Changes in the Basic Sentence

More Functions of the Verb

The maka- or makapag- affix indicates that the actor has the ability to do the action named by the verb base. Ma- is the goal-focus counterpart of both maka- and makapag- affixes. The following sets give examples of the maka- and makapag- sets.

Maka- Set

[He can/is able to lift a car.]

Focus Verb Actor Object/Goal
actor Makabubuhat siya ng kotse.
goal Mabubuhat niya ang kotse.

The aspect forms of the maka-/ma- verbs are as follows, illustrated for the root basa (to read).

Aspect Actor Focus Object/Goal Focus
Infinitive makabasa mabasa
Completed nakabasa nabasa
Contemplated makababasa
Incompleted nakababasa
Makapag- Set

[He was able to bring food.]

Focus Verb Actor Object/Goal
Actor Makapagdala kaya kayo ng pagkain.
Goal Madala mo kaya ang pagkain.

The aspect forms of makapag- and ma- -an verbs are as follows.

Aspect Actor Focus Object/Goal Focus
Root handa (to prepare)
Infinitive makapaghanda mahandaan
Completed nakapaghanda nahandaan
Contemplated makapaghahanda
Incompleted nakapaghahanda

Note that verbs having an -an goal focus affix (e.g. laban) get a ma- ...-an compound affix instead of just ma-. Note, too, that the -ka- of the affix maka- or makapag- may be reduplicated instead of the first syllable of the word base or root.

Maka- usually occurs with verb roots that take the -um- and ma- affixes, whereas makapag- usually occurs with verb roots that take the mag- affix.


Maki- is the actor-focus counterpart of the prefix paki- which makes the verb base a request form. Unlike paki-, however, maki- can also be used to ask permission to use or partake of something owned by someone. Where no one is addressed in a paki- request, the object may take a ng marker.

Actor Object
Pakiabot mo nga ang asin.
Pakiabot nga ng asin.

Note the differences in the use of maki- in the following examples.

  • Makibili nga ako ng kartolina sa tindahan.
  • Makikuha nga ako ng tubig.
  • Makitawag nga sa telepono ninyo.
  • Makibasa nga ng diyaryo ninyo.
  • Makiinom nga.

The various aspects may also be expressed with the maki- and paki- affixes. The following chart illustrates the occurrence of the different aspect forms with both affixes.

Aspect Maki- + Verb Base Paki- + Verb Base
Infinitive makibili pakibili
Completed nakibili pinakibili
Contemplated makikibili pakikibili
Incompleted nakikibili pinakikibili

In both the maki- and paki- forms, the last syllable of the affix instead of the first (consonant-)vowel of the base is reduplicated for the contemplated and incompleted aspects.