students and staff, which is helpful when it is up and running! The program I teach in is an intensive EAP course for all students who didn’t pass the TOEFL, so they are with us full time for up to a year. The politics are troublesome, of course, the winter pollution is a bummer, and the food cannot begin to compare with that of Sydney, but Istanbul is a fabulous city and Turkey is so full of history it boggles the senses. I live in a comfortable apartment with my Turkish husband, Juneyt (I dragged HIM here from Sydney!), and our two ferrets, Rikki and Emma Goldman. Correspondence is welcome. >Aloha nui, Sue Kocher <>


Leaving Hawai’i for Turkmenistan, Scott Todd sent us this farewell note:

By the time I’d been at Hawai’i for two years, every day as I walked on the campus, I would run into my former students. There are more than a hundred of them. I often didn’t remember their names, and certainly I didn’t remember the work they did. Usually, I just had a feeling, up or down, that told me whether I did well or badly with this student, whether this student did badly or well with me. They ALL remembered me. Having been a student for so long, I’ve been on the other end of this a lot. We’ve had to ask for recommendations from teachers who can barely place the name to a face. Once, and this was about 15 years ago but it was a memorable incident for me–I was about 17–I ran into my sixth-grade teacher. This woman that had been so much to me for a whole year, whom I could never forget, and she had no idea who I was. So, as we come to graduate now, I’d love to look at my teachers in this department and say, “Don’t forget us,” but I know you will, and it’s OK. By the time I see you next, another hundred students will have crossed the thresholds of your office doors, handed you papers, asked your advice. I guess about the most I can hope for is that when you do see my face next, it will be attached to a positive feeling: I did well with this one. At the end, it is our graduation, meant to celebrate us and what we did, but I see it as a time to be thankful to you for what you did. We cannot ask that you remember us, but I want you to know, and keep: that we will not forget about you. Thank you. And good bye. The Turkmenistman. Since September, Scott has been publishing “The Turkmenistman,” a journal of Peace Corps adventures in the former Soviet Union. To subscribe, drop Scott a note: Scott Todd, US Peace Corps/Turkmenistan, PO Box 258 Krugozor Central Post Office, Ashgabat, 744000, TURKMENISTAN


After spending a year and a half doing field work in Indonesia, Michael Ewing is back at U.C. Santa Barbara finishing up his Ph.D. in Linguistics. In early 1996, Michael will be moving to Australia, where he’ll be teaching in the Indonesian program of the Dept. of Applied Linguistics and Language Studies at the University of Melbourne. N Leah DeLano is doing doctoral work now at Georgetown. N Nancy Oppenheim ( is a doctoral candidate at the University of Texas, where she is writing a dissertation on undergraduates learning from nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants. During the past few months, Nancy visited Northern Arizona University, spent the summer taking multivariate statistics, got a position as researcher/asst. coordinator of the ITA Program at UT, went to Holland to present a paper on using cognitive network theories as a framework to investigate fluent speech production, and visited the Max Planck institute for psycholinguistics. N Peggy Miles is still at UC Santa Cruz and has also started teaching a new course on SLA at Bethany college. Peggy and Bruce spent a whirlwind two weeks last June in Paris, where their daughter got married. N After 14 years in Japan, H. T(erry) Book Jennings has relocated to Santa Fe NM, where new adventures await. N Bev Cannon is still in California, but is busy studying Icelandic these days because she recently accepted a position in the new Deaf Studies department at the University of Iceland.


Stephen Handorf survived the Kobe earthquake intact, but decided to go ahead with his plans to leave Japan anyway. He left for China in July, on a trip planned to take him to Europe the long way around. He plans to remind himself what it’s like to be a student by studying German in Munich for an undetermined period of time. For now, he can be reached through his parents in Iowa: 1822 Crescent Drive, Cedar Falls, IA 50613.

Editor’s note:

We depend on you for alumni news. Please send information you would like to incoude to the Editor at


Faculty & Staff News

Robert Bley-Vroman has now returned from Hamburg, Germany, where he spent the 1994-1995 academic year. In addition to his research on second language acquisition of syntax, he lectured widely in Europe–in France, Austria, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands–on theoretical issues in SLA research. Sasha and Henry accompanied him. Henry, now twelve, attended German school. In Fall 1995, Robert jointly taught a seminar on the grammatical approach to language acquisition with William O’Grady in the Department of Linguistics. Currently, he is working on an article arguing that second language acquisition is largely a process of conservative pattern accumulation, rather than parameter setting. His Spring 1996 seminar in the ESL Department will explore this possibility. He continues to teach the basic courses in the structure of English in the MA program, ESL 441 and ESL 640. Look for a forthcoming article in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (Flynn et al. “Second language acquisition: Theoretical and experimental issues in contempory research”) of which a large portion is devoted to a discussion of Bley-Vroman’s ideas.

J. D. Brown spent six weeks during the summer teaching at Temple University Japan, and seven weeks at the TESOL Summer Institute at Valencia, Venezuela. His travels also included two four-day trips to Educational Testing Service in July, and September to consult on the TOEFL 2000 project. This fall, he was back in Japan to deliver a plenary speech at the JALT International Conference in Nagoya. During Fall semester 1995, JD taught ESL 490 (language testing) and ESL 670 (ESL research methods). He also directed several independent studies, and served as a student advisor, scholarly paper advisor, elections officer, evaluation officer, bookstore liaison, UH Working Papers editor, treasurer of the Ruth Crymes fund, and as a member of various MA and Ph.D. committees and other academic and administrative committees within the department. Most importantly, JD has managed to continue his rollerblading at least twice a week (in Japan, Venezuela, and Hawaii).

Craig Chaudron travelled extensively in Spain and beyond last spring while on LWOP and Visiting Professor at U. Autónoma de Madrid, giving conference talks, workshops, and plenary speeches -a week each in Puerto Rico (U.P.R.-Humacao), Denmark (U. Copenhagen, Odense U.), and France, also at U. Barcelona, U. Sevilla, U. Salamanca, APIGA-Santiago de Compostela, U. Complutense de Madrid. Craig will be giving course on research methods at U. Laval-Québec in the first summer session, 1996. The following publication includes interesting classroom research outcomes from project he has been involved in from 1987-1992: Maria Soledad Valcárcel Pérez & Mercedes Verdú Jordá. (1995). Observacion y evaluacion de la ensenanza communicative de lenguas modernas. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Centro de Investigación y Documentación Educativa.

Graham Crookes has been on sabbatical. He was taking Hawaiian 101 and doing lots of yoga when he herniated a disc and couldn’t walk for ages. Luckily, he managed to recover enough to make regular visits to Ala Wai Elementary, Kaimuki High, and Salt Lake Elementary, seeking sites in which to promote action research. This is now manifesting itself in an agreement that he will informally collaborate with two College of Education faculty in teaching courses on action research in the M.Ed. program on-site at Kailua High and Salt Lake Elementary. During the spring, Graham will be going to Singapore, Australia, Colombia, and Kyrgyzstan to do workshops on various topics.

Kathy Davis taught a 680R course in the fall on Qualitative Research (Philosophy & Theory). The Center for Second Language Research also had the happy news of receipt of a grant ($50,000) from the Administration for Native Americans, Health & Human Services, Washington, D.C. The purpose of this grant is to document Hawaiian language and literacy use in the Kula Kaiapuni (Hawaiian Immersion School) community. No’eau Warner (co-principal investigator), Kahulu Palmeira (SLA doctoral student), and Kathy have been working this fall semester on hiring and training individuals from the Hawaiian community to conduct interviews and observations, developing a language use questionnaire to be decimated to the larger Kula Kaiapuni community, and setting up focus group meetings within the community to discuss future projects aimed at increasing Hawaiian language learning and intergenerational language use. Kathy was also extremely active in the Hawai’i Language Policy & Planning Council, which is currently developing an information packet on the language needs and resources of Hawai’i, which will be sent to legislators & community leaders. We have also sent testimony opposing English Only legislation to Senators & the Committee On English as the Official Language of the Government of the U.S. Finally, she served as discussant for a symposium on indigenous language regenesis (the panel included No’eau Warner, Kahulu Palmeira, and Laiana Wong) at the American Anthropological Association conference in Washington, D.C. this past November. It was cold. It snowed. She got bronchitis and is extremely glad to be back in Hawai’i.

Richard Day, in addition to teaching ESL 690, continued his work as the director of the Program for the Professional Development of Future Faculty. This is a new program, sponsored by the Office of Faculty Development and Academic Support, whose goal is to prepare doctoral students for their instructional responsibilities when they become professors. He and two colleagues (Joanne Cooper, UH, and Michelle Collay, Hamline University) presented a paper on the use of metaphors in teacher development at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, in Orlando, Florida. He reports that substantial progress was made on the book Julian Bamford and he are writing on extensive reading for Cambridge University Press.

Thom Hudson is on sabbatical in Japan.

Ricky Jacobs Roderick (Ricky) Jacobs has had an active semester as department chair, overseeing with Kate Wolfe-Quintero the negotiations leading to the take-over of the Hawai’i English Language Program. He has been serving as adviser on pedagogical grammar for a major publishing company and in December made a presentation on that subject to staff and authors in snowy Boston. He has heard that his book, English syntax: A grammar for English language professionals, is being used at Dartmouth and a number of other well-known institutions in the U.S. and overseas, and he is presently considering an invitation to Bangkok to give a number of lectures there. He continues his work as language advisor to the Cupa Indian Band in Pala, California, and hopes to visit the reservation some time this spring. His son Eric, a PhD student in Cancer Epidemiology at the University of Washington, is to marry in September.

Gabriele Kasper accrued frequent flyer mileage again in the Fall. She gave a plenary at the annual conference of the Australian Association of Applied Linguistics and an in-service seminar for language teachers at the Australian National University. She also visited Budapest, where she gave talks at Eötvös University, indulged in sinful cakes at the coffee houses, and was delighted to find that German was widely used as a lingua franca.

Dick Schmidt continues half-time as director of the NFLRC, which means that his travels during the past year were to Greensboro, Anaheim, Philadelphia, and similarly exciting places (where the US foreign language teaching profession gathered). However, he got in one trip to Egypt (mixed work and pleasure) and Italy (all pleasure) last summer. Returning to Hawai’i he turned domestic and acquired a new house and dog. He’s been teaching SLA (ESL 650) all this year and looks forward to leading a seminar on individual differences in language learning in the Fall.

Kate Wolfe-Quintero taught English Syntax (640) and Writing Methodology (614). She has been continuing work on the lexical and grammatical development project with the NFLRC, and working on an investigation of second language students in writing-intensive courses with the Manoa Writing Program. Last March she presented papers at the TESOL and AAAL conferences at Long Beach.

We are fortunate to have two returnees as visiting professors with us this academic year, replacing Graham Crookes and Thom Hudson, who are on sabbatical/leave. George Yule joined us again in the Fall, teaching Listening & Speaking (ESL 613) and the Teaching Practicum (ESL 690). This Spring, Carol Chapelle escaped from the cold climates of Iowa to our tropical shores, teach Language Testing (ESL 490) and a seminar on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ESL 730). Predictably, her classes are in high demand, but knowing Carol’s efficiency, we’re hopeful that she will find the time to enjoy her second Hawaiian stay both inside and outside Moore Hall.



Ann Swett, 64, of Mapusaga, American Samoa, died May 13, 1995. She was born in Boston and was a graduate of Girls’ Latin School and Boston University. She received her MA in ESL at the University of Hawai’i and was a teacher at both Fag’itua High School and American Samoa Community College. She is survived by her husband, Frank; children, Philip, Brian and Dana; and two grandchildren.

Katrina Oliphant and Giovanni Morittu were married on Kauai on January 7, 1996.

Paul and Kim Sevigny welcomed son Joshua, who arrived weighing 8 lb. 12 oz on December 21, 1994.

Elizabeth Holmes, emeritus professor of speech at UH Manoa, died in December at the age of 94. She was well-known as Elizabeth Carr, author of Da Kine Talk. The Elizabeth B. Holmes Scholarship Endowment has been established to assist students in English as a second language.


A Message from Dave Rickard:

Since I retired from the University in June 1995, I have taken the opportunity to reflect on the deeply rewarding years that I spent as teacher and advisor in the ELI and as a staff member in the ESL Department. I have a strong sense of fulfillment as I recall the names and faces of the many faculty and students I have worked with across the years, people who greatly enriched my life. I want to express my sincere appreciation to all of you.

Retirement is definitely a different way of life. After all, coming almost daily to the campus for nearly twenty-eight years gets to be a habit. Anticipation of the events gave purpose to the day, successful solutions afforded pleasure, problems helped preserve perspective, and Marilyn’s giggle made the whole day lighter. I now realize how many personal tasks had been postponed to ‘another day’. The other day has now arrived for me. There is still time for reading and tutoring …once a teacher …

Before I disappear completely, I want to express my appreciation of the honor the department has conferred upon me by establishing fellowships in my name. I feel especially honored that HATESL dedicated the 1995 retreat auction proceeds to these fellowships. It is my hope that generations of students will benefit from this fund long after I am out of the picture. To those of you out there who have not yet got around to helping the later generations, I say, “Be as generous as you are able. With the loss of many tuition waivers the need is great indeed.” May you all find your lives as least as full and rewarding as I have found mine.



New faculty publications

Bailey, K. M., & J. D. Brown. (In press, due December 1995). “Language testing courses: What are they?” In A. Cumming & R. Berwick (Eds.) Validation in language testing. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Brown, J. D. (1995). The elements of language curriculum: A systematic approach to program development. New York: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Brown, J. D. (1995). Sony communicative assessment of language Examination (SCALE) (including Written and Listening tests in Written Forms I, II, III, & IV, and Listening Forms I, II, III, & IV, answer sheets, answer keys, and tapes). Tokyo: Sony Enterprises.

Brown, J. D. (1995). “Language program evaluation: Problems and solutions.” In W. Grabe (Ed.) Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, XV,. 227-248. [An earlier version appeared in 1994 under the title “Problems in language program evaluation” in University of Hawaii Working Papers in ESL, 13(1), 1-22].

Brown, J. D. (1995). “Differences between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests?” In J. D. Brown & S. O. Yamashita (Eds.). Language testing in Japan (pp. 12-19).

Brown, J. D. (1995). “Developing norm-referenced language tests for program-level decision making.” In J. D. Brown & S. O. Yamashita (Eds.). Language testing in Japan (pp. 40-47).

Brown, J. D. (1995). “Statistics as a foreign language: What to look for in reading statistical language studies.” In H. Douglas Brown & S. T. Gonzo (Eds.) Readings in second language acquisition (pp. 15-35). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Reprinted and adapted by permission from the original article: Brown, J. D. (1991). Statistics as a foreign language: What to look for in reading statistical language studies–Part 1. TESOL Quarterly, 25(4), 569-586.

Brown, J. D. (1995). “A closer look at cloze: Validity and reliability.” In J. W. Oller, Jr. and J. Jonz (Eds.) Cloze and coherence. Lewisburg, PA: Associated University Presses. Reprinted by permission from the original article: Brown, J. D. (1983). A closer look at cloze: Validity and reliability. In J. W. Oller, Jr. (Ed.) Issues in language testing research (pp. 237-250). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Brown, J. D. (1995). Review of Understanding and developing language tests by C. Weir. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 103-104.

Brown, J. D. (1995). Review of Michigan listening comprehension test. In J. C. Conoley & J. C. Impara (Eds.) The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 1061-1062). The Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Brown, J. D. (1995). Review of Test of word finding in discourse. In J. C. Conoley & J. C. Impara (Eds.) The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 581-583). The Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Brown, J. D. (1995). “English language entrance examinations in Japan: Myths and facts.” The Language Teacher, 19(10), 21-26.

Brown, J. D. (1995). “A gaijin teacher’s guide to the vocabulary of entrance examinations.” The Language Teacher, 19(12), 25.

Brown, J. D. (1996). Testing in language programs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.

Brown, J. D. (Ed.). (in press). New ways in classroom assessment. Washington, DC: TESOL.

Brown, J. D. (In press, February 1996). “English language entrance examinations in Japan: Problems and solutions.” In G. van Troyer (Ed.) Proceedings of the 1995 JALT International Conference. Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.

Brown, J. D. (In press, February 1996). “Fluency development.” In G. van Troyer (Ed.) Proceedings of the 1995 JALT International Conference. Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.

Brown, J. D. & R. Bley-Vroman. (1995). “Predicting achievement in the ESL MA program at UHM.” University of Hawai’i Working Papers in ESL, 14(1).

Brown, J. D., & Gorsuch, G. (1995). An interview with J. D. Brown: Analyzing the value, meaning of entrance examinations. The Daily Yomiyuri, #16271, 15.

Brown, J. D., & Hilferty, A. G. (1995). “Understanding reduced forms.” In D. Nunan (Ed.) New ways in teaching listening (pp. 124-127). Washington, DC: TESOL.

Brown, J. D., & Kay, G. (1995). English language entrance examinations for Japanese universities: Interview with James Dean Brown. The Language Teacher (JALT), 19(11), 7-11.

Brown, J. D., & Ross, J. A. (In press, December 1995). “Decision dependability of item types, sections, tests, and the overall TOEFL test battery.” In Proceedings of Language Testing Research Colloquium, Arnhem, Netherlands, 1993.

Brown, J. D., & Yamashita, S. O. (Eds.). (1995). Language testing in Japan. Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.

Brown, J. D., & Yamashita, S. O. (1995). “English language entrance examinations at Japanese universities: What do we know about them?” JALT Journal, 17(1), 7-30.

Brown, J. D., & Yamashita, S. O. (1995). “Introduction to Language Testing in Japan.” In J. D. Brown & S. O. Yamashita (Eds.) Language testing in Japan (pp. 5-10).

Brown, J. D., & Yamashita, S. O. (1995). “English language entrance examinations at Japanese universities: 1993 and 1994.” In J. D. Brown and S. O. Yamashita (Eds.) Language testing in Japan (pp. 86-100).

Brown, J. D., & Yamashita, S. O. (1995). The authors respond to O’Sullivan’s letter to JALT Journal: Out of criticism comes knowledge. JALT Journal, 17(2), 257-260.

Chaudron, C. (1995). “Academic Listening.” 1995. In D. J. Mendelsohn & J. Rubin (Eds.), A guide for the teaching of second language listening (pp. 74-96). San Diego: Dominie Press.

Chaudron, C. (1995). “Observational issues and research on formal aspects of L2 instruction” and “The analysis and planning of classroom tasks. In Exploring paths of learning, XI Xornadas Didácticas de Inglés, Associación de Profesores de Inglés de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. pp. 11-15, 28-29.

Crookes, G. (in press). “Action research: a process for teacher development.” In Y-L. Shem (Ed.), Proceedings of the ASOCOPI Congress. Medellin, Colombia: ASOCOPI.

Crookes, G. (in press). Teacher action for the prerequisites for teacher development. In Y-L. Shem (Ed.), Proceedings of the ASOCOPI Congress. Medellin, Colombia: ASOCOPI.

Davis, K. A. (1995). “Multicultural education and cultural communities of teachers.” Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 11, 553-563.

Davis, K. A. (1995). “Qualitative theory and methods in applied linguistics research.” TESOL Quarterly, 29, 427-453.

Davis, K. A., & Lazarton, A. (Eds.) (1995). Special topic issue: Qualitative research in ESOL, TESOL Quarterly, 29.3.

Davis, K.A., & R. Henze, R. (in press). “Ethnography and cross-cultural pragmatics: A framework for comparison. University of Hawai’i Working Papers in ESL.

Hudson, T., Detmer, E., and Brown, J. (1995). Developing prototypic measures of cross-cultural pragmatics. (Technical report #7) Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.

Kasper, G. (Ed.) (1995). Pragmatics of Chinese as native and foreign language. (Technical Report #5) Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center

Kasper, G. (Ed) (in press). Development of pragmatic competence. Thematic issue, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18 (2).

Kasper, G. (in press). Pragmatics in language teacher education. In K. Bardovi-Harlig & B. Hartford (Eds.), Beyond methods. New York: McGraw Hill.

Kasper, G. (in press). Routine and indirectness in interlanguage pragmatics. In L. Bouton & Y. Kachru (Eds.), Pragmatics and language learning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Kasper, G. (in press). Interlangauge pragmatics. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Perspectives on research and scholarship in second language learning. Modern Language Association.

Kasper, G (In press). Linguistic etiquette. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), Handbook of sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Kasper, G (in press). Interlanguage pragmatics. In J.-O. Oestman, J. Verschueren, & J. Blommaert (Eds.), Handbook of pragmatics. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Kasper, G. (in press). Politeness. In J.-O. Oestman, J. Verschueren, & J. Blommaert (Eds.), Handbook of pragmatics. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Kasper, G., & Schmidt, R. (in press). Developmental issues in interlanguage pragmatics. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18 (2).

Maeshiba, N., Yoshinaga, N., Kasper, G., & Ross, S. (in press). Transfer and proficiency in interlanguage pragmatics. In J. Neu & S. Gass (Eds.), Speech acts across cultures. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lehner, A., Mui, L., Wolfe-Quintero, K., & Hilgers, T. (1996). Perceptions of the experiences and needs of bilingual students and writing-intensive instructors across the curriculum (Technical Report #19). Honolulu: The University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Manoa Writing Project.

Schmidt, R. (Ed.) (1995). Attention and awareness in foreign language learning. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center (Technical Report #9).

Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 1-63).

Schmidt, R., Boraie, D., & Kassabgy, O. (In press). Foreign language motivation: Internal structure and external connections. In R. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning motivation: Pathways to the new century (pp. 14-88). Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center (Technical Report #11).

Schmidt, R., Shimura, A., Wang, Z., & Jeong, H-S. (1995). Suggestions to buy: Television commercials from the US, Japan, China, and Korea. In J. New and S. Gass (Eds.), Speech acts across cultures (pp. 285-316). The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.

Valcárcel, M., Chaudron, C., & Verdú, M.. (In press). “Adaptations to COLT and a developing system of activity types.” In N. Spada & M. Fröhlich, (Eds.), The communicative orientation of language teaching (COLT) observation scheme: Coding Conventions and applications. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.

Wolfe-Quintero, K. (1996). Nativism does not equal Universal Grammar. To appear in Second Language Research, 12, (4).

Wolfe-Quintero, K. (1995). Your child’s language. Hawaii Parent newsmagazine, September/October issue.

Wolfe-Quintero, K. (1996). Review of Bialystok, E., & K. Hakuta. (1994), In other words: The science and psychology of second-language acquisition. To appear in Studies in Second Language Acquisition.


Conferences of interest

January 30-February 2, 1996. PacSLRF96, hosted by the English Language Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, NZ. For information, contact Jonathan Newton <>.

February 24, 1996. TESOL Roundtable Conference, Honolulu. Contact Happy Miller-RTetwaiut (942-2962) or Tess Lane (732-6729) or Rick Raker (988-6044) or Stephanie Chang (373-1600).

March 12-16, 1996, National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE), Orlando, FL. Contact NABE, 1220 L St., NW, Suite 605, Washington DC 20005-4018, Tel. 202-898-1829, Fax 202-789-2866, Email

March 14-16, 1996, Georgetown University Round Table (GURT), Washington, DC. Contact School of Languages and Linguistics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057-1067.

March 20-23, 1996, National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), Boston. Contact NCTE, 1111 W. Kenyon Dr., Urbana IL 61801-1096, tel. 217-328-3870, Fax. 217-328-0977.

March 21-23, 1996. 10th International Conference on Pragmatics and Language Learning, University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign. Contact: Lawrence F. Bouton, Coordinator, 3070 Foreign Languages Bldg., 707 S. Matthews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801. Tel 217-333-1506. Email

March 23-26, 1996. American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Chicago, Illinois. Contact AAAL, 7630 W 145th St., Suite 202, Apple Valley MN 55124-7553. Fax 612-891-1800. Email

March 26-30. 1996. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), Chicago, Illinois. Contact: TESOL Conventions Dept., 1600 Cameron Street Suite 300, Alexandria VA 22314. Tel. 703-836-0774. Fax 703-836-7864. Email

March 29-April 1, 1996, Association for Language Learning, Exeter, UK. Contact ALL, C. Wilding, 16 Regent place, Rugby CV21 2PN, UK.

April 9-12, 1996, IATEFL, Trent, UK. Contact IATEFL, 3 Kingsdown Chambers, Kingsdown Park, Whitstable Kent, CT5 2DJ, UK.

April 11-14, 1996, Association for Asian Studies (AAS), Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu. Information: AAS, 1 Lane Hall, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1290 or see homepage at

April 18-21, 1996, Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, New York. Contact Northeast Conference, St. Michael’s College, Dupont Hall, 29 Ethan Allen Ave., Colchester VT 05439.

April 22-24, 1996, RELC Annual Conference, Singapore. Contact Seminar Secretariat, SEAMO Regional Language Centre, 30 Orange Grove Rd., Singapore 1025, Republic of Singapore. Tel. 65-737-9044. Email

May 27-June 1, 1996, Computer-Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO), Albuquerque, NM. Contact CALICO, Duke University, 014 Language Center, PO Box 90267, Durham NC 27708-0267, Tel. 919-660-3180, fax 919-660-3183, Email

June 21-23, 1996, 1996 TESOL Academy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Contact TESOL, 1600 Cameron St. Suite 300, Alexandria VA 22314-2751, Tel. 703-836-0074, Fax 703-836-7864, Email

June 22-24, 1996, Conference on Language Rights, Hong Kong. Contact: Phil Benson, Department of English, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong. fax 852-2333-6569, Email

June 24-July 26, 1996, National Foreign Language Resource Center (NFLRC) Summer Institute on new technologies for less commonly taught languages. Contact (application by email only).

July 4-6, 1996, International Pragmatics Association, Mexico City. Contact 5th IPC, CELE UNAM, Apdo Postal 70-442-04510 DF, Mexico. Email

July 4-7, 1996, 3rd International Conference of the Association for Language Awareness, Dublin. Contact Jennifer Ridley, Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Arts Building, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. Email

August 4-9, 1996. World Congress of the International Association of Applied Linguistics (AILA), Jyväskylä, Finland. Info: Prof. Kari Sajavaara, Department of English, University of Jyväskylä, SF-40100, Jyväskylä, Finland.

August 25-31, 1996, 9th World Congress of the Fédération Internationale des Professeurs de Français, Tokyo. Contact Peter Alex Ehrhard, Ringstrasse 6, CH-4614, Haegendorf, Switzerland.

September 10-12, BAAL, Swansea, UK. Contact Ann Ryan, CALS, University College Swansea, UK.

October 24-26, 1996, Foreign Language Association of North Carolina, Greensboro. Contact Wayne Figart, PO Box 739, Wilmington NC 28402-0739. Tel. 910-763-5733.

October 25-28, 1996. SLRF `96, Tucson, Arizona. Send abstracts by March 15 to Abstract Committee, SLRF `96, c/o Second Language Acquisition & Teaching, Modern Languages 347, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.

October 31-November 2, Canadian Association of Immersion Teachers, Winnipeg. Contact Donald Teel, 960 Wolsey Ave, Winnipeg, MB R3G 1E7, Canada. Tel. 204-786-4796, Fax 204-783-7607, Email

November 21-26, 1996, NCTE, Chicago. Contact NCTE, 1111 W. Kenyon Dr., Urbana IL 61801-1096.

November 22-24, 1996, American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), Philadelphia. Contact ACTFL, 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers NY 10701-6801.

March 11-15, 1997, TESOL, Orlando FL. Contact TESOL Conventions Dept., 1600 Cameron Street Suite 300, Alexandria VA 22314. Tel. 703-836-0774. Fax 703-836-7864. Email Proposals due 5/15/96 for papers, demonstrations, workshops & colloquia; 8/30/96 for poster & video proposals.

March 24-26, 1997, 19th Congress of FIPLV, Recife, Brasil. Contact Francisco Gomes de Matos, Rua Steubal 860b/apto.604 Boa Viagem, Recife 51030-010. Email or

April 3-6, 1997, NE Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, New York City. Information: Northeast Conference, St. Michael’s College, Dupont Hall, 29 Ethan Allen Avenue, Collchester, VT 05349.

August 3-9, 1997, Der Internationale Deutschlehrenerband, Amsterdam. Contact: Gerard J. Westhoff, Institute of Education, Heidelberglaan 8, NL 3584 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

November 21-23, 1997, American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Nashville. Contact ACTFL, 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers NY 10701-6801, Tel. 914-963-8830, Fax 914-963-1275.

March 17-21, 1988, TESOL, Seattle. Contact TESOL Conventions Dept., 1600 Cameron Street Suite 300, Alexandria VA 22314. Tel. 703-836-0774. Fax 703-836-7864. Email

March 18-21, 1998, National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), Albuquerque. Contact NCTE, 1111 W. Kenyon Dr., Urbana IL 61801-1096, tel. 217-328-3870, Fax. 217-328-0977.