Complex Sentences: Conjoining


Conjoining can be as simple as joining the sentences using a conjunctor with hardly any change at all in the combined sentences.

Simple Sentences:
  • Hinawakan ni Ben ang lapis. Sumulat siya.
  • Ben held the pencil. He wrote.
  • Hinawakan ni Ben ang lapis at sumulat siya.
  • Ben held the pencil, and he wrote.

The simple sentences are joined by the conjunctor at. The two sentences retain their equal standing syntactically with respect to one another, that is to say, neither is subsumed under the other. Here is an example:

  • Humangin nang malakas at bumagsak ang ulan.

The Function of Conjoining

Why conjoin sentences? What purpose does it serve?

Sentence conjoining allows for a more explicit expression of certain relationships between the events contained in the clauses. These relationships are expressed mainly through the conjunctors, and sometimes with the help of certain particles. A familiar relationship is effect. Here's an example:

  • Napatid ang lubid, kaya' nahulog si Angela.
  • The rope snapped, so Angela fell down.

The conjunctor kaya' makes explicit the fact that the second event is a direct result of the event expressed in the first conjunct.

This web page, as well as the next two web pages, are about the range of relationships between conjoined clauses in Tagalog. But first, let us look at how some of them are expressed in English. In the examples below, give short names for these relationships. The first is done for you.

  1. The man looked suspicious, so Roberta followed him. (effect)
  2. Life takes on a nasty twist, when liquor stores close early.
  3. Jonathan took the bus while Joseph hitched a ride.
  4. Ben lost his job, and what's more, he couldn't find his car keys.
  5. Yvan is not a big man, but he's a fine athlete.
  6. Yvan is a fine athlete, although he's not a big man.
  7. Write, or call collect.
  8. I'll cook sinigang for you, if you trim my gumamelas.
  9. Because you trimmed my gumamelas, I'll cook sinigang for you.
  10. He's not been the same since his pet Tiger disappeared.