In general, preferred University of Hawaiʻi style follows The Chicago Manual of Style. A good dictionary will answer most questions. This style guide puts forth the preferred UH style on questions that are not addressed in standard references or where UH practice varies from the norm. It is based on various reference books and historic university usage.
There will be exceptions to these rules. When this occurs, be consistent throughout the document. To ensure consistency, develop style sheets detailing specific uses.
Send questions or comments to UH Communications, email@example.com or (808) 956-8856.
abbreviations and acronyms: Spell out names of all offices, agencies, etc. on first reference; acronyms may be used in subsequent references. If the first use of the acronym does not occur until several paragraphs later, give the acronym in parentheses (rather than between dashes or commas) immediately after the first use of the full name (e.g., The East-West Center (EWC) is hosting the event). If the first use of an acronym occurs in the same paragraph where the name is given in full, the parenthetical may be omitted.
Depending on the audience, a generic word may be a better choice for subsequent references—it doesn’t send the reader back in search of the words behind the acronym, and it avoids confusion when two agencies share the same acronym.
- first reference: Institute for Astronomy; East-West Center
- subsequent references: the institute, IfA; the center, EWC
Avoid long, awkward or ambiguous acronyms, particularly those that exceed four letters without making a pronounceable “word.” Consider what other organizations may share the same initials.
In general, spell out United States when used as a noun, and reserve the acronym for adjectival use (e.g., the U.S. Department of Education). The same guideline applies to UH and University of Hawaiʻi. Exceptions may be made to conserve space or to avoid excessive repetition of either form. Note that UH, used as a noun, does not take the article “the” (e.g., She is a graduate of UH. UH fielded a fine football team).
The move is away from periods in acronyms. There is room for choice, but be consistent. Omit periods unless the acronym appears with periods in Webster’s New World Dictionary Fourth College Edition. Use periods in U.S.
- Jane Brown has a doctor of philosophy. The department offers a bachelor’s degree.
- Academic degrees following the name (MD, PhD) are best reserved for very formal contexts, such as invitations, citations, etc. Do not combine with an honorific (Dr. John Doe physician or John Doe physician, MD).
The move is away from periods in academic degrees (PhD). There is room for choice, but be consistent.
A.D., B.C.: UH preferred style is to place both these abbreviations after the year (1066 A.D. not A.D. 1066), but do not change the latter style if the author(s) used it consistently.
advisor (preferred spelling)
American: Do not hyphenate in ethnic identifications (e.g., African American, Asian American, Native American, North American).
anti(-): Consult dictionary for spelling; hyphenate if not listed.
Asia Pacific: No hyphen or slash (e.g., the Asia Pacific region).
associate degree (singular) or associate degrees (plural):
- associate in applied science, AAS
- associate in arts, AA
- associate in science, AS
- associate in technical studies, ATS
The move is away from periods in acronyms (AS). There is room for choice, but be consistent.
AY: Spell out “academic year” in documents for a general or external audience.
bachelor’s degree or bachelor’s (singular), bachelor’s degrees (plural):
- bachelor of architecture, BArch
- bachelor of arts, BA
- bachelor of business administration, BBA
- bachelor of education, BEd
- bachelor of fine arts, BFA
- bachelor of music, BMus
- bachelor of science, BS
- bachelor of social work, BSW
The move is away from periods in acronyms (BA). There is room for choice, but be consistent.
B.C., A.D.: Place both these abbreviations after the year (1066 A.D. not A.D. 1066), but do not change the latter style if the author(s) uses it consistently.
Board of Regents: Refers to the university’s governing body; individual members are regents. BOR or board (lowercase) for second reference. Capitalize regent only as part of the board’s formal name or when used before a name (e.g., Regent John Doe, John Doe is a regent). (See also titles.)
boats: See ships.
campus names: The University of Hawaiʻi has 10 campuses—a research campus (Mānoa); two baccalaureate campuses (Hilo and West Oʻahu); and seven community colleges (including Maui College). Designations are based on the Carnegie Foundation classifications.
Use the full campus name on first reference. University of Hawaiʻi–West Oʻahu contains an en dash (see dash) or, if using a typewriter, a hyphen. In subsequent references for UH Hilo, UH Mānoa, UH West Oʻahu and UH Maui College, the acronym form (UH) may be used. Do not use an en dash, hyphen or the word “at” in the acronym form. In general use the acronyms only as adjectives; HawCC, KCC and similar acronyms should never be used in external communications.
Use the specific designation alone only when the reference is clearly to the campus in question (e.g., Honolulu, Kauaʻi, Mānoa). (See also University of Hawaiʻi.)
- University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo—UH Hilo, Hilo, the Hilo campus
- University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa—UH Mānoa, Mānoa, the Mānoa campus
- University of Hawaiʻi–West Oʻahu—UH West Oʻahu, West Oʻahu, the West Oʻahu campus
- Hawaiʻi Community College—Hawaiʻi CC, Hawaiʻi, the Hawaiʻi campus
- Honolulu Community College—Honolulu CC, Honolulu, the Honolulu campus
- Kapiʻolani Community College—Kapiʻolani CC, Kapiʻolani, the Kapiʻolani campus
- Kauaʻi Community College—Kauaʻi CC, Kauaʻi, the Kauaʻi campus
- Leeward Community College—Leeward CC, Leeward, the Leeward campus
- University of Hawaiʻi Maui College—UH Maui College, Maui College, Maui, the Maui campus
- Windward Community College—Windward CC, Windward, the Windward campus
To avoid confusion, do not use “campus” as part of a facility name (e.g. the School of Medicine’s Kakaʻako facilities). “Campus” refers only to the 10 campuses.
center: Lowercase except as part of full formal name. (See department.)
centuries: Except at the beginning of a sentence, use figures in ordinals (20th century). Hyphenate when used as a compound adjective (19th-century novels). No apostrophe in such designations as 1900s.
certificate: Lowercase in reference to a credential or when used alone.
chair: Use the gender-neutral “chair” to refer to the head of a department, committee or the Board of Regents.
However, the term “endowed chair” refers to a fund of money set up to earn interest, which is used to support the academic work of a scholar. One may hold an endowed chair or be a chair holder, but one may not be an endowed chair. However, one may be a department or committee chair.
- The [endowed] chair will be held by a distinguished scholar.
- The committee chair is a professor.
- Capitalize as the title before the name (e.g., Chair Jane Doe) or as part of a formal name (e.g., Benjamin A. Kudo Chair of Law).
college: Lowercase except as part of full formal name.
College of Languages, Linguistics & Literature: The college name contains an ampersand and not “and.”
Colleges of Arts and Sciences: (always plural at UH Mānoa) consist of the College of Arts and Humanities; College of Languages, Linguistics & Literature; College of Natural Sciences and College of Social Sciences.
comma: UH style is to use informal serial commas (red, white and blue) for publications. However, depending on your audience, formal serial commas (red, white, and blue) may be used. Be consistent—stick with your choice throughout the entire publication.
committee: Lowercase except as part of a full formal name. (See also department.)
community college(s): Lowercase except as part of a full formal title
- Classes at community colleges cover a wide range of topics.
- There are seven UH community colleges.
- Kapiʻolani Community College is located at Diamond Head.
compound words: May be closed up, hyphenated or have a space between them. No rule covers all cases; see dictionary for words not specifically listed here.
In initial-caps headlines or proper nouns, capitalize both segments of a hyphenated word if each segment is a whole word: Off-Campus Housing. Initial-cap-only if the compound word consists of stem plus prefix or suffix: Multi-disciplinary Committees, Non-degree Graduate Students, Post-baccalaureate Unclassified Students.
Compounds formed from two whole words should be hyphenated if (1) they appear with a hyphen in Webster’s or in this style guide or (2) if necessary for clarity: A small-business manager is not necessarily a small business manager.
Modern American usage is generally against hyphenating such combinations where no misunderstanding is likely—the living room window, the second story classroom, a telecommunications equipment salesperson.
Compounds should not be hyphenated if they (1) follow the noun or verb they modify or (2) consist of an adverb and an adjective—rapidly fading, highly visible (exceptions are in Webster’s).
(See also hyphen and specific compound words.)
credit hour(s) or credit(s): Use figures with either one, except when a number is the first word in sentence. Avoid using hours alone to mean credit hours. Steer clear of awkward and excessive hyphenation by avoiding [number]-credit-hour(s) as an adjective preceding the modified noun. Write “a program consisting of 15 credit hours” rather than “a 15-credit-hour program.”
creole(s) but Hawaiʻi Creole English
dash: The em dash (usually typed as two hyphens without space before, between or after) sets off parenthetical phrases or clauses somewhat more dramatically than a comma. Like commas and parentheses, em dashes usually travel in pairs—one before and one after the phrase they highlight—except when stronger punctuation, such as a period, makes one of the em dashes unnecessary.
The slightly shorter en dash is used as a substitute for the word “to” in number ranges (7–10 p.m.) and phrases containing a compound element (a New York–Honolulu flight).
The word “to” should be spelled out when the word “from” is used (e.g., A reception will be held from 6 to 7 p.m.). The en dash should not be used as a substitute for “and” in such phrases as between 15 and 20.
En dashes are also used in the formation of a compound word when one of its elements is already a compound (or two-part) word (e.g., a New York–based psychoanalyst, the wall-to-wall–carpeted classroom).
data: Treat as singular or plural, depending on department’s unique usage (generally, sciences say “these data are,” business says “this data is”), but be internally consistent.
dates: Cardinal numbers only (March 1, not March 1st). Write month before day (March 1, not 1 March). In print, use year only when necessary for clarity, however, use year in online reference. Separate day and year with comma (March 1, 1989); a second comma goes after the year if no stronger punctuation is placed there (From March 1, 1989, until September 3, 1991, students waited). No comma between month and year without day (March 1991).
decades: No apostrophe in decades (1980s). Use an apostrophe (not open single quotation mark) to replace first two digits if they are omitted (’80s).
department: Lowercase except as part of full formal name. Capitalize (treat as proper nouns) the official titles of departments, schools, divisions, offices, centers and programs (Department of Anthropology). Lowercase unofficial titles (anthropology department). Lowercase names of disciplines standing alone (anthropology) unless the name of the discipline is a word that is always capitalized in English (e.g., names of languages and nationalities such as English and Hawaiian).
division: Lowercase except as part of full formal name. (See also department.)
doctoral degree or doctorate:
- doctor of architecture, DArch
- doctor of education, EdD
- doctor of medicine, medical degree, MD
- doctor of philosophy, PhD
- doctor of public health, DrPH
- doctor of theology, DTh, ThD
The move is away from periods in acronyms (PhD). There is room for choice, but be consistent.
Earth: Capitalize planet name, no “the” before. But earth (lowercase) in the sense of soil, land or other solids that constitute the world—as opposed to air, water and fire; in the sense of the domain of mortals—as opposed to heaven; and in all uses except name of planet; lowercase word may have “the” before.
east: Lowercase when used as a directional reference (e.g., The sun rises in the east and sets in the west). Capitalize compass points in common appellations for regions (e.g., East Asia, East Coast, Eastern Europe).
East Asian Languages and Literatures: Capitalize Languages and Literatures only in “Department of…” construction.
East-West Center, East-West Road or East-West Rd.
em dash: (See dash.)
emeritus: UH style is to use emeritus before professor (Emeritus Professor Jane Doe). The emeritus title, awarded by the UH Board of Regents, is not synonymous to a retiree. (See titles for capitalization rules.)
en dash: (See dash.)
EO/AA statement: The University of Hawaiʻi is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution. This statement should be included in all publications. Some publications, e.g., catalogues, should have the longer EO/AA statement. See the EEO/AA website for more information on Publicizing UH Equal Opportunity Policies.
faculty: (singular) reference to a group; faculty member(s) (plural), reference to individuals.
fall: (the season, the semester).
federal: Lowercase except in proper names (e.g., federal Department of Education, but Federal Communications Commission).
fractions: Do not use job fractions (number-slash-number) at all. Generally, spell out fractions with a single-digit denominator (one-half, one-third); make case fractions where the denominator is two or more digits (1/20); for compound numbers, use decimals (3.5) or case fractions (3 1/2). (See user manual for instructions on correct way to make case fractions with your software.)
FY: Spell out fiscal year in documents for a general or external audience.
GPA (singular); GPAs (plural).
grade point average
-grant (adj.): Lowercase land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant (e.g., UH is a land-, sea- and space-grant institution). But use initial capitalization and no hyphen in proper nouns such as National Sea Grant College Program, National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program.
Hawaiian: Refers to people of Hawaiian descent. People who live in Hawaiʻi are referred to as Hawaiʻi residents.
Hawaiian language: See Hawaiian Language Considerations.
HI: (See state names.)
Hawaiʻi Interactive Television System (HITS): Spell in full on first reference.
honorary degree: The UH Board of Regents awards the Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters. The honorary degree is conferred on behalf of the system rather than any of its campuses.
honorifics: Use full names without honorifics on first reference (e.g., John A. Jones, Mary Smith). Note that a married woman’s full name includes her first name, not her husband’s (never Mrs. Richard Smith).
In subsequent references, use of last name only is preferred for both sexes; no Mr., Mrs., Ms., except as needed for clarity (in a story that deals with several members of a single family, for example).
If honorific is used in subsequent references it should be used consistently. If one person insists on the honorific, everyone in the story who is entitled to it should get it. Try to reserve Dr. for health practitioners.
Use military rank (if germane and necessary) only in first reference, with full name (e.g., Cmdr. Carol Stewart met with Adm. Randal Lee, U.S.N. Ret., to discuss the removal of nuclear weapons. Stewart told Lee…).
In modern American usage, the trend is away from hyphens in compound words unless omitting them creates confusion (as in co-op versus coop). Check Webster’s or The Chicago Manual of Style when in doubt. When the hyphen is used in a two-part reference, use the hyphen with both modifying elements (e.g., full- and part-time students or 3- to 5-credit courses).
Two-word combinations are often hyphenated if, together, they form one adjective that modifies the noun it precedes (compare adjective: off-campus housing with adverb: a class held off campus). Do not hyphenate adverb plus adjective combinations (e.g., highly complex program).
italics: Use for book, magazine and newsletter titles (free-standing publications) and names of vessels (see ships). Use quotation marks around chapter titles or other components of an italics-titled publication.
- The “Island Life” section of The Star Advertiser
Use only capitals and lowercase for titles of a book series of editions (e.g., Modern Library edition).
Titles of motion pictures are italicized, but titles of television and radio programs are set in roman type and quoted unless they are continuing series, in which case they are italicized.
- National Public Radio’s All Things Considered
- the following episode of Hill Street Blues, “Death on the Hill”
- the movie Apollo 13.
Juris doctor: JD, law degree or professional degree.
KOKUA: Use all caps, no diacritical marks, for the UH office for students with disabilities. The name is an acronym for Kahi O Ka Ulu ʻAna (The growing place).
land use (n., adj.)
law school, School of Law, William S. Richardson School of Law
Legislature: Capitalize in specific references to Hawaiʻi’s state lawmaking body, which has two chambers, the state House of Representatives and the state Senate. Lowercase generic references (a state legislature).
LGBTQ+: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and +.
lower division (n., adj.)
mainland: When referring to the continental United States.
makai: Consider your audience; if it is mainly visitors and newcomers, consider using English word(s): on the seaside, toward the sea, in the direction of the sea.
Maluna aʻe o na lahui a pau ke ola ke kanaka: Above all nations is humanity. Inscribed on the Founder’s Gate at the Mānoa campus.
master’s degree or master’s (singular), master’s degrees (plural):
- master of accounting, MAcc
- master of architecture, MArch
- master of arts, MA
- master of business administration, MBA
- master of education, MEd
- master of fine arts, MFA
- master in law, LlM
- master of library and information studies, MLIS
- master of music, MMus
- master of public administration, MPA
- master of public health, MPH
- master of science, MS
- master of social work, MSW
- master of urban and regional planning, MURP
The move is away from periods in acronyms (MA). There is room for choice, but be consistent.
mathematics not math
mauka: Consider your audience; if it is mainly visitors and newcomers, consider using English word(s): upland, inland, towards the mountains, shoreward (if at sea).
Maunakea: Previously referred to as Mauna Kea. The change was recommended by the Office of Maunakea Management and the UH Hilo School of Hawaiian Language in 2014 and has been accepted by the official Hawaiʻi Board on Geographic Names. (However, use Mauna Kea for legal and historical documents and designations.)
money: Use $ and figures for all money amounts over 99 cents, except when the first word(s) of a sentence. Do not use decimal and zeroes for whole-dollar amounts. Spell out cents in amounts under $1 (e.g., The hamburger costs 99 cents).
non(-): Consult dictionary for spelling; hyphenate if not listed.
north: Lowercase when used as a directional reference. Capitalize in common appellations for regions (e.g., North America).
numbers: Generally, spell out single-digit numbers, and use figures for all others. Exceptions:
- Use figures in ages.
- Use figures in charts, graphs and other tabular material.
- Use figures to number items in a list.
- Use figures for day of the month and year in all dates (exception may be made for formal invitations).
- Use figures in all degrees.
- Use figures in all references to credits and credit hours (see credit hours).
- Use figures in all page numbers and cross-references.
- Spell out a number that begins a sentence.
- Use figures in a range or series where at least one of the numbers is more than two digits: 9, 10-and 11-foot boards, but six- to eight-week period.
- Use figures in designations of time with a.m. or p.m.: 1:15 p.m., but two o’clock.
- Use figures for all money amounts. Omit zeroes in whole-dollar amounts: 7 cents, $1.25, $4.
office: Lowercase except as part of full formal name. (See also department.)
period: The move is away from periods in acronyms (PhD). There is room for choice, but be consistent.
-person (suffix): Avoid using nonsexist language that is conspicuously awkward. Try to think of genderless alternatives (service technician) to clumsy back-formations like repairperson.
photo credits: Many professional photographers require credit in print when their work is published. (Consult your photography contract and/or photo sleeve for the language to be used.) If you plan to publish such photographs, provide the appropriate credit for typesetting with other text.
photographs: Good photographs enhance the look and improve the communication value of many publications. Fuzzy, gray, out-of-focus photographs do not. UH Communications can advise you on the reproducibility of photographs that you are hoping to use if you bring them by the office ahead of time.
For best results, choose the photographs you would like to use while you are writing your document; don’t wait until after typesetting to see how much space is left.
Every photograph should have a caption. People in photographs should be correctly identified in the caption (be sure to verify spellings). Be sure to have the permission of the photographer or owner of the photographs before publishing online or in print. It may be an invasion of privacy to publish some photographs without the permission of recognizable people. For this reason, do not use a photograph out of context.
post-graduation (adj.): Do not use as an adverb. But postdoctoral, postgraduate.
post-master’s: Graduate-level beyond MA or MS, hyphenate to distinguish from U.S. Postal Service official.
postdoc: A casual noun reference to a post doctoral researcher, use only in informal contexts.
pre(-): Consult the dictionary for proper spelling of prefixes; if the word is not listed, then hyphenate.
program: Lowercase except as part of full formal name. (See also department.)
punctuation: (See separate entries for comma, dash, hyphen and period.) For more information on punctuation please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style. Some dictionaries also have a section on punctuation.
Regents’ Medal, Regents Scholar
-related (adj.): Language-related. Note that when the noun preceding this add-on is itself formed of two separate words, a hyphen must be added there and a hyphen or an en dash is used to join the compound noun to the adjective (e.g., public-health–related or public-health-related).
R/V research vessel: Use unexplained abbreviation only in combination with vessel name (e.g., R/V Kilo Moana). (See ships.)
school: Lowercase except as part of full formal name. Keep initial caps in plural construction, such as Schools of Nursing and Social Work, for the schools that would otherwise have them.
Lowercase name of discipline standing alone (medicine, social work), and in informal references to the schools (nursing school, library school, law school, TIM school).
scientific names: The generic and specific names of plants and animals are set in italic type. The genus name is capitalized, the species name lowercased (even though it may be a proper adjective). However, the common name is not italicized and only proper nouns and adjectives are capitalized.
senate: If senate is used in reference to governmental legislative bodies, capitalize both with and without the name of the state or nation: United States Senate, the nation’s Senate, the Hawaiʻi Senate, the state Senate. For other bodies such as ASUH Senate and UH Mānoa Faculty Senate, lowercase except as part of proper name.
senator: lowercase except as honorific (e.g., Sen. Jane Public, Sen. Public, Jane Public is a state senator from Mānoa).
Shidler College of Business: Name of the college not the building.
ships, aircraft and spacecraft: Italicize names, Pisces V, Kilo Moana, but not such abbreviations as SS R/V or HMS (HMS Frolic).
south: Lowercase when used as a directional reference. Capitalize in common appellations for regions (e.g., Southeast Asia, South America, Southern Hemisphere).
spring (the season, the semester).
staff (singular) reference to a group; staff member(s) (plural), reference to individuals
state: Lowercase in all instances except as part of a proper name.
- The University of Hawaiʻi is located in the state of Hawaiʻi. (Hawaiʻi is the proper name of the state.)
- UH graduates teach in the state Department of Education. (State is not part of the proper name.)
- Most of UH’s funding comes from the State of Hawaiʻi. (State of Hawaiʻi is the proper name of the governmental body.)
state names: The name of a state should always be given in full when standing alone. However, when it follows a city name the state name can be abbreviated. State names can also be abbreviated in lists and mailing addresses. (See The Chicago Manual of Style for correct abbreviations.)
summer (the season, the semester).
system: UH System, the system, university system (See also University of Hawaiʻi System.)
theatre: Including UH Mānoa’s Department of Theatre and Dance, a theatre major, Palikū Theatre.
three-dimensional or 3D but not three-D or 3-D.
time: Use figures except for noon and midnight. It is preferable to use a.m./p.m. in formal use but all right to use o’clock with time of day in even, half and quarter hours (two o’clock, quarter of four, half past four).
titles: Capitalize professional titles only when used immediately before a name (e.g., Vice President Jane Doe; Jane Doe, vice president for research). The general rule applies to text; an exception may be made in formal lists. Also, exception is made for a titled professorship. Vice presidents at the University of Hawaiʻi have no hyphens in their titles.
- UH President Jane Doe
- Jane Doe, the president of the University of Hawaiʻi
- Assistant Professor John Doe
- John Doe, assistant professor of oceanography
- Jane Doe, Wilder Professor of Botany
- artist Betty Roe
Formal titles should appear on first reference only, particularly in material for news media. Exception may be made in very formal contexts, such as honorary degree citations.
two-dimensional or 2D but not two-D or 2-D.
Ua mau ke ea o ka ʻāina i ka pono: The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness. The state motto.
under-served but underdeveloped, underrepresented: Consult dictionary for other terms.
United States: Spell out when used as a noun; reserve the acronym for adjectival use (e.g., the U.S. Department of Education).
University of Hawaiʻi, the university, UH
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa: The official name of the flagship campus (no hyphen, comma, semicolon, or em dash). Subsequent references may be the Mānoa campus, Mānoa, UH Mānoa, but not UH-M or UH (alone). UHM should not be used in external publications. (See also University of Hawaiʻi System.)
University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo: Subsequent references may be UH Hilo, the Hilo campus. UHH should not be used in external publications.
University of Hawaiʻi center: A site at which qualified students who are unable to travel to the UH campus offering their program of choice can enroll in courses or credential programs that are offered by one or more of the university’s accredited institutions. Three University of Hawaiʻi centers have been designated by the Board of Regents: UH Center, Kaua‘i; UH Center, Maui; and UH Center, West Hawaiʻi at Pālamanui.
University of Hawaiʻi Community Colleges: Collective reference to the seven Community College campuses (see campus names).
University of Hawaiʻi System: Comprised of 10 campuses. (See campus names and university center.) In subsequent references, the university, UH System, UH.
Lowercase university in generic references to institutions of higher learning (e.g., The university faces the same problems as any other tax-supported university).
upper division (n., adj.)
U.S.: (See United States.)
vice president, vice chancellor: No hyphen for UH titles.
web address: UH style is to drop the http:// if the web address contains www. If the address needs to run onto another line, break the address before a slash or a dot and do not insert a hyphen. Where possible, do not punctuate at the end of the URL lest the user thinks it’s part of the address.
- The University of Hawaiʻi’s website is www.hawaii.edu
- Windward Community College’s website is http://windward.hawaii.edu/
webpage, website, webmanager
well: Follow dictionary for placement or omission of hyphens in words that begin with well. The Chicago Manual of Style says, in general, to hyphenate compounds before a noun unless expression carries a modifier (e.g., well-known professor but very well known writer).
west: Lowercase when used as a directional reference. Capitalize in common appellations for regions (West Coast).